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The American Journal of Photography 



Volume XXVI 

.January, 1911 to June, 1911, Inclusive 




Index to Vol. XXVI 

Albright Art Gallery Exhibition, The. Walter E. Bertling 13 

Alves, Gaston M. Focal-Depths of Lenses 277 

American Statue, An. Wilfred A. French, Ph.D. 187 

Ames, Frederick F., Jr. Making your Vacation Pay. 274 

Anderson, A. J. A Casuistry ... 291 

Anderson, Dr. Tempest. Materials for the Tropics 126 

Appreciation of K. S. Kauffman, An. R. S. Smith 182 

Arbuthnot, Malcolm. A New Gelatine Pigment-Process for Pictorial Workers . . 127 

Art in Photography. Studio Light 110 

Astle, Ernest M. A Photographic Trip to Ancient Chester 177 

Baker, Harold. A New Method of Tank-Development. 170 

Baker, T. Thorne, F. C. S., F. R. P. S. Some Successful Lantern-Slide Toners, and How to Use Them 66 

Barrett, B. I. Coloring Photographs with Transparent Water-Colors. 111 

Bathed Plates for High-Speed Ortho. Work. The Red Lamp 174 

Bertling, Walter E. The Albright Art Gallery Exhibition. ... 13 

Blackman, Rollin. Carrying a Camera on a Bicycle 284 

Blake, I. W. Panoramic Pictures with an Ordinary Camera .. . 286 

Cadby, Will. Picture-Making in the Snow __ 69 

Camera-Tour through Spain, A. William H. Phillips 3 

Can a Photograph be a Work of Art ? The Boston Globe . . 289 

Carrying a Camera on a Bicycle. Rollin Blackman _ 284 

Casuistry, A. A. J. Anderson 291 

Claudy, C. H. The Lantern at Home 61 

Speed-Photography in Winter 21 

Successful Speed-Work . _ 165 

Coming Camera, The. Percy M. Reese. 171 

Coloring Photographs with Transparent Water-Colors. B. I. Barrett 111 

Color-Photography vs. Painting. Frederick H. Evans 119 

Dart., Frank Sayles. Photography at Night 116 

Davis, William S. A Post-Card Frame 125 

Decorative Flower-Studies 279 

Decorative Flower-Studies. William S. Davis ... 279 

Dimock, Julian A. In the Good Old Winter-Time 57 

Eastman Advertising-Competition, The. Dr. Malcolm Dean Miller. _ . 73 

Evans, Frederick H. Color-Photography vs. Painting 119 

Fairman, Charles E. Washington, The Mecca of the Photographer 220 

Findlay, William. Some Observations on Ozobrome ..... 121 

Focal-Depths of Lenses. Gaston M. Alves 277 

' French, Wilfred A., Ph.D. An American Statue 1S7 

Hammond, Arthur. Portraits without Retouching 269 

Home-Made Apparatus for Enlarging from Nature, A. John L. Wellington 235 

Huesgen, Charles II. Rescuing an Airship in Mid-Ocean . — 24 

Ide, W. Some Thoughts about the Portrayal of the Human Figure ... 229 

In the Good Old Winter-Time. Julian A. Dimock 57 

Kunz, William H. The Oil-Process 107 

Lantern at Home, The. C. II. Claudy 61 

Lure of the Camera, The. Belmont Odell — 285 

Making your Vacation Pay. Frederick F. Ames, Jr. . — 274 

Materials for the Tropics. Dr. Tempest Anderson 126 

Miller, Dr. Malcolm Dean. The Eastman Advertising-Competition __ _ . .. 73 

Morse, E. L. C. Pictures which were Never Taken 217 

New Gelatine Pigment-Process for Pictorial Workers, A. Malcolm Arbuthnot 127 

New Method of Tank-Development, A. Harold Baker 170 

Odell, Belmont. The Lure of the Camera 285 

Oil-Process, The. William H. Kunz — 10 1 

Panoramic Pictures with an Ordinary Camera. I. W. Blake 286 

Pepper, H. Crowell. Values 123 

Phillips, William H. A Camera-Tour through Spain 3 

Photographic Trip to Ancient Chester, A. Ernest M. Astle 117 

Photography at Night. Frank Sayles Dart 116 

Picture-Making in the Snow. Will Cadby 69 



Pictures which were Never Taken. E. *1*. 0. M*0rs3 _ * * .< 217 

Portraits without Retouching. Arthur “Hammond . 269 

Post-Card Frame, A. William S. Davis 125 

Reese, Percy M. The Coming Camera 171 

Rescuing an Airship in Mid-Ocean. Charles H. Huesgen. ' 24 

Securing Skies and Foreground on One Plate. Phnto-N otes 232 

Smith, R. S. An Appreciation of R. S. Kauffman 182 

Some Notes on Home-Portraiture. Katherine B. Stanley 159 

Some Observations on Ozobrome. William Findlay 121 

Speed-Photography in Winter. C. H. Claudy 21 

Some Successful Lantern-Slide Toners, and How to Use Them. T. Thorne Baker, F. C. S., F. R. P. S 66 

Some Thoughts about the Portrayal of the Human Figure. W. Ide 229 

Stanley, Katherine B. Some Notes on Home-Portraiture 159 

Successful Speed-Work. C. H. Claudy 165 

Transformation of Ugliness, The. The Picture- and Art-Trade _ _ 175 

Values. H. Crowell Pepper__ 123 

Washington, The Mecca of the Photographer. Charles E. Fairman 220 

Wellington, John L. A Home-Made Apparatus for Enlarging from Nature 235 


Abuse of the Optical Lantern 

Advance in Roentgenology 

Cruel Profile-Portrait, The 

Dangerous Expedient, A 


Mutilation of Proper Names 

New York Photographers to Have Their Way 

Opaque Projectors 

Photo-Era’s Advertising-Policy 

Photographic Realism 

Photography of Wild Animals 

Publishing Restricted Photographs 

Tricks of the Trade 

Wide of the Mark 
















Advantages of Liquid Sodium Bisulphite __ 


Avoiding Scratches on Roll-Films 

Chemical Elements 

Cleanliness in the Darkroom 

Copying Printed Matter 

Dead-Black Varnish, A 

Defects of the Focal-Plane Shutter 

Developing P. 0. P. 

Device for Self-Portraiture, A 

Dr. Mees on Time-Development 

Double-Coated Plates vs. Films 

Edinol-Hydro., Kunz 


Enamel Labels for Bottles 

Enlarging on Monox Bromide Paper 

Exposure for Interiors 

Exposure-Table for Autochromes 

February Competition, The 

Fitting Out for Spring 

For the Scrapbook 

Handling the New Film-Camera 
Hints on Brush-Development 

Hints on Gaslight-Paper Printing 

Home-Made Filter, A 

How to Avoid Cold-Weather Troubles. _ 

Imperfect Prints 

Improving Bromide Prints 

Improving Prints 

Interdependence of Exposure and Development, The 

Lens-Hoods for Fast Lenses 

Light-Struck Films 





_ Cru . 




























































Modifying Bromide Enlargements _‘_ ± L' c _ A L R.R.G. 28 

Negative-Notes JrL. CC J. R.R.G. 297 

Ortho. Plates for Spring Foliage .‘L_i._L.__ l Cru. 257 

Our March Competition R.R.G. 137 

Our January Contest R.R.G. 33 

Photographic Valentines R.R.G. 82 

Picture-Postcards R.R.G. 192 

Pictures for the Competitions R.R.G. 134 

Plates and Exposures R.R.G. 243 

Printing-Devices R.R.G. 82 

Printing-in Clouds R.R.G. 192 

Pyro for Bromide Prints Cru. 40 

Reduction with Potassium Permanganate Cru. 305 

Remedying a Common Defect Cru. 305 

Rodinal for Gaslight-Papers R.R.G. 19(5 

Safe-Light for Panchromatic Plates, A Cru. 95 

Securing Skies and Foregrounds Together Cru. 206 

Silver Nitrate Intensifier R.R.G. 139 

Single-Transfer Carbon-Printing R.R.G. 87 

Smokeless Time-Flashlight Cru. 95 

Soft Prints from Hard Negatives * R.R.G. 139 

Spring-Pictures R.R.G. 139 

Toning Bromides without Bleaching Cru. 257 

Two Dollars and Upwards R.R.G. 295 

Uneven Development R.R.G. 32 

Waterless Darkroom, A Cru. 257 

Why Prints Fade Cru. 39 


The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI JANUARY, 1911 No. 1 

Published Monthly by WILFRED A FRENCH, 383 Boylston Street, Boston, U.S.A. Entered as Second-Class Matter, 
June 30, 1008, at the Post-Office, Boston, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


TJnited States and Mexico, $1.50. Canadian postage, 35 cents I Foreign postage, 75 cents extra. Single copies, 20 cents each, 
extra. Single copies, 15 cents each | Always payable in advance 




Contributions relating to photography in any and all of its branches are solicited and will receive our most careful consideration. 
While not accepting responsibility for unrequested manuscripts, we will endeavor to return them if not available, provided return- 
postage is enclosed. 



Alcazar of Segovia 


The Cloisters of Montserrat 

Alhambra — Hall of the Ambassadors 

Alhambra — Columns 1 


An Oyster-Seller 

Tocador de la Reina 

Young Americans 

Bm’gos — Tomb in Provincial Museum 

The Garden of Linderaja 

Alhambra — Court of the Myrtles 

At the Bridge of Alcantara 

In the Cathedral of Avila 

•Seville — Alcazar and Girakla 

The Bridge of Alcantara 


Mosque at Cordova 

Morning Mist 

Honorable Mention — General 

The Rescue of the “ America ” 

First Prize — General 

Honorable Mention — General 

.Second Prize — General 

Third Prize — General 

Honorable Mention — General 

Honorable Mention — General 

Honorable Mention — General 

Honorable Mention — General 

Honorable Mention — Sunlight and Shadow 


A Camera-Tour Through Spain__ 

The Albright Art Gallery Exhibition 

Speed-Photography in Winter 

Rescuing an Airship in Mid-Ocean 

William H. Phillips __ Frontispiece 

William II. Phillips _ 4 

Willi am II Phillips 5 

William H. Phillips 7 

William H. Phillips 7 

William H. Phillips 9 

William H. Phillips 9 

William II Phillips 10 

Frederick I. Monsen 11 

William II. Phillips 12 

William H. Phillips 14 

William II. Phillips 15 

.William H. Phillips 15 

. William II. Phillips 17 

William II. Phillips 19 

William H Phillips 19 

William II Phillips 20 

William H. Phillips 20 

William II. Kunz Insert 

C. F Pieter 22 

Charles II. Huesgen 25 

The Robinsons 29 

Crete Hack . _ 30 

E. R. Dickson 31 

J. H. Saunders 32 

Richard Pertuch 33 

Lewis C. Shales 34 

Sinsaburo Niwa 40 

Joseph M. Rogers 40 

Charles U. Flood 47 

William II. Phillips. 3 

. Walter E. Bertling 13 

_C. PI. Claud// 21 

Charles II. Huesgen 24 


Editorial 26 

Thk Round Robin Guild 28 

Prize-Competitions 35 

Beginners’ Column 35 

Answers to Correspondents 30 

Print-Criticism 37 

Plate-Speeds 37 

Exposure-Guide for January 38 

The Crucible 39 

Our Illustrations 41 

London Letter 43 

Berlin Letter 44 

Book-Reviews 44 

On the Ground-Glass 45 

Notes and News . _ 48 

With the Trade 50 

eriean Journal of Photography, Copyright, 1 0il, by Wilfred A. French. 

JPhoto-Fra , The A nn 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI JANUARY, 1911 No. 1 

A Camera-Tour Through Spain 


B UT why did you go to Spain ? This 
question has heen put to me many times, 
and usually leads to an argument. The 
fact remains, we are glad that we did go, and 
hope for another opportunity to revisit that de- 
lightful country. As this is to be a photographic 
article, although tempted to take attractive little 
by-paths from the main line of thought, I will 
try to confine myself to the high-road, and make 
it photographic, with a large P. 

It might he well to mention my equipment, 
which consisted of a No. 3 Folding Pocket 
Kodak, folding tripod, a kodak film-tank for 
developing, a graduate, 24 twelve-exposure rolls of 
film, developing- and acid fixing- powders and an 
8-ounce bottle of Rodinal. To this list I also 
added an actinometer and a ray-filter, hut sel- 
dom used either. 

The first sight of the country was when Cadiz 
appeared before vis. hazy, for it was early morn- 
ing. gradually developing into a cloud like a city 
of glittering white and glowing blue. As some- 
one has aptly said, it can best he described on 
blue paper with white ink. 

I was not able to get a picture of fair Cadiz 
as it appeared to me, hut shortly after landing 
my first work was to seek out the Campo del 
Sur, with its two cathedrals and Moorish out- 
lines. Here was a temptation to use quite a 
quantity of film, and I proceeded to do so. 
Photographically this is a most attractive spot, 
but physically it has many disadvantages. The 
breeze from the hay constantly blows dust 
into one’s eyes, and here, also, we were overrun 
with street-urchins. If they had heen flies, a 
man with a camera might surely have become 
human fly-paper. Cries of “ Anda,” “ Anda,” 
seemed to have little effect on them, and prob- 
ably only the interference of a grown person, or of 
the fjuardia civil, prevented murder on my part, 
as my state of mind was about equal to it. 
These little rascals hindered me from taking a 

number of exposures, as I did not have film to 
waste with the youth of Spain taking up most 
of the foreground. 

The streets are narrow, and closely built up with 
white houses, much higher than in other Spanish 
cities, due to the fact that the inhabitants wish 
a sight of the sea. Almost all have at one cor- 
ner a turret or belvedere, or are covered with a 
small cupola, where families gather for an eve- 
ning chat. These lookouts give great irregular- 
ity to the sky-line, producing a most picturesque 
effect. I was unable to get this, not finding the 
right opportunity, but this composition is well 
worth taking. The water-craft were not what I 
had expected and I was somewhat disappointed, 
as my two exposures were not what I wished. 

On hoard the steamer “ Buenos Aires,” we 
sailed smoothly along the coast, taking a distant 
snap at Gibraltar, and arriving at Barcelona in 
mid-morn. The docks did not furnish much of 
photographic interest and were not revisited for 
pictorial material. 

Barcelona is a modern, thriving city, progress- 
ive in its buildings, and, outside of the old part 
of the town, does not present much of typical 
interest. In the old part the streets are crooked 
enough to embarrass the decorum of a well- 
appointed and sober compass, hut lack light, and, 
on account of the constant traffic, must to a 
considerable extent be passed by. The cathe- 
dral is hemmed in by buildings, and the interior 
is so intensely dark that it was useless to try 
to get anything worth while. The Cloisters 
afford better opportunities. A trip to Tibiclabo 
was rewarded by fine views and stretches of 
scrub pine. Here I regretted having left my 
tripod at the hotel, and used up a roll of film at 
an exposure of 1/2 5 second. How I wanted just 
a little longer exposure, for the compositions 
were so fantastic, and the tones diminishing in 
fractions ; but even with the short exposure, 
material for future use was obtained. In the 




streets of Barcelona may lie seen a rather un- 
usual milkman ; in this case, a goat-herd deliver- 
ing the milk fresh, squatting on the ground, 
with a cigarette in one, side of his mouth, the 
customer waiting patiently in the doorway until 
the goat has been milked. 

As a side-trip, a visit to Montserrat must not 
he missed. The rock-formations, the massive 
walls and the XV century gateways are all 
most interesting, rather lacking in variety, but 
good material. The view is magnificent from 
this mountain monastery, hut the lens in a cam- 
era does not give the satisfaction that binoculars 
do, for Andorra, that strange little republic in the 
Pyrenees, and Minorca and Majorca in the Medi- 
terranean are by the glass brought near enough 
to be interesting. I had the opportunity here to 

make an exposure of a reputed Velasquez, an 
heirloom in the family of an eminent clergyman 
in Barcelona. This picture, “ Santa Teresa,” is a 
beautiful work heretofore unseen by Americans. 

On the way to Saragossa were little spots 
which tempted me to leave the train, the Medi- 
terranean at times washing under the ties and 
rails. One regret is that we did not visit Va- 
lencia, the home of that industrious and prolific 
artist, Sorolla y Bastida, and the place where most 
of his wonderful sunlight-pictures and seascapes 
are painted. Arriving at Saragossa, toward 
evening, I had time to get a sunset-view of two 
great cathedrals — La Seo and Del Pilar. Here 
is a rich opportunity, and the different views of 
these sanctuaries to he had from the Ebro are 
worth much study. 


Although the streets are narrow, there are 
open places, which gave just space enough for 
my lens and allowed the tops of the houses 
barely to creep into my finder. In Saragossa 
are good types of the Aragonese peasant, com- 
pletely covered by huge coats, or blankets of 
beautiful design. Most picturesque groups may 
he found sunning themselves on a Sunday after- 
noon. perfectly content with life, so long as it 
was the sunny side of the street. Saragossa has 
a great past, and evinced more patriotism to the 
square inch than many of her sister cities. How 
it is at the present time I am unable to say ; hut 
there are still evidences of past sieges in her 
massive walls and buildings. A fine-looking lot 
of men we found here, and it is almost impos- 
sible to tell them from good-looking Englishmen. 
Taking it for granted that all were Spanish, we 
probably missed much information by not ad- 
dressing them in English. 

A shrug and a tightening of the coat around 
the throat accompanied the information that 
Burgos was “muclio frio,” when we announced 
our intention to go there. Burgos is on the 
low-lying Arlanzon, a large river for Spain — 
as Gautier remarks — being at least two feet 
deep in many places. Opportunity to take in- 
teriors was here thrust upon us, and I have never 
had such courtesy and willingness to oblige 
shown me as during my stay in this city. In- 
deed, it is the same all over Spain, and, if the 
country does not call you back, the people will, 
with their frank, pleasant manners and friendly 
interest. Interiors of the Gothic cathedral, one 
of the finest in the world, wonderful in its carv- 
ing, sculpture and paintings, as well as interiors 
of the Provincial Museum, over the Santa Maria 
Gate, I photographed to my heart’s content. 
There were so many things to attract that my 
stay of a few days was all too short. Here we 
particularly noticed that all the houses had the 
glass-cased windows, which were, in fact, small 
sun-parlors. Walks in the vicinity were full of 
camera-possibilities, and my lens was becoming 
weary and my stock of films depleted. 

Valladolid was surely a disappointment; pos- 
sibly our hotel-accommodations had something 
to do with this, and probably my walk of five or 
six miles on an empty stomach to find a bridge, 
when it was only a block or two away in another 
direction, had more. We were glad to get away 
the next day, and speed on our way, if one can 
so call traveling on a mixed train. 

In Segovia we replenished our stock of films. 
There are some big things here. The Alcazar 
is built on a high rock overlooking the valley, 
two small streams hugging its base and joining 

to make a rather respectable stream. The Al- 
cazar reminds me of a great steamer on top of 
the swell, commanding respect by its massiveness. 
The immense cathedral, as seen from the Alca- 
zar and from the Plaza, is an altogether different- 
looking pile. Segovia is also a fine place in 
which to see country-types, but unfortunately I 
did not get any of interest within range of my 
camera. Outside the walls of this old hill-town 
were several small churches, also many places of 
historic and legendary interest. 

The aqueduct, stretching across the country 
for eight miles, in one, two and three tiers of 
arches, is probably the finest Roman relic in 
Spain ; hewn stone put together nineteen hun- 
dred years ago, without the aid of iron or mortar ; 
and it was, until a few years ago, a source of 
water-supply. It was a difficult task to get a 
satisfactory picture of the aqueduct, and I did 
not get one showing, as I wished, its winding 
way. We were sorry to have to leave for 

Madrid, they say, is the hottest place in 
summer and the coldest place in winter in all 
Spain. Its attractions are not photographic ; a 
European capital, and almost all is said. The 
Prado Museo was the lodestone attracting us, 
time after time. The masters of Spain, as well 
as those of other countries, are here shown in a 
most wonderful collection. It is, in fact, a gal- 
lery of masterpieces. The Velasquez Room has at 
least six to a dozen artists constantly copying his 
realistic work. The paintings might have been 
made within the last few years, so fresh and full 
of life are they. Personally, Velasquez appeals 
to me more than any other painter. Rather few 
in number were his landscapes, hut those were 
fine in composition, truthfully impressionistic. 
His “Villa dei Medici,” painted during a stay in 
Rome, would make a fine study for the camerist. 

Between the Prado and Spanish friends we 
neglected the camera, using our eyes instead of 
the lens, and devoted much time to sight-seeing 
and social observances. Photography was laid 
aside for a time, to he taken up again in Avila, 
the city of saints and stones. 

For good, old-fashioned, cold days, this stone- 
pile was at its best ; sun, rain, snow were inter- 
mittent, and bodily discomfort made photography 
to a certain extent lose its charm. It was so 
dark and cold in the cathedral that haste spoiled 
what might have been something good ; as it 
was, the exposures were partly satisfying. A 
walk to the Dominican Monastery of Santo 
Tomas was marked by many attractive spots. 
Here lies all that is mortal of the Infante Juan, 
only son of Ferdinand and Isabella; also that 



Prince of Inquisitors, Torquemada. Return- 
ing to Madrid to change trains for Toledo 
closed our experience with the railroad of 
the north, and also revealed a new character 
of country. 

Photographic supplies should lie purchased 
at Barcelona, as there are no places to obtain 
them until one reaches Madrid. At Madrid a 
further stock should he taken, and, as Madrid 
is in close touch with Paris, where the Eastman 
Company has an agency, needs should he antici- 
pated, and arrangements made to have material 
sent to Madrid. It is best to have a camera 
which is commonly used, as supplies suitable for 
it are much more readily obtained. In the north 
of Spain, the foot-baths found in most hotels 
are very convenient for fixing films ; and it 
might he a good plan to develop as you go along, 
not letting the rolls accumulate. My method 
was to number each film with ink as soon as dry, 
and memoranda were made against these num- 
bers. Do not lie sparing with films, but, when 
you see a good thing, make several exposures. 
This will help you out in case of individual ac- 
cidents to the films. The usual price for a 
31/4 x 41/4 roll of 12 exposures is one Durb, 
about one dollar in our money. By taking a 
supply from America you can save money, and, 
if you have taken an over-supply, you will proba- 
bly find some one who is sadly in need of films, 
and will gladly relieve you of any surplus stock 
at current prices. 

W e arrived in Toledo about midnight, and 
as soon as possible, after coffee and rolls, we hied 
ourselves to the Bridge of Alcantara. To get 
both towers in the same picture was a difficult 
task, and I had to be content to take one at a 
time. El Puente de San Martin was not so much 
to my liking as the Bridge of Alcantara. The 
river Tagus coils almost completely around the 
city, and I expected to make more exposures of 
the stream ; hut the deep gully was forbidding, 
and I found only in a few places spots of photo- 
graphic interest. Many fine studies of doors 
studded with hand-wrought iron nail-heads may 
be seen. No one should neglect to photograph 
the Cambron Gate ; a fine view of the Hospital 
de San Juan Bautista fills its archway Leaving 
Toledo, I felt that I had not done it justice — 
either in sight-seeing or in using the camera. 

Cordova appeared to us in the cool, early- 
morning mist. We experienced not a little diffi- 
culty in finding the Mosque, the interior of which 
is striking with its unusual color-effect of white 
and chocolate. The colors were rather dis- 
tasteful to me, and look better in a photograph 
than in reality. More Roman and Moorish re- 

mains were noticeable here than in any city we 
had previously visited. The long bridge over the 
Guadalquivir was not what I had hoped for. 
The reconstructionist had been here and spoiled 
the lines. Other places in Spain are also marred 
to the photographic eye by this despoiler of 
what has been. An odd sight was a stable, 
worth taking as a record. It was covered with 
the heads of hoar and deer, the quarry of the 
noble hunter whose spoils they were. Once 
the camera felt no response. A hearse passed 
slowly ; a little baby lay surrounded by flowers ; 
no coffin noticeable ; and no covering except the 
simple little dress ; looking up in the bright 
evening sunlight, as if only waiting some friendly 
call to come and play. In Cordova we struck 
the beaten trail of the American tourist ; the path 
well blazed by the postal-card, and the photo- 
graphic-supplies and souvenir-shops All in all, 
Cordova furnished more material than at first 
appeared, particularly in some old gateways with 
courts beyond. 

Granada is the city, but Alhambra the place. 
Passing through the rather somber gate, I was 
ill-prepared to behold the dazzling and fairy- 
like interior of the Moorish jialace. In addition 
to the entrance-fee, an extortion of fifty cen- 
timos is charged for the privilege to use a cam- 
era ; and, as almost everyone entering has one, 
this shows good business ability on the part of 
the management. I believe there have been 
more snaps taken in the Court of the Lions 
than in any other place in Spain. Try as I 
might to get some view of the Lions that was 
not hackneyed, I found that in the cold print 
every one looked like a photographic postal-card, 
“In the Alhambra.” But there are so many 
little sunlight-effects through doorways, views 
through barred windows, along corridors and 
through columns, that a collection of prints 
from this old palace may be varied and orig- 
inal. The stucco work on the ceiling is easily 
photographed — camera on hack, with one long 
look of the lens ; the results interesting, but not 
varied. Outside of the Moorish palace, the 
massive towers, ruined battlements and gates 
are all acceptable, and furnish much choice 
in compositions of masonry. A few exposures 
in the Albaicin — the gipsy-quarters — just out of 
Granada, are worth while. I did not care for 
the gipsies themselves, hut their cave-houses in 
the hillside, of whitewashed stones, were worth 
a few exposures. In La Cartuja, formerly a 
Carthusian monastery, but now a church, are 
some curious but not particularly meritorious 
paintings, scenes of the Carthusian martyrdom 
in England, in the time of Henry VIII. Priv- 



ilege to photograph is readily accorded, but it is 
usually expected that a donation of dos pesetas 
he made to the sacristan ; however, it’s hardly 
worth the money, the corridors being too narrow 
to admit any exposure, except on the bias. Any 
quantity of films may be bought near the palace 
of the Alhambra, and there is a reliable shop, 
where developing and printing is quickly done. 

Expecting to stay in Ron da a couple of days, 
we spent the first one in sighting photographic 
possibilities ; however, when we found out about 
6 the next morning that it was necessary to 
take a train at 9 the same morning, the 
few remaining hours were given up entirely to 
the use of the camera. The Old Town is sepa- 
rated from the New Town by a gorge several 
hundred feet in depth ; the top edges frosted by 
the irregular whitewashed houses. The differ- 
ent tones of white are striking, and here and 
there a tall cedar or yew-tree relieves the color- 
scheme. In one of these houses I imagine Mi- 
randa of the Balcony lived. Not only was my 
time too limited to do more effective work, but, 
in developing my Ronda films, I found that one 
half longitudinally was fully developed, the other 
half very thin. In passing a doorway I glanced 
in at a small pottery, the sun streaming in 
through another door on the stock of water- 
jugs. I at once became very friendly with the 
proprietor, and on my exposure on this film I 
had set some store, but it was among those which 
proved defective. 

It was during Holy Week, Sevuma Santa, 
that we came to Seville. The nights were 
more vivid than the days, the parades lasting 
till midnight. The crowds, the bustle, social in- 
tercourse and procrastination — all interfered 
with serious work with my No. 3, for Manana 
never came, nor did opportunities return. Much 
can be done around the cathedral, and the 
Giralda tower, after which the tower of Madison 

Square Garden, New York, is modeled. The 
medley of roofs seen from the Giralda is 
amazing. I expected to return and get them, 
but it was not to be. 

Some idea of the winding maze of streets may 
be had at this altitude, and I can vouch that 
they are crooked, for I walked around a com- 
plete circle to get to my starting-point, covering, 
maybe, two miles for naught. The oldest in- 
habitants carry maps ; the guard ia civil and 
everyone else is lacking in real knowledge as to 
location, but obligingly and willingly imparts in- 
formation which proves of little use. 

I took my camera to the bull-fight, Corrida 
de Toros. I sat on the shady side of the ring, 
some distance back from the arena, focusing at 
100 feet. Some interesting records were made, 
the distance from the scene of action being too 
great to enlarge successfully. However, I was 
satisfied to lose in this respect, for, even where 
we sat. we saw too much. Behind the railing 
we could hear the battering hoofs of the horses 
down in their last struggle, beating a death- 
tattoo on the boards. The odor of warm blood 
told us that another horse had served its pur- 
pose. It was only a fair bull-fight ; the bulls 
were too tame ; only twenty odd horses had 
been killed, or put out of their misery ; and this 
was not bloody enough to suit the press the 
next day. Pardon my length in dwelling on 
this, but it is typically Spanish, and an article 
on a Spanish subject would be lacking — an im- 
posture — if it did not bear the imprint of a 
Corrahi de Toros. 

Seville was our last resting-place, as I cannot 
say that the last day and night spent in Cadiz 
were more than a bad dream, a series of misun- 
derstandings, searching for hotel-accommodations, 
a long line of tips, fees and expenses, contingent 
on our getting our many packages aboard ship 
and ourselves located in a stateroom. 




The Albright Art Gallery Exhibition 


O N THURSDAY Nov. 3, 1910, the 
Albright Art Gallery at Buffalo opened 
its doors to the public and presented 
for inspection a most important exhibition of 
photographs. The authorities of this gallery 
wisely placed the arrangements in the hands 
of the Photo-Secession, under whose auspices 
the exhibition is held. The writer wishes to 
state that he uses the word “ wisely ” advi- 
sedly — for in spite of much controversy and 
criticism regarding the methods, politics and 
“ sagacity ” of the Photo-Secessionists it is an 
undeniable fact that they have “produced the 
goods ” and have succeeded in attracting the 
strongest exemplars of the art of photography 
to their standard. It is not my wish to dwell 
upon the merits of the arguments either for or 
against the methods of the Secession ; many 
harsh words have been spoken, many hitter 
things have been said ; hut to the serious-minded 
individual who seeks basic knowledge, these 
things all seem beside the mark. If Mr. Alfred 
Stieglitz, who is the dominant factor of the 
Secession, can marshal forces to his aid who 
can produce the evidence that photography has 
come into its inheritance and is entitled to take 
its place among the tine arts, then, certainly, 
should Mr. Stieglitz be given credit for perform- 
ing a great work by all fair-minded persons. If 
he has labored for two-score years in the vine- 
yard of photography and has, at last, brought 
luscious fruit to bear, it appears that he is cer- 
tainly entitled to approve the methods and 
assistants necessary to carry on this great work. 

A very marked feature of this exhibition is 
the strong tendency toward individual expres- 
sion ; the best way to illustrate this statement 
would be to suppose an interchange of two 
pictures to be made, taking any two pictures 
of the collection of any two contributors and 
substituting one for the other — the substitu- 
tion would at once be apparent. It lies within 
the province of any fairly good photographer to 
reproduce the style of another or at least to be 
influenced by close study of the works of an- 
other. but comparatively few ever acquire an 
easy grace of style that is unostentatious, natural, 
pure and convincing. Personality can be de- 
tected in the picture as easily as in the man. 
Counterfeits are sometimes attempted and often- 
times a style or a personality is imitated, but, 
sooner or later, the offender must come to grief, 

for virtue must be spontaneous and consistent 
to endure. 

One cannot but be convinced that one of the 
strongest efforts of those who control the destiny 
of this exhibition is directed to produce, to cul- 
tivate or develop individual expression as a 
necessary means to success. Our emotions are 
individual, so why not our pictorial records of 
these emotions ? 

Mr. Stieglitz has been fortunate enough to 
attract the sympathies and collaboration of a 
powerful group of workers, and has arranged 
a grouping of evidence in the shape of a photo- 
graphic. exhibition which by its very power fur- 
nishes a most palpable reason for its existence. 

It may happen that in the years to come other 
earnest workers will discover truths not dreamed 
of now ; in the evolution of time it may also hap- 
pen that other environments, other factors will 
influence emotions to find different expression 
and radically upset present standards. It. may 
also be that many independent, earnest workers 
exist to-day who, through lack of opportunity 
or bashfulness about appearing in public, never 
give to the world what it is willing to receive. 
These things may all lie possible and the writer 
thinks that the Photo-Secession will concede it. 

A pioneer movement is as necessary in pho- 
tography as in any other science or art to en- 
courage development, and it seems the logical 
thing to do when culminative proof is submitted 
and an exhibition of photography is embraced 
and welcomed by such an authority as the 
Albright Art Gallery that we should at least 
nod approvingly and encourage it even if our 
personal interests may be diverse. 

Cornelia Bently Sage, the art-director of the 
Albright Art Gallery, has worked untiringly to 
make the exhibition a success ; she has shown 
marked interest in promoting photography as 
a fine art and merits gratitude from the host 
of photographers who have striven so long to 
have the world recognize photography as a de- 
partment of the fine arts. 

In all, there are five hundred and eighty-four 
pictures hung. The American pictures, of 
course, predominate, a fact which is due to the 
peculiarities of our custom-house system which 
made it impracticable officially to open the in- 
vitation-section to foreign exhibitors. Some for- 
eigners, however, submitted prints on their per- 
sonal responsibility. 



Possibly the greatest interest is centered in 
the works of Hugo Henneberg, Heinrich Kuehn 
and Hans Watzek. “ Villa Falconieri,” a mul- 
tiple-gum print of considerable size, by Henne- 
berg, is a work remarkable for printing-depth, 
richness of tones and spacing. It is a picture 
which will attract the student again and again. 

“Moonlight, Villa Frascati,” by Kuehn, is a 
masterpiece of photographic art. This picture 
is also one of the largest shown, and is a mul- 
tiple-gum print. It is a picture worth going 
many miles to view. 

Watzek 's “Sheep-Study, ’’rendered by the same 
process, will long be remembered for its sim- 
plicity and its straightforward appeal to those 
lovers of nature and the out-of-doors who have 
doubtless gazed upon some similar scene. 

Theodore and Oscar Hofmeister, of Hamburg, 
Germany, have only one picture, a gum, the 
largest in the entire collection. This picture is 
entitled “The Solitary Horseman” and is a 
remarkable piece of pictorialism. The title is 
rather ridiculous, for the entire picture-space 
covers about five square feet and the figure of 
the “ solitary horseman ” two square inches. 
Put — someone will say, “ what has the title to 
do with the picture ? ” Who knows ! 

Robert Demachy of Paris is another foreigner 
whose work demands more than passing notice. 
Most of this artist’s prints are rendered in the 
oil-process and show a skill of technique truly 
remarkable. His versatility is at once pro- 
nounced and striking : nothing seems too diffi- 
cult for him to attempt. 


In the British Section .we jMid.“,a afffe^tijon J>f 
forty prints, the work of „4htf late 
These ai'e all portraits and figure-studies made 
more than sixty years ago, and were produced 
by the early and tedious method of calotype- 
printing. It is doubtful whether any of these 
pictures have ever been surpassed, even at this 
time, for clever and characteristic treatment. 

J. Craig Annan, one of Scotland’s modern 
pictorial photographers, has a number of prints 
which impress the observer as productions of a 
refined, intellectual and serious mind. He also 
shows the forceful possibilities of a compara- 
tively small print. 

Frank H. Read, an English worker, has a 
number of fine prints, some suggesting Annan, 
and all poetic and restful. 

There are a great many other foreigners who 
are represented and who are deserving of special 
mention, hut were the writer to attempt a com- 
plete review in detail it is feared this task would 
never he completed. 

The Americans, of course, are most strongly 
represented by members of the Photo-Secession, 
and to determine who is most noteworthy or 
deserving of first mention is quite impossible, so 
we will select a name at random — say, Steichen. 

'* Eduard J. Steichen is a master of portraiture ; 
he shows portraits of men who have attained 
greatness and prominence all over the civilized 
world. Mr. Steichen has succeeded in doing 
more than depicting these men in some charac- 
teristic pose or attitude, he has done the seem- 
ingly impossible thing of expressing their domi- 
nant forces and emphasizing in their expressions 
the peculiar character which has made these 
men famous. Some notable examples of this 
master’s art are the portraits of Rodin, Lenbach, 
Roosevelt, J. Pierpont Morgan and others. In 
-direct contrast to Mr. Steiehen’s portraiture is 
bis ability to depict landscape effects. His versa- 
tility is at once shown in his “ Road to the 
Valley, Moonrise, Lake George,” a sympathetic 
expression of exquisite solitude, a print which 
should live forever. 

Alfred Stieglitz is probably more widely 
known than any other living photographer 
to-day, and his work is characteristic of the 
man himself. He has striven for many years 
to develop a conception of individual and dis- 
tinct expression, to encourage the production of 
work which by the very nature of its treatment 
can be identified at a glance. He has exempli- 
fied all these things in his own work ; one can 
determine a Stieglitz as positively as a Rem- 
brandt, a Corot or a Millet. Through many 
jears his work has been consistent and pure ; it 

Allows*. tbe;* efforts of the thoughtful, patient, 
•Wpfiful mind, ever striving, ever dreaming of 
fuller realizations and better understandings. 
Much of his work is retrospective and shows a 
delightful development embracing the epoch of 
his experience as a photographer. 

His “ Winter, Fifth Avenue,” is a carbon 
print made some eighteen years ago, and it 
would he a difficult thing to find any picture 
which so faithfully illustrates and carries with 
it the atmosphere of a midwinter snow-storm in 
a city street. “ The Net-Mender ” is another 
print which is also well known and still holds 
attention. None of his pictures impresses one 
as bold attempts to attract attention, but rather 
seems imbued with that restful, reserved quality 
which causes one to seek them out to get better 

Alvin Langdon Coburn has a number of 
subjects, all showing vigorous treatment. His 
“ Notre Dame ” is a particularly fine piece of 
work and impresses one with the artist’s fine 
sense of the decorative. “ Wier’s Close, Edin- 
burgh ” is another example of successful and 
masterful handling, although quite different in 
subject and technique. 

Frank Eugene shows twenty-seven prints, all 
interesting and highly artistic, hut hardly strong 
and distinct when compared to the work of other 
artists mentioned. Closer study, however, may 
develop a more intricate appreciation, particu- 
larly if one is in sympathy with the method he 
employs of etching on the negative. 

Gertrude Kaesebier has a fine conception of 
portrait, figure-study and genre-work and no 
doubt excels in this particular branch. “ Blessed 
Art Thou ” and “ The Picture-Book ” are both 
remarkable for composition and decorative treat- 
ment. The yellow tint covering many of her 
pictures and extending to an imaginary line be- 
yond the actual confines of the picture-plane 
does not add to the effect ; the tint is slightly raw 
and perhaps could be greatly improved upon, if 
not entirely eliminated. 

No one who views the work of Annie W. 
Brigman can help hut he impressed with her sense 
of the poetic. Nature seems to reveal to her the 
mythological, the spiritual ; she sees with the 
eyes of one whose imagination is inspired. All 
of her pictures are forceful, strong in purpose 
and full of meaning. 

Her “ Finis ” is a masterpiece of construc- 
tion. One can feel the very struggle against 
the ultimate, the figure in the picture, the dead 
roots of the tree — all show a melancholy, hope- 
less resistance against the inevitable. 

George II. Seeley’s collection of prints is 

1 <> 


certainly distinct in character, if nothing else. 
These pictures are mostly a collection of figure- 
studies arranged with a view to decorative effect, 
hut in general the effect attempted is so ob- 
scure that one’s imagination is sorely taxed. 
Mr. Seeley may possess great latent possibilities 
and may he conscientiously and consistently work- 
ing to express a certain ideal, hut it is feared he 
has not definitely expressed himself yet. In this 
collection, u The Tribute ” suggests a clever and 
well-balanced arrangement of spots, but is sur- 
prisingly weak in purpose. 

Most of us are familiar with the work of 
Clarence H. White and the study he has made 
to render the effect of sunlight. His exhibition 
is extremely interesting, quaint and modest ; in 
fact, an unpretentious appeal to one’s sympathy 
and consideration. His 464-A (omitted in the 
catalog), delicate and refined in treatment, is one 
of the finest pieces of decorative photography 
in the entire collection. In contrast to this, 
“ The Cave ” is a powerful, somber subject 
which awes the observer to the utmost and im- 
presses him with the wide range of subjects 
Mr. White attempts. 

In the open section we find a number of 
American photographers represented, among 
whom are many not generally known. 

The work shown in this section is in many 
instances good and clever in character but not 
of a type to compare with the work elsewhere 
exhibited. Of course there are some notable 
exceptions, and many of these contributors de- 
serve especial mention. 

The “ Mother and Child ” study by Laura 
Armer is a poetic, dreamy, simple treatment of a 
subject which lias probably received more abuse 
than any other subject ever attempted. Great 
credit is due to the author of this picture for 
the heroic and successful attempt to reclaim the 
perverted sentiment of this subject and restore 
it in all its simplicity and sweetness. 

Of Pierre Dubreuil, of Paris, there are six 
prints showing the marked influence of far 
greater workers than himself. It is apparent that 
he has very little original conception and nearly 
everything he shows is reminiscent, though in a 
vastly inferior sense. This worker does not seem 
to uphold the traditions of the Photo-Secession. 

W. 15. Post, of Fryeburg, Maine, has three 
charming winter-scenes, all full of light and 

Karl F. Strauss, of New York, is a very 
promising worker and no doubt will show 
marked development if he continues with pho- 

Wm. J. Mullins, of Franklin, Pa., offers a 

collection of prints, extremely small in size, but 
nevertheless good and interesting. 

Augustus Thibaudeau, of Niagara Falls, who 
recently won highest honors at Budapest, shows 
several portraits which indicate that he has made 
a close and careful study of his subjects, con- 
trolling his lighting and emphasizing his shad- 
ows so as to express effects best suited to his 
conception of portraiture. 

Paul B. Haviland’s “ Portrait-Profile ” sug- 
gests a Seeley, but is firmer in purpose and 
less obscure in execution and indicates what 
Seeley lacks in some of his attempts. 

There are in all twenty-eight contributors to 
the open section but space forbids me to review 
them individually. 

Taking the exhibition as a whole, it is a re- 
markable success, and everyone who can should 
visit the Albright Gallery. 

The writer is not in a position to state how 
this exhibition compares with some of the nota- 
ble foreign exhibitions held this year, whether 
it ranks higher in importance or merit. Larger 
exhibitions have been held, it is true, but it would 
be difficult to imagine one more interesting. 

[The absence of illustrations to accompany 
Mr. Bertling’s article is explained by the fact 
that, although permission was readily granted to 
copy for reproduction prints in this exhibition, 
the thing was not feasible because all the pic- 
tures were glazed. 

Furthermore, Mr. Stieglitz very generously 
offered Photo-Ek. a the rare privilege to use 
some fifteen prints of representative Photo- 
Secession work in connection with this article. 
Unfortunately these prints were not duplicates 
of any from the Albright Gallery exhibition, 
and for that reason the offer was not accepted. 
It was not made clear what benefit could be de- 
rived from pictures which had no connection 
with the Buffalo display. Besides, Photo-Era 
is not eager to publish prints of “ old war- 
horses,” even though they possess historic value, 
except to illustrate a special article. 

Since the receipt of Mr. Bertling’s review, we 
learn that with the aid of Mr. Stieglitz’s re- 
markable collection of prints, which was freely 
drawn on, the exhibition adequately summed up 
“ the development and progress of photography 
as a means of pictorial expression.” The open 
section, however, can hardly he said to have 
succeeded in giving “ all American photo- 
graphers an opportunity of being (sic) repre- 
sented.” We note with regret the absence of 
such names as Brookins, Chislett, Ehnberger, 
Fleischer, Garo, Goldensky, Kunz, Porterfield 
and many others. — Editor .] 


svirniH.T 'ii Mvmm sjmiHJ 'h wyitiiav 



Speed-Photography in Winter 


T OO many cameras collect dust upon 
high shelves while Boreas howls and 
snow fills the air. Winter-photography 
hath joys for him who isn’t afraid that his nose 
will get red or his ears a-tingle, and these are no 
less for the speed-worker, the focal-plane man, or 
him who peers down the hood of a mirror-camera 
than for the hand- or stand-camerist. Nay, to 
him who uses the hand-camera, rather than that 
perched upon three legs, winter offers special 
inducements ; three legs are unstable enough in 
quiet air and hard enough for fingers when they 
are warm. Much wind and nipping cold make 
of the tripod a three-legged devil with an ingen- 
ious assortment of tortures for over-tried patience. 

Winter-photography, too, makes special ap- 
peal to the owner of a focal-plane shutter, be- 
cause the light in winter is all too poor in qualify, 
too short in duration, too little in quantity for 
slow lenses and not particularly efficient for 
between-lens shutters. Many an artist with the 
camera has given up his winter-pictures solely 
because he was afflicted with an attack of the 
“ soot and whitewash ” disease ; because he 
couldn’t get time enough on his plates without 
getting movement, or, stopping movement, could 
not get shadow-detail, and produced results so 
hard, so contrasty and so cameo-cut as to offend 
mortally Iris sense of both the beautiful and the 

Speed-photography, as the present scribe has 
preached before, does not mean merely the 
making of pictures of objects moving at high 
speed, nor yet the employment of shutter-speeds 
of high intensity. Agreed, that speed-photo- 
graphy is usually so understood, but not that it 
is thus correctly defined. Speed-photography 
should be made to include any use of a focal- 
plane shutter and a fast lens, even if it lie 
directed to a quiet landscape, since the same 
principles apply in the proper use of these two 
tools, whether they be directed at a horse-race or 
a sunset, a railway-train or an outdoor-portrait, 
a high-jump or a quiet landscape. Thus, speed- 
photography will here be considered as the use 
of the focal-plane and the fast lens, and with 
special reference to winter-conditions. 

W hat these conditions are. needs little rehears- 
ing. In winter the sunlight comes to earth in 
these latitudes at a great angle, and, by the 
] lower of refraction which the air possesses, it is 
largely robbed of those rays which most potently 

affect sensitive material. In winter the hours 
of sunlight are fewer than in summer ; the photo- 
graphic day is shorter. In winter, outdoors — 
at least in the country — contrasts are either 
much less than in summer, when bare, leafless 
trees, brown earth, dead leaves and drab colors, 
everywhere, merge in a monotone as beautiful 
to the eye as it is trying to the camera ; or. when 
snow is on the ground, they are much greater 
than in summer, these drab monotones forming 
a neutral background to the glittering white 
snow, which, particularly in sunlight, plays the 
part of an imp witli exposures. Halation, con- 
trast, lack of delicate detail (which is what 
makes snow beautiful) — all follow in the train 
of him who attempts snow-work without proper 
understanding, so that the winter-worker is 
between the Scylla of monotone and flatness 
and the Charybdis of violent tonal scale. He 
also spills his photographic boat upon the rocks 
of little light, short exposure, motion, wind, inert 
skies and glare, so that to conquer winter suc- 
cessfully with the camera and produce really 
good photographic results is, generally speaking, 
harder than summer-work and, therefore, more 

One of the first, greatest and least forgivable 
mistakes made by the man who goes a-picturing 
with the -ground white with snow and the sun- 
light shining down at midday, is under-exposure. 
He has been taught, all his life, that there is 
nothing whiter than snow. He knows that any- 
thing white reflects sunlight. He figures then, 
“ If I gave one-fiftieth of a second exposure 
to this scene without snow, I must give at least 
half as much with the snow, since it reflects so 
much more light.” 

Fatal error. It is perfectly true that snow 
reflects twice, thrice, any number of times as 
much light as the bare ground. But snow 
is as full of detail as a pease-pod is of peas, 
and the detail, the delicate shadows, the little 
blue places where a foot-print marks the surface, 
the utter tonal difference between a snow-bank 
catching sunlight and the same bank under the 
shadow of a tree — this detail is what makes the 
snow beautiful. A sheet of white paper is not 
beautiful — at least as a picture. Nor, if you 
set a house and lot upon its upper half and called 
it “ snow-landscape ” would it appeal as either 
beautiful or truthful. Yet the small exposure 
will do just that to any snow-covered landscape — 


render the sunlit snow as white paper and the 
shadows as Stygian black streaks ; and winter, 
drab and pale, even with her diamonds on, is 
not like that. 

The argument should he rather : “ The small 
tonal-scale, the monotone of the landscape, was 
rendered properly with that exposure of one- 
fiftieth of a second. It is true I now have much 
more light reflected, but I have also much greater 
contrasts, and a steeper scale. I don’t want the 
contrast so great that the details in the high- 
lights disappear, nor the shadow-details become 
merged in black. To cut down excessive con- 
trast, one exposes fully and develops gently. 
I will, therefore, give the same, or even more, 
exposure to my sunlit snow-scene as I gave the 
same landscape without the snow.” 

Now, no man can sit at a desk and tell an- 
other man how much exposure to give a scene 
lie hasn’t seen himself. The present scribe dis- 
claims any intent to formulate a rule that 
snow-scenes always need as much or more ex- 
posure than the same scenes without the snow. 
Different skies, different lights, different times 
of day, different colors in the landscape may all 
affect the result. But he does say, roundly and 
without fear of contradiction, that for the aver- 
age snow-scene, the average photograph is better 
if the exposure is not lessened, but is rather in- 
creased over what would be given the same 
scene without the snow. 

And what has all this to do with the focal- 
plane, the fast lens — with speed-work ? Gently, 
for a minute. It is necessary to understand 
premises before following out conclusions. 

Winter is, in one’s mind, cold, dead, inert. 
So pictured, it becomes, sometimes, rather drear 
and uncomfortable. There is too much of death 
and sadness in winter-pictures as it is. Who 
would differentiate Ins work from this attitude 
must have joy, action, human interest, emotion — 
something that speaks of life and living in his 
pictures. And here, more than anywhere else, 
do the focal-plane, the fast lens and the trying 
conditions of winter come together. To get the 
full exposure that winter’s contrasts demand 
and, at the same time, to stop motion, or, in 
lights of the late afternoon, permit the hand- 
camera exposure, there are no tools which will 
take the place of the speedy glass and the focal- 
plane shutter. 

Coasting, skating, skiing, curling, snow-hailing, 
tobogganing, or even simple walking, running, 
gunning, fishing through the ice, or any winter- 
sport which means action, make splendid sub- 
jects for the photographer. Speed-work in 
summer demands, first., a consideration of the 

speed of movement, and a shutter-setting which 
will care for it, since we can, for some reason, 
possibly that of education, stand contrast in a 
summer-scene, if only the motion be stopped. 
But to take a winter speed-picture with the same 
idea only — that of stopping motion — - is to pro- 
duce results so hard and contrasty as completely 
to overlay the beauty of an action-pose with a 
photographic lie of contrast which offends hoth 
sense of order and sense of beauty. 

So that the first requisite in a winter speed- 
picture — - meaning here, for lack of a better 
term, one including action or motion — must be 
correct exposure. Having determined correct 
exposure, it remains to figure how motion can 
be stopped with that exposure. The photogra- 
pher has four methods at his command. First, 
large diaphragms, which mean fast lenses. 
Second, short-focus lenses, which will stop mo- 
tion with a given shutter-speed, because of slow 
speed of the small image across the plate, where 
a longer-focus lens worked at the same speed of 
the shutter would fail, because of the larger 
image and its great speed across the plate. 
Third, getting far enough away from the object 
to reduce its speed across the plate to the capac- 
ity of the exposure. Fourth, taking motion 
only in the line of its movement, or near it. 

Thus, a skater doing a figure eight may he 
made close-to and still have plenty of exposure 
if the picture is made of his face or of his back ; 
whereas, if taken from one side, the ample ex- 
posure — snapshot though it may be — required 
to get detail and cut down the glare-ice con- 
trast, will not suffice to stop the moving body, 
or the swinging arm. Or, a short-focus lens 
can be employed and an enlargement made 
subsequently, or one can get some distance off 
with a longer-focus lens and thus reduce the size 
of the image and, consequently, its rapidity of 

But there are times when movement should 
not be stopped completely. The breaking wave 
which is allowed to crest and foam a bit in the 
photograph, making a slight blur of flying spray, 
is much more clear in its enunciation of “ mov- 
ing power ” than that in which each drop of 
water is caught and held rigid, with no sign or 
symptom of motion save its twixt-heaven-and- 
earth position. The mile-a-minute automobile 
says “speed” much more loudly if the wheels 
be a bit elliptical in shape and a little blur at the 
tops show motion. So, a sled, coasting merrily 
down hill, filled with boys and girls and fun, 
looks more true to the life which made the im- 
age if the clouds of snow are hazed a little, if 
some slight, very slight, blur, rather than the 

O R N I N 

M I S I 








engraving-sharpness of a complete stilling of 
the motion, shows that here was swift movement 
and joy of life. 

Just what shutter-speeds to employ to get 
this slight, very slight, movement in the picture, 
just what diaphragm to use to get the correct 
exposure with this shutter-speed, just what dis- 
tance to he away from the point pictured to 
make the other factors work in harmony — 
these are things worth study, nay, needing 
study to accomplish. Because of its great 
range of speeds, from a tenth, perhaps, to a 
thousandth of a second, there is no shutter like 
a focal-plane for this work. One shutter, which 
the writer possesses, works anywhere from a 
fifth to a thousandth of a second, with a total of 
twenty-five different shutter-speeds. It would 
he a captious critic of shutters, indeed, who 
would ask more variations of his tools. 

The development of snow, ice, hare-tree or 
other winter-scenes, is not (many to the con- 
trary notwithstanding) a special art. Person- 
ally. the writer prefers a tank to all other 
methods ; but, whatever manner of development 
he employed, the main thing to remember is the 
need of softness, gentleness, in development. 
Snapshots tend to contrast ; winter-snaps, par- 
ticularly so. Be your exposure-calculations 
never so accurate, if error is made, it is more 
than likely to he on the side of under-exposure. 
And. by the same token which requires here a 
gentle development, a purposeful full-exposure — 

to cut down contrast — needs the same sort 
of development to complete it in perfection. 
Hence, a dilute developer, carefully handled, is 
what is wanted for winter-work. 

It should need no telling that browns, reds, 
greens (except for “ moonlight ’’-effects) are not 
suitable for winter-scenes. One sees brown, 
green, and (perhaps) red landscapes. One never 
saw brown, red, or green snow ! Don’t outrage 
the proprieties with an attempt to lend artificial 
warmth to a cold scene by misprinting a snow- 
picture in color ; let the black and white suffice 
and, the colder the tone, the truer to feeling will 
the result be. 

Lastly, if the ministerial closing can be per- 
mitted to this article, which is intended for any- 
thing but a sermon, don’t forget the ray-screen 
on bright days, with clouds and broken snow, 
nor attempt to use it late in the afternoon when 
the sun is yellowing the western sky. All too 
often the light is yellow by nature : to make it 
more so with the screen is foolish. But when it 
is too blue, and the snow simply won’t produce 
its detail, then will a light-colored screen often 
be worth its weight in gold. Its proper use — 
like the correct, judgment and adjustment of 
distance, speed, diaphragm and motion — is an 
integral part of winter-work, particularly winter 
speed-work, and lie who thinks to conquer any 
or all of this without effort, or judges the effort 
not worth the price, makes an error losing him 
glittering and natural gem-studded opportunity! 

Rescuing an Airship in Mid-Ocean 


I T WAS while I was tossing around in my 
berth aboard the steamer “ Trent,” owing 
to an over-strenuous vacation while in Ber- 
muda, that I heard a sailor (who was cleaning 
the passage-way leading to my stateroom) say, 
“ There is something wrong out on the ocean. 
It looks as if there is a balloon or a dirigible air- 
ship on fire.” This conversation took place 
about 5 o’clock in the morning. Having had in 
mind for some time the project of Mr. Walter 
Wellman to attempt to cross the Atlantic Ocean, 
the thought immediately came to me that it 
must be the “ America.” I at once climbed 
down from the upper berth and went to the 
porthole, and I saw on the horizon what ap- 
peared to be a flame similar to that of a toy 
balloon some distance in the air on Independence 
Day. I then hurriedly dressed, went to the 
upper deck, and there awaited the results of what 
proved to be a most fascinating and thrilling ex- 

The flame, I afterward ascertained, was a 
signal from a small pocket electric lamp used by 
Wellman’s wireless operator in attempting to 
attract the attention of the man on watch aboard 
the “ Trent.” The message signaled from the 
“ America ” to the “ Trent ” was informing them 
that the balloon had a wireless instrument. How- 
ever, this signal could not be understood at first, 
as it was in the American code, and as the 
steamship “ Trent ” sails under the English flag, 
it was necessary to use the International code, 
which was immediately recognized by the offi- 
cers of our boat. After this, the wireless opera- 
tor on board the “ Trent ” was awakened, and he 
started to use his instruments to connect with 
the balloon. This attempt was successful, and 
in a very short while there were messages being- 
sent back and forth, giving and taking orders as 
to what should best be done. 

It required three hours from the first sighting 
of the airship, which was about 5 a.m., until we 
finally took aboard the crew at 8 o’clock. 

Picture No. 1 shows the balloon as we were 
getting close to her, with the bow of the “ Trent ” 
as foreground. 

Picture No. 2 is a much closer view from the 
same standpoint. This is a most interesting 
photograph, as its clearness would seem to indi- 
cate that the airship was posing to have its pho- 
tograph taken. This is an indication of the 
advisability of having an anastigmat lens in con- 

junction with your camera. The exposure was 
taken at %o second, focus set at 100 feet. The 
balloon and the “ Trent ” were going at full 
speed, both in the same direction, and this was 
the only chance I had for a good picture. 

Picture No. 3 shows the airship “ America ” 
immediately over the bow of our boat at the 
most thrilling moment of the rescue. As the 
picture indicates, the bow of the “ Trent ” is im- 
mediately under the airship. It was only by 
the providence of God that a gust of wind came 
along and carried the balloon farther out to sea. 
If it had not been for this, there would have 
been no power of any kind which could have 
prevented our steamer from cutting the balloon 
in half, and no one can tell what the damage 
might have been, owing to the gas and the tre- 
mendous amount of gasoline carried by the air- 
ship, and the heat and sparks coming forth in 
volumes at all times from the steamer’s funnel. 
This exposure was taken at "j/95 second with the 
lens at F/6.8. This picture was snapped with- 
out much thought of results, as I immediately 
ran astern, fearing that something would happen 
to bring disaster to our ship, with her com- 
plement of three hundred and fifty. 

Picture No. 4 shows the lifeboat when it had 
been cut away from the airship and just before 
the crew were taken aboard the “ Trent.” The 
exposure of this picture was V25 second, with the 
lens at F /6.8, pointing the camera down over 
the side of the steamer. The excitement of res- 
cuing the lifeboat was an experience that one 
seldom sees, as it was necessary to make three 
attempts to get this small boat. 

The camera I used in taking these pictures 
was the 3 A Folding Pocket Kodak fitted with a 
Steinheil Orthostigmat lens, speed F /6.8, focus 
6 y ~2 inches, and a Compound shutter, working 
from one second to V200 second. The film used 
was the Eastman regular N. C. The weather- 
conditions were very poor, as there was a heavily 
overcast sky. Results as good as these show 
the value of a fast anastigmat lens for emergency 

In conclusion I can only say that one slioidd 
never go on any trip without sufficient films or 
plates for an emergency. It was necessary for 
me to borrow a roll of six-exposure film from 
one of the passengers in order to get these pic- 
tures, a confession I regret to make, especially 
as it comes from one in the kodak business. 


Copyright, 11)10, Charles H. Jluesgen Copyright, 1010, Charles 11. Uuesgen 


Abuse of the Optical Lantern 

A MONG the numerous sources of instruction 
and. entertainment none surpasses the 
illustrated lecture. It is at once effective and 
pleasing, and conveys a more vivid, correct and 
enduring impression of the object or scene, as 
produced by the stereopticon, than any verbal 
description possibly can. It is all the more 
regrettable, therefore, that the lecturer, who 
avails himself of the invaluable aid afforded by 
the optical lantern, should tolerate on the part 
of his technical assistant certain acts of careless- 
ness which not only weaken the effectiveness 
and dignity of the discourse, but are a source of 
positive annoyance to the audience. Perhaps it 
were better to put the responsibility of the 
shortcomings, about to be mentioned, upon the 
operator of the stereopticon, for he is generally 
a person of considerable intelligence, and must 
realize that the indifferent serving of the appa- 
ratus imperils the success of the entertainment. 

An expert and conscientious operator, pro- 
vided with an efficient stereopticon, adequate 
light-supply, excellent diapositives (lantern- 
slides) and a suitable screen, can he trusted to 
give a good account of himself, but should not 
lie blamed for unavoidable accidents. A lantern- 
slide shown for an undue length of time is very 
likely to crack, and the proof of the mishap he 
visible on the screen ; or the source of light 
may be suddenly interrupted and cause tempo- 
rary embarrassment. It is not too much to 
expect that the stereopticon-views be carefully 
focused ; yet it is not unusual for operators to 
produce blurred pictures throughout the entire 
lecture, and this fault is often ascribed to the 
maker of the slide or of the original. Indis- 
tinct projections are sometimes due to the com- 
mon practice of focusing the initial picture and 
not the rest. If the slides are of uniform thick- 
ness, this plan will work satisfactorily, otherwise 
not. in focusing his screen-picture the skilled 
operator will move the objective in one direction 
only, either forward or backward, until the 
right degree of clearness has been reached, and 
then stop. 

At informal gatherings of camera-clubs and 
scientific societies, some well-meaning but in- 
capable person attempts to operate the optical 
lantern and, as a consequence, most distressing 
incidents occur. For instance, an old-fashioned 

slide-carrier is used, and into this each slide is 
pushed, the entire operation being visible on the 
screen, as is also the same clumsy method of 
displacing each slide by its successor. In these 
circumstances, of course, there can be no such 
thing as illusion. When a slide is too big, it 
will stop in its passage, leaving a section of the 
screen uncovered. Then the hapless diapositive 
is pushed and pulled, while the stereopticon 
wobbles painfully. At last the slide yields to 
the frantic efforts of the operator and is either 
forced into place or is quickly removed. Dur- 
ing the course of the struggle the forms of 
gigantic digits may be seen on the canvas, and 
the slide is covered with finger-marks, which 
obviously do not improve its appearance. The 
audience might be spared the exhibition of these 
bungling performances if the operator would 
only cap the objective ; but this simple expe- 
dient probably does not occur to him. Some- 
times, when arc-light is used, the carbons are 
not placed at the right distance from the con- 
denser, and then the screen is not evenly 
illuminated ; or, the apparatus is so constructed 
as not completely to conceal the source of light 
within. The beams of light which thus dart 
out have not a very soothing effect on the 
spectators who sit behind the instrument and, 
moreover, prevent them from enjoying the 

These are a few deficiencies in lantern-projec- 
tion which it is possible to avoid. Their effect 
on an audience is distressing to a degree of 
which the operator can form no conception. 
Lecturers, or their managers, should see to it 
that the projection-apparatus is of the best and 
most approved type. It should readily accom- 
modate lantern-slides in their several sizes and 
varying degrees of thickness. Last but not 
least, the stereopticon should be served by a 
thoroughly efficient and trustworthy technician. 

Photography of Wild Animals 

A LTHOUGH risking adverse criticism, we 
are bold to confess that we have not been 
favorably impressed with the hunting-photo- 
graphs which accompany serial narratives in 
several popular monthlies. From the high 
reputation of the experts engaged in these 
photographic enterprises, the elaborate apparatus 
and the extensive preparations, we were led to 
expect wonderful pictorial results. But most of 


the photographs, so far published, are blurred, 
out of focus, and in other ways quite disappoint- 
ing. Equipments, as well as material and acces- 
sories necessary for the success of the under- 
taking, had to he sent to South African ports, 
whence they were transported by troops of 
natives through jungle and desert ; careful and 
ingenious plans were made to capture, photo- 
graphically, the wild beasts ; human life was 
often in jeopardy, and, after all, the achievements 
cannot be regarded as creditable to expert 
photographic skill. It cannot he denied that 
the difficulties which must have attended most 
of these preparations were not favorable to 
artistic or technical success ; yet very excellent 
photographs have been made in other parts of the 
world, and also under extremely trying and often 
discouraging conditions. 

A Dangerous Expedient 

T HE practitioner who is observant and pro- 
gressive deserves to he commended. It 
is much better to advance than to stand still, 
even at the risk of making mistakes. If the 
worker he barren of ideas, he may be pardoned 
for imitating the achievements of others ; for in 
so doing he comes in contact with new forces, 
and newly-awakened energies may develop fresh 
thoughts and possibilities. At the same time 
lie should proceed with caution, trying to select 
only that which is wholesome and plausible. 

Much has been said about the principle of 
composition according to which objects that 
threaten the integrity of the main idea are sub- 
ordinated or even obliterated. Pictures which 
illustrate this principle — so important to a suc- 
cessful portrait — have been examined eagerly by 
ambitious students and at once imitated. The 
object was to concentrate the light upon the face 
of the model, by whatever means, and often 
with an utter disregard for truth and harmony. 
What, if intelligently applied, might have proved 
a positive improvement in monotonous portrai- 
ture, has developed into a meaningless fad, and 
called forth well-merited censure and ridicule. 
What is more to he regretted is that such an 
incongruity in advanced protraiture should he 
regarded by certain of our cotemporaries as a 
worthy performance, comparable to the creations 
of great masters — Rembrandt, in particular. 
M bat a hbel on the name of that great artist ! 

The method generally adopted to transform 
the straight, evenly-illuminated result into an 
artificial, unnatural and totally inconsistent por- 
trayal. is to expose the untoned print to the sun — 
carefully guarding the face and, presto, a Rem- 
brandt, forsooth 1 Experienced portraitists bring 

about a similar result by placing a translucent or 
an opaque screen between the source of light and 
the parts of the figure to be darkened. There is 
no objection to this method provided it is not car- 
ried to the point of absurdity. It is obvious that, 
in the case of an open-air portrait, the light is be- 
yond the control of the photographer, unless he 
wishes to produce an effect wholly contrary to 
nature by obstructing the light. Yet we have seen 
portraits taken out of doors in which all hut the 
face was darkened by artificial means, and the 
modus operandi was plainly evident. Other ex- 
amples of concentrated lighting showed the sitter 
garbed in a light summer-suit, the color-value of 
which, through the darkening process, had been 
changed to a very low key, while the ungloved 
hands had assumed a dusky hue. How the 
sitter regarded this perversion of the truth, it 
would he interesting to know. Perhaps he was 
told that it was high art. 

Now, the photographer who is eager to apply 
the Rembrandt style of lighting to his work, 
must remember that Rembrandt did not paint 
his portraits under the conditions which prevail 
in a regular photographer’s studio with its over- 
head and side light. Many practitioners realize 
this, and certain effects in home-portraiture — 
now engaging the attention of prominent mem- 
bers of the craft — suggest the great Dutch- 
man’s individuality of chiaroscuro. Indeed, it 
is possible to produce a true Rembrandt effect 
(the master did not confine himself to one par- 
ticular method of lighting his subject) even 
under the conventional photographer’s skylight. 

The student-photographer who has not been 
fortunate enough to contemplate a representative 
work by Rembrandt, should procure some faith- 
ful reproductions in color or monochrome of 
loell-preserved single portraits, by the master, 
with all their original breadth of chiaroscuro. 
These should include such well-known master- 
pieces — unspoiled by restoration — as “ Saskia,” 
Dresden ; “ Jean Sobieski,” St. Petersburg ; 

“Elisabeth Bas,” and “Jan Six,” Amsterdam; 
“Jewish Merchant,” London; “Self-Portrait,” 
Vienna, and “ Self-Portrait,” Paris. 

Instead of concentrating the light upon the 
face of his subject, and painting the rest of the 
figure as an impenetrable black mass — as many 
persons ignorantly suppose he did — the master 
has illuminated the entire fi (jure, recognizing the 
value of accessories in their proper relation to 
the ensemble. At the same time the practitioner 
who has a thorough and practical understanding 
of art-principles will appreciate t lie difference 
between the art of painting and. if you will, the 
art of photography. 


An Association of Amateur Photographers 

This association, conducted under the auspices of PHOTO-ERA, and of which PHOTO-ERA is the offi- 
cial organ, is intended primarily for the benefit of beginners in photography, although advanced camerists 
are just as welcome and many are numbered among its members. The aim of the association is to assist 
photographers by giving them information, advice and criticism in the Guild pages of PHOTO-ERA and by 
personal correspondence. Membership is free and may be obtained by sending name and address to 
PHOTO-ERA, The Round Robin Guild, 383 Boylston Street, Boston. Send a stamp for complete prospectus. 

Modifying Bromide Enlargements 

The bromide enlargement in the hands of a skilful 
operator is capable of many modifications. Having be- 
come an expert in the making of the simple enlarge- 
ments, one may proceed to the more difficult and more 
interesting task of making special kinds of prints. 

Suppose one has a sharp negative and desires to make 
from it a print with softened outlines. Focus sharply, 
insert a small stop — F/16 — then, while the printing is 
going on, rack the lens gently to and fro just a trifle. 
This diffuses the image without blurring it and one can 
distinguish by the projection of it on the paper just how 
much the lens should lie moved. Stopping down the 
lens gives sharpness to the edge of the plate, whereas if 
one simply softens the focus and makes the exposure, 
the result with most plates is a blurred picture. 

If one lias a negative with harsh highlights and deep 
shadows lie may by controlling the light, concentrating 
or subduing it, obtain a print with fine gradations of 
lights and shadows. In making a picture from such a 
negative one should first expose a trial strip to judge 
how long it takes to print the highlights in order to obtain 
detail. Having found the correct time, take a card and 
cut an opening in it. to correspond with the highlights. 
During the exposure hold this between the camera and 
the bromide paper, keeping the card nearer the lens 
than the paper so as to secure a proper diffusion of 
light. Move the card to and fro during the exposure 
so as to avoid printing a line on the print. When the 
highlights have received the proper time of exposure, 
take away the card and print until the shadows are just, 
(let , 1 1 enough. This method is particularly good for 
portrait-work where there are strong highlights on the 
face and deep shadows in the draperies. 

Very beautiful prints may be made by printing 
through a screen of bolting-cloth or of translucent 
chiffon. The material is stretched tightly on a frame 
and held in place by tacks. Care must be taken that 
the threads in the bolting-cloth are kept straight, for if 
they are pulled askew they will produce rather curious 
effects. The screen is held about an inch from the 
paper. If it is held in contact with the paper, one gets 
the effect of canvas. There are several varieties of 
bolting-cloth, the fine-meslied being preferable for 
prints made on smooth paper, whereas the eoarse- 
meshed gives most artistic results with very heavy 
rough paper. 

One of the bromide papers which is made particularly 
for artistic prints is the Royal. It is coated on cream- 
colored paper and comes in smooth and rough surfaces 
and in medium and heavy weight. When toned to sepia 
the prints are most artistic, the cream tone of the paper 
seeming particularly fitted for the warm browns of the 
sepia. For exhibition-prints and for very artistic pic- 

tures one cannot choose amiss when he selects the Royal 
bromide for his pictures. It makes a very rich-looking 
print when toned, and now that platinum has taken a 
sudden rise in price it is a good substitute for this 
more expensive paper. 

If one desires to vig'nette an enlargement the method 
is very simple. Cut from a large piece of pasteboard an 
opening to correspond with the part to be printed. 
Stop down the lens to F/16, and while the image is 
being exposed hold the pasteboard in front of the lens 
and keep it moving back and forth during the expo- 
sure. The reason for making a longer exposure is that 
the edges of the print may be softened. 

Though double printing is rather difficult, yet with a 
landscape negative with a blank sky one may print in 
clouds if one is willing to take a little trouble. First 
one must bave a mask to cover the part representing the 
landscape. Place the negative in the frame bottom- 
side-up so that the image is right-side-up when thrown 
on the screen. Cover the white paper on the bottom of 
the box or on the screen proper (whichever is used) with 
a sheet of yellow postoffice paper, and with a sharp 
pencil draw on it the outline of the landscape as shown 
on the paper. Cut this out carefully and fit it over 
the sheet of bromide paper where the outline is de- 
picted, this placing having been determined by register- 
ing. Put the cloud-negative into the frame and print 
the clouds very lightly. Cover the lens, remove the 
cloud-negative and insert the landscape-negative, re- 
move the mask and print the proper length of time for 
the foreground, as determined by a test-strip. The sky 
in the landscape, being dense, shields the clouds which 
are already printed into the picture, and when the print 
is developed one will have in the sky soft clouds which 
will add much to the composition of the picture. 

If an enlargement shows patches which are not sharp 
while the rest of the picture is in good focus it shows 
that the paper did not lie fiat on the support. If the 
print shows uneven markings it is doubtless due to the 
fact that the developer did not flow evenly over the sur- 
face of the paper. When making very large sizes, it is 
a good plan to immerse the print in clear water before 
putting it into the developer. If blisters occur they are 
usually due to the temperature of the developer’s being 
too great. Sixty-five degrees is as warm as ought to be 
used, nor should the temperature sink below this point, 
or cold, mealy-looking prints will be the result. Prick 
the blisters as soon as they appear and if the film seems 
very soft immerse the print in an alum fixing-bath. 

A negative which is too dense will not make a satis- 
factory enlargement. The density may be reduced by 
using ammonium persulphate, or one may make a con- 
tact transparency on a fast plate and a negative from this 
positive. By pursuing the latter course one often gets 
very fine results. 



Many of the prints sent to the contests are enlarge- 
ments from small negatives, and while some of them are 
very good indeed others show lack of knowledge of the 
process of enlarging*. 

If there are any points not made clear in the article 
on enlargements published in the December number 
and in these supplementary notes, the editor would be 
glad to answer questions on the subject and to give 
further information. 

v Improving Prints 

In the early days of photography the improving of the 
print was confined to what was known as “ spotting the 
print.” The photographer with water-color mixed with 
gum arabic worked up the light spots to match the tone 
of the print. The surface of the print was then rubbed 
with castile soap or wax. The print was put through 
a burnisher, and the glossy surface imparted entirely 
obliterated all traces of the “spotting.” 

The day of the shiny print has gone by — thanks be — 
and the improving of prints is an art in itself, for the 
work is done mostly with a brush, and on one’s artistic 
skill and dexterity in handling the brush depends the 
success of the process. 

The necessary articles are three or four pans of moist 
water-color paints, two or three fine brushes, a medium 
brush for washing in the paint and a “ mop brush ” to 
remove quickly any unsuccessful work before it has a 
chance to dry. The colors are lampblack, warm sepia, 
burnt sienna and ultramarine. By a combination of 
these colors one can match the tone of almost any print. 

The easiest paper to work on is the platinum. It seems 


particularly adapted to water-color work and the paint, 
if skilfully applied, is scarcely perceptible. The paper 
absorbs moisture very quickly, so one must be careful 
that the brush is not too full of the color. 

If the print is a gray platinum use lampblack alone. 
A saucer will do to mix the paint in. but of course a 
water-color palette is better. Take out a small portion 
of the color and put it at one side of the saucer, which 
should be tilted slightly. Add water and wash the 
paint on the clean parts of the saucer in varying’ depth 
of color. Choose the tone which seems to match the 
tone of the print the nearest, and try it on the margin 
of the print. If the tone is not correct, experiment until 
it is. It is well to begin either with the white spots 
which occur on almost every print, or else with some 
part which is at the edge of the print. In fact it is 
better for the beginner to work on spoiled prints till he 
has become a little expert in the handling of the brush 
and the selection of the proper color. In touching up 
the white spots, draw the brush to a fine point, and 
touch the spot in the center, then with a careful turn of 
the brush work the paint to the edge of the spot. In 
case the color is not dark enough, let the paint dry, then 
repeat the operation. Never apply paint to a moist, 
place on the print. 

Draperies usually require toning* down, for unless a 
costume is very somber in color some part of it is sure to 
catch the light and come out too strong, thus detracting 
attention from the principal point of interest. These 
lights are washed over with the color, using the medium- 
sized brush and applying the paint with one sweep of 
the brush after the manner of washing in skies in water- 




color painting’. Let the color dry thoroughly. If it is 
not dark enough when dry, another wash may be given ; 
but when one has become expert in the use of the brush 
and the mixing of the color one wash will he found all 
that is necessary. The strokes of the brush must be 
given evenly and lightly, taking care not to roughen the 
surface of the paper. 

The hair in a portrait usually requires some work, 
perhaps the strengthening of the shadows or the toning 


down of the highlights. Where the subject has gray 
hair it is almost necessary to tone it down in the print, 
for gray hair usually photographs much lighter than it 
really is. 

The face of a portrait should be worked on as little as 
possible, for unless one understands the work very well 
indeed, one is very likely to spoil the modeling of the 
features. Strong highlights may be toned down, and 
small defects touched out, but care must be taken to 

keep the likeness and not try to “ improve ” it too much. 

Where a white dress is worn it may be found neces- 
sary to introduce shadows as well as to strengthen those 
already in the picture. Oftentimes there are large places 
where no detail shows. This defect is easily remedied 
by introducing detail, following the lines already in the 
picture as a guide to the brush-work. 

If the background of a portrait is white and it seems 
more desirable to have a dark one, then a very simple 
way to put one in is to take finely powdered charcoal and 
mix with it just a little prepared French chalk. This 
gives a gTay tone very similar to the tone of the gray 
platinotype. Sprinkle a small quantity of the powder 
on a pad of absorbent cotton and with a circular motion 
rub the powder into the background, adding a little from 
time to time until the right tone has been reached. 
Brush oft the superfluous powder with a clean piece of 
cotton, then with a piece of artists’ kneadable rubber or 
a blunt crayon-stump blend the powder and even the 
tone. Instead of having the color uniform one may 
work in a sort of cloud effect, or a faint suggestion of 
trees or make a sketchy drawing which simply suggests 
the subject, a sort of impressionistic background. A 

little practice will enable one to put in quite effective 

If the print is a sepia, use warm sepia with the lamp- 
black, mixing until the right tone is reached. If a very 
warm tone is required add burnt sienna also, but as this 
is a strong color it takes only a trifle to change the tone 
of the paint. In working on bromide prints which are 
gray in color, a little ultramarine blue mixed with the 
lampblack seems to come nearer the tone of the print 
than does the plain lampblack. 

For gas-light prints in gray the ultramarine and lamp- 
black should be used. Prints made on matt-surface print- 
ing-out-paper take the paints well. Special colors are 
made for these prints and come on small celluloid tablets, 
several colors being included, from black to a reddish 
brown. They are used the same way as water-colors. 

If the surface of a print does not take the paint well, 
then, in order to make it “ take," the surface of the 
print is painted over with a solution of ox-gall, using* 
ox-gall, 15 grains; filtered water, 4 oz. ; 95% alcohol, 1 oz. 
Paint the print with this solution, let it dry, and it 
will take either oil- or water-color. The solution does 
not injure or change the color of the print. 




It is a good idea to have two prints when working’ 
with a brush, one as a guide to the coloring of the other. 
A glance at the untouched print shows just what has 
been done to improve the picture and what further work 
is necessary. 

Landscapes may be much improved by brush-work 
directly on the print. This is particularly noticed in the 
case of trees against the sky, snow-scenes where the 
snow lacks detail, and also marines. The work is very 
interesting, and the members of our Guild should strive 
to become experts in the improving of their prints by 
the means of brushes and water-color paints. 

Uneven Development 

Many queries are sent to the editor asking why cer- 
tain negatives show transparent spots, and why some 
parts of the negative are thinner than others. I Tints 
are usually sent to show the defects in these negatives, 
a fault which is very easily explained when one knows 
anything about the action of the developer. 

As soon as the developer is poured on the plate it be- 
gins to act, and unless the plate is evenly covered those 
parts will begin to develop which are reached first by 
the solution, hence the parts of the negative which were 
not covered by the developer till later will not be of 
the same density, for the developer goes on working on 
the denser parts and the difference is uniform no matter 
how long development is carried on to bring the thinner 


part, of the negative up to the density of the stronger. 
The transparent spots of varying sizes on a negative 
are due to the formation of air-bubbles on the plate 
when it was immersed in the developer. The bubbles 
prevent the solution from reaching the film and unless 
they are seen and broken at once they will leave on the 
negative small underdeveloped places wherever they oc- 
cur. A print which came recently had in the very center 
of the picture an oblong spot about two inches long and an 
inch wide which the amateur who sent it thought was 
due to some defect of the lens, but it was simply due to 
applying the developer unevenly. 

Sometimes a part of the plate is unevenly developed, 
the two densities of the film being divided by a distinct 
line. This shows that the developer flowed over the 
plate to a certain point and then stopped for perhaps a 
moment, just long enough for the image to begin to ap- 
pear. It then covered the rest of the plate, but not 
quickly enough for the image to develop evenly. 

There is quite a knack in applying developer evenly 
to a plate, though the beginner sometimes finds it hard 
to master. In the first place, one should use enough 
developer to cover the plate to a depth of a quarter of 
an inch or more. If too little developer is used and the 
tray does not stand perfectly level the solution does not 
cover the plate evenly. There are two ways of apply- 
ing the developer. One is to lay the plate face up in a 
tray and pour the developer over it. If this method is 




used, one should have the solution ready in a glass grad- 
uate. Tip the tray slightly and start at the upper edge 
to pour the developer with a quick, sweeping motion 
over the plate. It will immediately flow to the lower 
edge. The tray is at once reversed so as to bring the 
solution back again, then a few rocking motions will 
keep the action of the developer even. Unless the tray 
is tilted a little the developer will sometimes stop half 
or two-thirds of the way across the plate, something on 
the surface seeming to form a barrier to its further prog- 
ress. This is what causes the unevenness spoken of. 

The second way of applying the developer is by put- 
ting the solution into a tray and immersing the plate in 
it. To do this properly the edge of the plate is slipped 
into the developer so that the solution covers it at once 
and the tray rocked quickly so that development shall 
begin evenly all over the plate. Unless the plate is im- 
mersed quickly, air-bubbles are very likely to form. 

The editor uses the latter method almost exclusively, 
for unless the plates are of small size it is not easy to 
flood the plate evenly from the graduate. 

Of course where tank-development is used (and it is 
now becoming very popular) the only precaution to use 
is to take care that the ingredients of the developer are 
evenly mixed and that the plates or films are fully im- 
mersed in the liquid. In the case of very sensitive 
plates the makers recommend soaking the plate first be- 
fore placing it in the developer in order to insure the 
even development of the image. 

Tank-development is an easy way of developing one’s 
plates, but the amateur who uses tray-development really 
gets more pleasure out of his work, besides being able 
to control the development to a greater or less degree. 


Our January Contest 

It would seem that the last word had been said 
about the making of winter-scenes, and for details with 
regard to the art of making a successful snow-picture 
the member is referred to very recent numbers of 
Photo-Era where this subject has been treated. 

Many amateurs seem to hold the belief that in order 
to depict snow properly it must be rendered by perfectly 
white patches on the paper, but if they will make a 
careful study of a snow-landscape they will see that 
snow is full of detail, of soft shadows as well as strong 
highlights. Snow may appear dazzlingly white, but in 
nature nothing is really white or really black. When 
making snow-scenes one must strive to choose the time 
of day when the sun is at such an angle that it gives de- 
tail to even the smoothest field of snow. 

One should never photograph a wide expanse of snow, 
but should endeavor to have something in the fore- 
ground to give perspective to his view. If nothing else 
is available, one may tramp out a path in the smooth 
snow, making the lines lead up to some object of 
interest. One may practically draw his own snow-land- 
scape, as far as lines are concerned. 

Both the highlights and deep shadows should have 
detail, so in developing the plate do not carry develop- 
ment so far as to render the highlights harsh. Ortho- 
chromatic plates give very excellent snow-negatives, as 
do also the non-halation plates for a sunny landscape. 
These both require a little longer exposure than the 
ordinary plate, but if one takes pains to make his pic- 
tures on a day free from much wind, the exposure may 
be lengthened without danger of blurring the image. 



A rain following 1 a heavy snowstorm will often give 
one fine subjects for photography. The snow, being 
saturated with water, is translucent wherever there are 
depressions in its surface, and a u slushy road ” will some- 
times make a very interesting study. Some time ago 
we published a picture of this kind, a picture which has 
always stood as an example of what can be done with 
meager material if the amateur has the artistic eye. 

A developer which will bring* out the detail and yet 
give softness to the picture is found in the standby — 
metol-hydrochinon. Many of clie members of the Guild 
have written personal letters to the editor expressing 
thanks for the formula and sending prints to show what 
good work they had done with it. This formula has 
been published so often in this department that it does 
not seem necessary to repeat it here. 

Success Due to Photo-Era 

44 Mr. Wilfred A. French , Boston , U . S. A. 

44 Mi/ Bear Sir : 

44 I acknowledge with thanks your kindly note acquaint- 
ing me with the aware 1 of ‘ H onorable Mention 1 in the 
contest named 4 In the Country,’ and am naturally much 
pleased to find myself in the goodly company and fel- 
lowship of successful contestants for the notice of Photo- 
Era, to which I owe much of my best work. 

44 Though I am past fifty-five years of age, I have 
never had the leisure which I always coveted for pho- 
tography, and only took up the work a year ago last 
summer as a beginner. 

** The experience above first referred to will stimulate 
me to renewed effort in what I believe to be the most 
profitable pastime of all for thinking people. 

44 Cordially yours, 

44 Jos. R. Monfort.” 

Prize-Winning Prints 

Contributors to the monthly contests are aware that 
their prints, if successful in winning prizes or honorable 
mention, become the property of Photo-Era. All are 
not, however, aware of the use made of their pictures. 
They are carefully preserved and form a collection 
which is lent to prominent camera- clubs, art-museums 
and other institutions throughout the country. The 
honor of a mention is therefore almost equivalent to 
acceptance by a jury for a salon. 

Lens-Hoods for Fast Lenses 

Our English cotemporaries are full of articles about 
the necessity of providing some form of hood or shade 
for the lens. It has been found that with the modern 
anastigmats of large aperture, particularly those which 
have air-spaces, general fog is likely to occur when the 
lens is pointed towards a strong light. That the diffi- 
culty is a real one has several times been made evident 
to us from the complaints of photogTaphers who indulge 
in speed-work. One prominent newspaper-photographer 
tells us that he has been forced to give up his F/4.5 
lens for a slower one because it floods the interior of the 
camera with light which reflects from the bellows and 
degrades the image. The English solve the problem in 
many ingenious ways, one of which is the fitting of 
a square folding bellows which slips over the front of the 
lens-mount. Even an improvised paper cone will, how- 
ever, do for trial ; and two exposures made against the 
light, one without and one with the device, will give the 
camerist a surprise. After he has determined the right 
length of hood he can have a suitable one made of sheet 
brass. Probably before long our American manufac- 
turers will wake up and manufacture such an accessory. 


The Round Robin Guild 
Monthly Competitions 

Closing the last day of every month. 

Address all prints for competition to Photo-Era, 
The Sound Sobin Guild Competition, 3S3 Boyl- 
ston St , Boston, U.S.A. 


First Prize: Value $10.00. 

Second Prize: Value $5.00. 

Third Prize : Value $2.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is deemed 
worthy of reproduction with the prize-winning' picture, 
or in later issues, will be given Honorable Mention. 

Prizes may be chosen by the winner, and will be 
awarded in books, magazines, enlargements, mounts, 
photographic materials, or any article of a photographic 
or art nature which can be bought for the amount of the 
prize won by the successful competitor. 


1. These competitions are free and open to all photo- 
graphers. whether or not subscribers to Photo-Era. 

2. As many prints as desired, in any medium except 
blue-print, may be entered, but they must represent the 
unaided work of the competitor, and must be artistically 

3. The right is reserved to withhold from the com- 
petitions all prints not up to the Photo-Era standard. 

4. A package of prints will not be considered eligible un- 
less accompanied by return-postage at the rate of one cent 
for each two ounces or fraction. 

5. Each pirint entered must bear the maker's name, ad- 
dress, Guild-number, the title of the picture and the month 
in which the competition occurs, and should be accompanied 
by a letter sent separately, giving full particulars of 
date, light, plate or film, lens, stop), exposure, developer and 

6. Prints receiving prizes or Honorable Mention be- 
come the property of Photo-Era. If suitable, they will 
be reproduced, full credit in each case being' given to 
the maker. 

Subjects for Competition 

December — " Flashlights.” Closes January 31. 


January " V iuter-Scenes. Closes February 28. 
February ( opying Works of Art.” (Paintings and 
statuary.) Closes March 31. 

March — “ Artistic Interiors.” Closes April 30. 

April — “Spring-Pictures.” Closes May 31. 

— " Decorative Flower-Studies.” Closes June 30. 
June — " Water-Craft.” Closes July 31. 

July — “ Gardens.” Closes August 31. 

August — “ Wood-Interiors.” Closes September 30. 
September — “ Shore-Scenes.” Closes October 31 . 

< tctober — " Rainy I lays.” Closes November 30. 
November — “ Christmas Cards.” Closes December 31. 
December — “ Home-Scenes.” Closes January 31. 

Awards — “General” Competition 

First Prize: The Robinsons. 

Second Prize: E. R. Dickson. 

Third J’rize : J. Herbert Saunders. 

Honorable Mention: Grete Back. Beatrice B. Bell, 
Rupert Bridge, C. Burnham, Ernest M. Child. Otis L. 

Clodfelter, C. F. Dieter, W. C. Dunn, Charles II. Flood, 
J. A. Godin, Caroline C. Goll, A. B. Hargett, Suisai Itow, 
James A. Jarvis, Alexander Murray, Sinsaburo Niwa, 
Richard Pertuch, Joseph M. Rogers, Lewis C. Sholes, 
Dr. F. F. Sornberger. 


Quarterly Contests for Beginners 

In these contests all Guild members are eligible pro- 

or Honorarlk Mentions in the past, from any 
source. Aside from this restriction, the rules which govern 
the monthly competitions will be in force here and the prizes 
named below will be payable in the same manner. 

All prints submitted, except prize-winners, will be 
returned if postage is sent in a separate letter with the 
data. See rules 4 and 5. 


First Prize: Value $5.00. 

Second Prize: Value $2.50. 

Third Prize : Value $1.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is worthy will 
be given Honorable Mention. 

Subjects for Competition 


Harvest-scenes with or without figures and pictures in 
which there are fallen leaves, shadows and mist, are 


Pictures of all sorts of winter amusements outdoors, 
skating, sleighing, coasting', snowballing, hunting, or 
any other sport, as well as indoor games, will be con- 
sidered eligible. 

Sending Prints Safely 

It is strange that workers sending us prints persist in 
enclosing them between sheets of cardboard with the 
corrugations running in one direction. Photographs sent 
thus, or placed against one single sheet, very seldom 
reach their destination safely. Prints should first be 
wrapped in soft, paper, and then placed between two pieces 
of cellular board — the kind which is covered on both 
sides — with the corrugations running in opposite directions. 

How to Send Stamps 

Readers are requested not to send postage stamps 
loosely placed in the envelope either before or after the 
insertion of the. letter. In extracting the letter, the 
stamp remains in the envelope unless the recipient takes 
care to look into the envelope. Some thoughtless per- 
sons take a number of stamps and fold them so that the 
hacks shall come together, which is not so had as to 
have the hacks cover the face. If the letter happens to 
be in a warm place during transit, the stamps become 
glued together and must be soaked apart by the recip- 
ient. The proper way is to moisten a small place in the 
center of the stamp and attach it to an upper corner of 
the front page of the letter. ( )r, if there are a number 
of stamps, they can he safely enclosed in paraffine-paper, 
which prevents them from sticking to each other during 
transit in the mails. 

Answers to Correspondents 

Headers wishing information upon any point in 
connection with their photographic work are invited 
to make use of this department. Address all in- 
quiries to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 743 East 
27th Street , Paterson , N. J. If a personal reply 
is desired , a self-addressed , stamped envelope must 
be enclosed. 

F. Bernard. — Do not try to Back your Plates 
to Avoid Halation. Get the non-halation plates made 
particularly to meet this difficulty. They are a little 
more expensive than the others, but they save time and 
trouble ; besides, the chance is that in applying the 
backing you will, unless very careful, fog the plates. 

D. S. Lane. — You might be able to get a little Sil = 
ver from the Films of your Old Negatives, but 
it would be so little that it would not pay to fuss with 
them. To get the silver, first soak the film from the 
plates, add about 1 ounce of sulphuric acid to each quart 
of water and boil for several hours. Allow the silver to 
settle at the bottom of the receptacle, which precipita- 
tion will take some hours, then collect it. Unless you 
have a very large number of plates the amount of silver 
obtained would not pay for the trouble. 

Mollie Freak. — I lie Ink Stains which you were 
so unfortunate as to get on your negative may be removed 
by first placing the negative in an alum bath, washing, 
and then immersing it in a strong solution of oxalic acid. 
The acid will not injure the film unless the plate is left 
in it too long. The acid will bleach out the ink-spots, 
unless the ink contains certain chemicals which resist its 
action. Aniline inks bleach out quickly. Wash the 
plate well after taking it from the acid bath. 

Charles T. — An Opaque Mixture for blocking out 
backgrounds is made by mixing Payne’s gray and gam- 
boge in equal parts. To make a Tinted Varnish for 
masking use 12 minims of the color to each ounce of the 
varnish. Aurantia will give you a yellow tint, and as- 
phalt a brownish tone. 

S. L. Peltf.r. — You can use the Aniline Dyes for 
Tinting, though they are not so permanent as the regu- 
lar water colors. To mix, take a dram of glacial acetic 
acid to each ounce of water and add enough dye from 
the package to make the required tint. Diamond dyes 
are good aniline dyes. 

.Jennie Reed. — The powdery deposit on your So= 
dium Sulphite Crystals denotes the presence of sul- 
phate. Rinse the crystals in cold water and dry them 
quickly between blotting-papers. Keep crystals in glass 
bottles with screw-top and you will have little trouble 
of this kind. A Stock Solution means that the solu- 
tion is put up in a concentrated form and needs diluting 
for use. 

P. H. J. — Hydrochinone Stains are very hard to 
remove. Try bleaching in a solution made of potassium 
bichromate, 00 grains ; hydrochloric acid, 20 minims ; 
potassium bromide, 20 grains ; water, 4 ounces. Let the 
plate remain in this solution until the stains are re- 
moved, wash well, and redevelop in fresh developer. 

Harriet Tower. — A fine Developer for Under= 
exposed Plates is made as follows : acetonesulphite, 
ounce; edinol, l _| ounce; sodium sulphite (dry), 1 1 3 
ounces; hydrochinon, ^ ounce; potassium bromide, 30 
grains ; potassium carbonate, 3 ounces ; water, 1(5 ounces. 
'I bis is a stock solution and keeps indefinitely if tightly 
corked. To use, take one ounce of the solution to from 
five to ten of water according to the results desired. 

B. M. Weldon. — Gold=Size is a solution of copal 
gum and other resins in boiled linseed oil and turpentine. 
To use as a medium for retouching, mix equal parts of 
the gold-size and benzole. It dries within half an hour 
after its application, making it ready for the retouching- 
pencil, which it takes readily. For most cases of re- 
touching powdered pumice-stone would answer every 
purpose as a retouching-medium. Sprinkle a little on the 
negative where it is to be worked on and with the end 
of the finger rub it into the film gently with a rotary 
motion. It will roughen the film enough to take the 
pencil well, and there is this advantage in its use — if the 
retouching is not satisfactory, a piece of absorbent cot- 
ton wet with alcohol and passed across the plate will re- 
move all traces of both pumice-stone and pencil-marks. 
The retouching may then be repeated. 

L. I). L. — To make a Hardening Bath use an 
ounce of formalin to 10 ounces of water. Leave the 
plate in the solution for five minutes or a little longer. 
Unless the weather is very warm, you do not particularly 
need a hardening bath, though the immersion in the for- 
malin solution renders the plate impervious to heat and 
is beneficial in certain cases. 

D. T. O. — Paranol is the name given by Lumi^re 
Bros, to their preparation of paramidophenol. The for- 
mula for a developing-solution is : Paranol, 175 grains; 
sodium sulphite, 1% oz. ; caustic lithia, 25 grains; 
water, 8 oz. Dilute if the image comes up too quickly. 
This is not a very popular developer, and we would ad- 
vise sticking to the one which you have been using with 

Caroline F. D. — To make Gold Letters on 
Cards, rub up a bit of gold-leaf with gold-size — see 
answer to B. M. Weldon — using a thin knife such as 
a palette-knife, write with this medium on the card 
and when it is dry breathe on it hard and apply bits of 
gold-leaf, rubbing them down with the round handle of a 
knife or some piece of smooth, hard hone. The lettering 
applied in this way is permanent and will come off only 
by much handling. 

Fred. L. S. — To Remove Varnish from a 
Negative, place the plate in a tray and cover with 
methylated spirits. If the varnish does not come off 
readily, set the tray in a dish of warm water till the 
temperature of the spirits is raised, then rub the sur- 
face of the plate gently with a piece of absorbent 
cotton. Turpentine will remove varnish from negatives 
which have been varnished a long time and therefore 
have become very much hardened. 

A. D. E. — Paper Prints may be Rendered 
Translucent by laying them in a tray and covering 
them with melted paraffin wax. The tray itself must 
be hot, as the wax hardens quickly. Drain, lay face- 
down on a sheet of clean paper, and run a warm iron 
over them. 1 Tints treated in this way may be used for 
making paper negatives. For the paper negatives use 
the very thinnest printing-out paper and instead of ton- 
ing simply fix the print in hypo. Very excellent nega- 
tives may be made in this way, and if one has been 
unfortunate enough to break a valuable plate one may by 
this means make a new negative from a print. 

Leonard F. — To Bleach the Image on Bromide 
Paper when certain parts of it have been out= 
lined in lndia=ink, make up a solution of tliiocarba- 
mide, 120 grains; nitric acid, 2 drams; water, 10 oz. 
Immerse the print in this solution until all of the detail is 
bleached out. Wash well and dry. The result will 
have the outline-drawing made by the India-ink and the 
rest of the paper will be white. This method is used in 
art-schools and is a fine way to study drawing to learn 
what to leave out. 



Address all prints for criticism, enclosing return 
postage at the rate of one cent for each two ounces 
or fraction thereof, to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 
743 East 27th St., Paterson, N. J. Prints must 
bear the maker's name and address, and should be 
accompanied by a letter, sent separately, giving full 
particulars of date, light, plate or flm, stop, expo- 
sure, developer and printing-process. 

“ The Path Through the Woods.” M. B. — The 
path portrayed in this picture cuts the print directly in 
half so that there are two pictures, one each side of the 
path. The camera was placed in a wrong 1 position for 
this sort of subject. Instead of being directly in the 
center of the path it should have been placed a little to 
one side, thus giving better lines and also avoiding the 
wide stretch in the foreground which quickly dwindles 
to nothing in the middle distance. Many pictures of 
this kind are sent in for criticism, the replies usually be- 
ing given by mail. So many are received of this class 
that it seems wise to speak of them as types to be 
avoided. The picture is printed in an oval which further 
detracts from its appearance. One should never use an 

oval or round cut-out unless the lines in the picture 
conform to the lines of the cut-out. In this picture 
the lines are straight, being the trunks of trees at 
either side of the path. The tone of the print is very 
good and the technique of the negative all that could 
be desired. The fault is in the treatment of the sub- 

“Fruit-Study.” T. C. E. — This picture shows a 
basket tipped over so that from it has rolled a portion 
of its contents, big, round, appetizing-looking apples. 
The picture lias been so well lighted that the apples 
have the round appearance of the real fruit, the shadows 
are soft and yet with fine gradations, and the highlights 
are full of detail. Our member is to be congratulated 
on having made so good a study of a difficult subject. 
The fault of this picture lies in the uniform tone of the 
table on which the fruit is lying and of the background. 
It is as though both were one and the same, there being 
no line to show where table ends and background be- 
gins. This fault can be remedied by working on the 
background, either reducing it in tone or else making it 
lighter in color than the table. The former would be 
the more artistic treatment, and one could use a reducer 
applied with a brush, or else a chamois dipped in alcohol, 
rubbing the film gently till part of the density is re- 
moved. The tone of this print, a reddish brown, is 
very good, being in keeping with the subject. 

Plate-Speeds for Exposure-Guide on Following Page 

Class 1/3 

Lumi&re Sigma 

I.umiere Non-Halation Sigma 

Class 1/2 

Barnet Super-Speed Ortho 
Ilford Monarch 

Class 3/4 

Barnet Red Seal 
Ilford Zenith 
Imperial Flashlight 
Eastman Speed-Film 

Class 1 


Ansco Film, N. C. and Vidil 
Barnet Extra Rapid 
Barnet Ortho Extra Rapid 
Barnet Studio 
Cramer Crown 
Cramer Crown Non-Halation 
Cramer Instantaneous Iso 
Cramer Inst. Iso Non-Halation 
Cramer Isonon 
Ensign Film 

Hammer Special Extra Fast 
Imperial Special Sensitive 
Imperial Non-Filter 
Imperial Orthochrome Special 

Kodak N. C. Film 
Lumi&re Film 

Premo Film Pack 
Seed Gilt Edge 27 

Standard Imperial Portrait 
Standard Polychrome 
Stanley Regular 

Wellington Extra Speedy 
Wellington Film 

Class 1 1/4 

Cramer Banner X 
Cramer Banner X Non-Halation 
Eastman Extra Rapid 
Hammer Extra Fast 
Hammer Extra Fast Ortho 
Hammer Non-Halation 
Hammer Non-Halation Ortho 
Seed 26x 
Seed C. Ortho 
Seed L. Ortho 
Seed Non-Halation 
Seed Non-IIalation Ortho 
Standard Extra 
Standard Orthonon 
Wellington Speedy 
Wellington Iso Speedy 

Class 1 1/2 

LumRre Ortho A 
Lumi&re Ortho B 

Class 2 

Cramer Medium Iso 

Cramer Medium Iso Non-Halation 

Cramer Trichromatic 

Ilford Rapid Chromatic 

Ilford Special Rapid 

Imperial Special Rapid 

Class 2 1/2 

Barnet Medium 
Barnet Ortho Medium 
Cramer Anchor 
Hammer Fast 
Seed 23 

Lumifere Panchro C 
Class 3 
Wellington Landscape 

Class 4 

Stanley Commercial 
Ilford ( 'hromatic 
Ilford Empress 

Class 5 

Cramer Commercial 
Hammer Slow 
Hammer Slow Ortho 
Wellington Ortho Process 

Class 8 

Cramer Slow Iso 

Cramer Slow Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford < h'dinary 

Class 12 

Cramer Contrast 
Ilford Halftone 

Seed Process 

Class 100 

Lumifere Autochrome 

Exposure-Guide for January 


Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground; river-scenes; figure- 
studies in the open ; light-colored buildings and monuments ; wet street- 
scenes, with stop F/8 (U. S. No. 4) on Class 1 plates. 

For other stops multiply by the 
number in third column. 











U. S. 1 

X 1/4 

11 A.M. to 1 P.M. 







U. S.2 

X 1/2 

10 a.m. and 2 p.m. 







U. S. 2.4 

X 5/8 

9 a.m. and 3 p.m. 





1 1/3 


U. S. 3 

X 3/4 


U. S. 8 

X 2 

The exposures given are intended merely as a basis for trial, and 

will vary with latitude and other conditions, hut they should give 
full detail in the shadows, except when iso or ortho plates are used 


U. S. 16 

X 4 

without a screen, when the exposure should be doubled, unless the 


U. S. 32 

X 8 

light itself is yellow. 

Color-sensitive plates in such a case are much 

faster than plain plates. 


U. S. 64 

X 16 

SUBJECTS. For other subjects, multiply the exposure for average landscape by the 
number given for the class of subject. 

1/8 Studies of sky and white clouds. 

1/4 Open views of sea and sky ; very distant 
landscapes ; studies of rather heavy 
clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. 

12 Open landscapes without foreground ; open 
beach, harbor and shipping-scenes ; 
yachts under sail ; very light-colored 
objects ; studies of dark clouds ; snow- 
scenes with no dark objects ; most tele- 
photo subjects outdoors ; wooded hills 
not far distant from lens. 

2 Landscapes with medium foreground ; 
landscapes in fog or mist; buildings 
showing both sunny and shady sides ; 
well-lighted street-scenes ; persons, ani- 
mals and moving objects at least thirty 
feet away from the camera. 

4 Landscapes with heavy foreground ; build- 
ings or trees occupying most of the 
picture ; brook-scenes with heavy foli- 
age ; shipping about the docks ; red 
brick buildings and other dark objects ; 
groups outdoors in the shade. 

8 Portraits outdoors in the shade ; very dark 
near objects, particularly when the 
image of the object nearly tills the plate 
and full shadow-detail is required. 

16 Badly-lighted river-hanks, ravines, glades 
and under the trees. 

32 Wood-interiors not open to sky and with 
dark soil or pine-needles. 

48 Average indoor portraits in well lighted 
room, light surroundings, big window 
and white reflector. 

PLATES. \\ lien plates other than those in Class I are used, the exposure indicated above 
must be multiplied by the number given at the head of the class. 



With Reviews of Foreign Progress and Investigation 

Conducted by MALCOLM DEAN MILLER. A.B., M.D. 

Readers are encouraged to contribute their favorite methods for publication in this department 
Address all such communications to The Crucible, PHOTO-ERA, 383 Boylston Street, Boston 

Enlarging on Monox Bromide Paper 

To supplement the article on bromide enlarging' in 
the December number of Photo-Era we give herewith 
some pointers on working Monox, the popular bromide 
paper manufactured by the Defender Photo-Supply Com- 
pany. They are partly from the Defender Tipsier and 
partly from the experience of a large user of the paper. 

Regarding' the selection of the grade of paper, this 
worker advises the average amateur to choose the rough 
gTade for most of his work, because enlargements, which 
should properly be framed and viewed at a distance, carry 
sufficient detail on such a surface. Another point is, 
the superior adaptability of its texture to after-work 
such as pencil- or crayon-finishing or tinting with water- 
colors. If. however, the enlargement is relatively small, 
that is, under 8x10, it is better to use either the Ve- 
lours or the Lustre, both of which preserve details in the 
shadows better than the Matte surface. For sepia tones, 
the Buff paper is unquestionably the best. It is made 
in the hard grade only ; but this is no drawback, be- 
cause in the process of redeveloping if any portions of 
the highlights receive too much exposure they become 
toned, thus degrading the purity of the whites. Sepia 
prints tend to be flat unless a fairly strong negative is 
used. In fact, the soft grades of paper are suitable only 
for negatives which are too harsh and contrasty to make 
good contact prints; and, as their keeping-quality is not 
equal to that of the slower-printing grade, it is better 
to work for softness with the hard paper by modifying 
exposure and development. This is particularly the 
case if the worker makes negatives very fully timed and 
not over-developed, in other words, especially for en- 

Any' good paper-developer will yield good prints on 
Monox. but it is an advantage to use the following for- 
mulas. which are not only well adapted to give black 
tones but also to avoid a yellowish tone in redevelop- 


Water 82 ounces 

Metol 5 grains 

Hyclroquinone fi2 grains 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 1)2 grains 

Sodium carbonate (dried) 305 grains 

Potassium bromide 183 grains 

If the resulting sepia tone is too yellow, a better result 
may sometimes be had from the Argo sepia developer 

formula : 

Wat^r 1 6 ounces 

Metol .45 grains 

Hydroquinone 15 grains 

Sodium sulphite (anhydrous) 200 grains 

Sodium carbonate (diied) 100 grains 

Potassium bromide 10', solution 32 drops 

Tli is formula may be diluted with water for Monox so 
that development takes place in from 30 to 45 seconds, 
because full exposure and quick development are essen- 

tial to produce good sepias. It is the excess of hydro- 
quinone in a formula which causes the sickly yellow color 
which has been the bane of the redevelopment process. 

After the print has reached full strength in the de- 
veloper, give it two or three rinses in clear water and 
then immerse in the acid fixing-bath for fifteen minutes. 
Prints during fixing must not be exposed to white light 
or fog is sure to result. The next step is to rinse the 
print in several changes and then fix again for five min- 
utes in a plain hypo bath in the proportion of one ounce 
of hypo to sixteen of water. Complete elimination of 
the hypo is ensured by washing by hand in trays, giving 
twelve changes of five minutes each. 

The bleach ing-batli varies from the usual formula in 

containing ammonia. This addition is of the greatest 
importance for the avoidance of yellow tones. 

Water 32 ounces 

Potassium ferricyanide 210 grains 

Potassium bromide 90 grains 

Commercial stronger ammonia (5 drops 

The prints are left in this solution until bleaching stops, 
which will be in two or three minutes. They are then 
washed in two changes of water and redeveloped in : 

\\ ater 32 ounces 

Saturated solution of sodium sulphide 1 dram 

The sulphide must be fresh, because stale sulphide de- 
composes partly into hypo and dissolves the halftones of 
the image. 

When redevelopment is complete, wash for half an 
hour in running water or in six five-minute changes and 
dry as usual. 

Why Prints Fade 

In order to ensure prints being as permanent as the 
process will allow, the causes of fading must he under- 
stood, so that they may be guarded against, as far as 
possible. Some of these lie outside the control of the 
photographer altogether. An image which consists of 
metallic silver, such as the image on a properly-made 
bromide or gaslight print, cannot be expected to be per- 
manent in an atmosphere containing, for example, sulphu- 
reted hydrogen, which, we know, attacks silver. But 
at least we may take care that our prints do not contain 
within themselves the germs of alteration. 

The prints which provide the greatest number of ex- 
amples of fading are those on p.o.p., not because p.o.p. 
is less permanent than the other forms of silver printing, 
but because to make it permanent calls for more care. 
The usual appearance of a p.o.p. print, that has faded is 
that while the dark parts have gone lighter in color, the 
light parts have become yellow or brown. 

This change is generally attributed to insufficient 
washing after fixing, and this is no doubt one of the 
causes, but not the only one. An impure hypo-bath is 
very likely to cause fading. Any trace of acidity in the 
prints, caused by toning in an acid solution, such as that 
given for platinum toning, must he got rid of by means 

of a bath of a weak solution of sodium carbonate before 
they are put into the hypo. Any trace of alum in the 
hypo, or in the prints when they are put into the 
hypo, will cause it. The use of a combined toning-and- 
fixing' bath is a frequent source of this form of fading, 
and it may be brought about by impurities in the toning- 
solution, so that there are a whole string of causes 
among which we may seek for that of the fading of the 
particular prints in question. 

However thoroughly the different operations may have 
been carried out, the prints may be made to fade from 
unsuitable after-treatment. Ordinary gum for mount- 
ing will soon affect the picture, and any mountant of an 
acid character will be very injurious. Some of the very 
oldest photographs in existence were mounted with gum, 
by their edges, and in many of these it is found that the 
picture, although in full strength elsewhere, has faded 
right away where the prints have been gummed. 

When dark patches form on p.o.p., gaslight, or bro- 
mide prints it is a sign that they have not been properly 

Bromide prints, as a whole, are remarkably permanent, 
and gaslight prints little less so. Provided they have 
been thoroughly fixed and thoroughly washed they show 
little tendency to fade. If the hypo-bath is cloudy it is a 
sign that alum or acid has reached it. and the perma- 
nence of prints fixed in it will be doubtful. 

When hypo-alum is applied to the finished print for 
toning purposes there is not the same risk, and such 
prints, if fully toned, and sulphide-toned prints gener- 
ally, seem to be quite as permanent as any silver prints 
that have not been toned, if. indeed, they are not more so. 

The other tuning-processes for bromide prints rest 
under a stigma. Uranium toning gives pictures that 
alter in a very few months, and copper toning seems to 
be the same. 

As far as less well-known printing methods are con- 
cerned, the writer has some pieces of perfectly blank 
white paper which were once excellent “ Kallitype ” 
prints, and he has seen blue prints which were rapidly 
tending the same way. 

It may be well to state here that silver prints which 
have badly faded can often lie photographed so as to give 
quite bright strong negatives. Intensification with mer- 
cury and ammonia, just as a negative is intensified, will 
restore them to a great extent, and bleaching in ferri- 
cyanide and bromide, as in sulphur toning, followed by 
redevelopment with amidol, is also an excellent method 
for improving their appearance. It is best to photo- 
graph them before using any method involving rewet- 

Platinotype is rightly regarded as one of the most 
permanent of processes, yet platinum prints which have 
altered considerably in appearance are not at all uncom- 
mon. The cause of the alteration is to be found in in- 
sufficient washing in weak acid before washing in 
water. The image on the paper has not altered in such 
cases, but the paper itself has taken on a yellowish tint, 
which quite spoils the appearance of the picture. 

Fortunately, it is quite an easy matter to restore a 
platinum print which has yellowed. A weak bath of 
hypochlorite of lime is found to remove the yellowness, 
and to bring back the print to its original condition. 

This applies only to the pure print in platinum, in 
which the image is a black one. There are a number of 
dodges for getting sepia, brown and even red tones by 
various additions to the developer, and by using it hot. 
The prints so made are often very fine in appearance, but 
it must not be supposed that they have the permanence 
of the black prints. A method of developing in which 
salts of lead, mercury and copper are all used lias given 

the writer prints which faded to a weak yellowish gray 
in a very few months. In fact, if half the print is cov- 
ered with a piece of black paper, and it is exposed to 
daylight under a piece of glass for three or four days 
only, a perceptible change takes place. 

It may be that prints so made are not properly fixed. 
A very thorough treatment with acid, such as could be 
given to the black-tone prints without harm, would take 
all the warmth of tone out of these, and so they can only 
be washed two or three times in extremely weak acid. 
Whatever the cause, those who want the most thor- 
ough permanence that they can get should employ the 
black-tone platinum process only. 

One hears sometimes of carbon prints which have yel- 
lowed, and it has been attributed to the presence of bi- 
chromate in the paper, from the alum bath’s having 
been omitted, or not applied for a sufficient length of 
time. The writer has many carbon prints made by him- 
self and by others which are twenty years old or more, 
but looking through them for the purposes of this article, 
he can find none which suggest that any such alteration 
has taken place. — Photography. 

Copying Printed Matter 

When printed matter is being photographed, as, for 
example, when an article in a newspaper or a book is to 
be copied, it will sometimes be found that the printing 
on the back shows through the paper. The thinner 
and flimsier the paper, of course, the more this will be 
visible. To prevent it from showing in the photograph, 
the printed matter should be laid down on a clean piece 
of glass and backed up with a sheet of black paper or a 
piece of black velvet, which is pressed closely into con- 
tact with it. Against this the print on the reverse side 
of the paper will not show at all, whereas if the print 
had been backed up with white paper, it would have 
been very visible. In some printed matter the type has 
been jammed into the paper in such a way that from 
the back the lettering stands out in relief. This can be 
got rid of by very slightly dampening the paper and 
ironing it. — Photography. 

Pyro for Bromide Prints 

In The Amateur Photographer , Mr. D. Ireland gives a 
method for using pyro as a developer for bromide prints. 
He states that his formula yields prints of very rich 
quality and capable of giving superior results when 
toned in the sulphide-bath. The solutions are : 

A — Water 20 ounces 

Potass, metabisulphite % ounce 

Sod. sulphite (anhydrous) 3 ounces 

Pyro 100 grains 

B — Water 20 ounces 

Sodium carbonate 4 ounces 

C — Water 20 ounces 

Common salt 2 ounces 

Sulphuric acid (S. G. 1.84) 1 ounce 

H — Potass, permanganate 5% solution 

For use, take equal parts of A. B, and C and prepare 
a solution, E. as follows : into 20 ounces of water mix 
V 2 ounce of C and % dram of I). This, as well as the 
developer, must be used fresh and then thrown away. 

The developed print is rinsed in clear water and then 
immersed in E for thirty seconds, quickly rinsed and 
fixed in an acid hypo. 

The same method may be used for lantern-slides ex- 
cept for those of the same emulsion as gaslight-papers, 
in which case solution C is omitted from the developer. 




William H. Phillips’ eighteen Spanish views offer 
much to admire, although, of necessity, they are mostly 
of an architectural character. The Iberian peninsula 
yields little in the way of natural beauty except in the 
north, where the Pyrenees separate the country from 
France, in the charming province of Andalusia, and 
among- the Guadarrama range of mountains in the cen- 
tral part of the kingdom. The absence of pictures of 
interesting natural scenery is further explained by Mr. 
Phillips in his admirable paper. Mr. Phillips’ landscape- 
work, as has been exemplified many times in Photo- 
Era, is characterized by spacious foregrounds which 
contribute largely to the pictorial effect. This feature 
also marks most of his Spanish views, and in every case 
the raison d'etre is apparent. General information regard- 
ing the Spanish pictures in this issue will be found in Mr. 
Phillips’ article. The accompanying illustrations were 
made from enlarged prints on smooth bromide paper, and 
average S x 10 inches in size. The magnificent print of 
the Alcazar of Segovia was an 11x14 inch print on rough 
sepia bromide, and the tomb in the Museum at Burgos 
was a 9 x 13 inch gaslight print. Mr. Phillips used a 
No. 0 Goerz Dagor lens. 

As our frontispiece this month we offer an imposing- 
view of the highly picturesque palace of Moorish ori- 
gin — the Alcazar of Segovia. With an eye to the 
picturesque the artist chose a view-point not approved 
by the average photographer, and the result is an unusu- 
ally striking portrayal of this ancient edifice. 

The little town of Triana on the Guadalquivir, oppo- 
site Seville, page 4. is inhabited by gipsies and poor 
folk, and the prudent camerist is content with “ taking 
it ” at a safe distance. Like similar places, it is pictur- 
esque and worthy to be recorded. 

Page 5 portrays the Cloisters of Montserrat. The old 
monastery nestles among the crags of a huge, isolated 
rock near Barcelona, and is a grateful subject for the 
camera, but we have rarely seen so original a picture as 
has been Mr. Phillips’ good fortune to secure. 

The Hall of the Ambassadors of the Alhambra offers 
considerable difficulty to the camerist, as it is poorly 
lighted. Nevertheless, the artist has produced a picture 
of rare charm, as shown on page 7. Exposure, 15 seconds. 

The Court of the Lions with its surrounding rows of 
slender colonnades is a difficult photographic subject — 
particularly when the sun pours its brilliant rays into the 
enclosure and produces strong lights and shadows. In 
Mr. Phillips’ picture, page 7, one catches only a glimpse 
of the Court of the Lions. The illusion of hot, pulsating 
solar rays has been presented with a discreet regard for 
truth. The Moorish ornamentation is also well shown. 

The human element adds much to the pictorial in- 
terest of the scene at Cadiz, page 9. This picture, 
together with many others by Mr. Phillips in which the 
foreground occupies a large section of the view, should 
stimulate eamerists not to tilt their instruments except 
under certain conditions. First, it encourages the inclu- 
sion of an interesting foreground where it exists, and, 
secondly, it ensures the reetilinearity of vertical archi- 
tectural lines — provided, of course, the camera is held 
or placed with horizontal accuracy. 

*' The Oyster-Seller,” page 9, was taken on a side- 
street off the Plaza Nueva in Barcelona, and at the 
invitation of the subject who, like most Catalonians, was 

of a very jovial disposition. In spite of the numerous 
white masses, which made an harmonious composition 
difficult, the artist has been extremely successful. 

Page 10 presents a view which is almost impossible 
to vary from the conventional photograph of the Peina- 
dor de la Reina, more popularly, although less correctly, 
known by the title attached to this picture, the great 
charm of which will he found in the exquisite softness 
and delicacy of the artistic portrayal. 

The cathedrals of Spain abound in tombs and monu- 
ments which bear testimony to the wonderfull skill of 
the early Spanish sculptures. A tomb in the Provincial 
Museum at Burgos, page 12, is an example. Many of 
these are poorly lighted or inaccessible. Mr. Phillips’ 
success in dealing with such difficult subjects is here 
well exemplified. He prefers to present a well-modu- 
lated portrayal, and discreetly avoids strong contrasts 
which would destroy one's enjoyment of the beautiful 
workmanship of these ancient sculptors. 

The Garden of Linderaja (page 14) or, as art-authori- 
ties prefer to call it., “ El Patio de Daraxa,” will be 
forever associated with Washington Irving, who, during 
his sojourn in Granada, occupied a little room which 
looked out upon this charming little garden, and here he 
wrote his fascinating tales of Alhambra. Mr. Phillips 
deserves the thanks of all lovers of Moorish art in secur- 
ing so original and artistic a view of one of the gems of 
this ancient palace, which is fast crumbling away owing 
to almost criminal neglect of the Spanish government in 
not providing funds for its preservation. 5 seconds. 

One of the best-known spots in the Alhambra is the 
little court variously known as the “ Court of the Myr- 
tles,” “ The Fish-Pond ” or “ The Court of Oranges,” 
as shown in Mr. Phillips’ picture on page 15. The dark 
mass in the center of the picture is the Hall of the 

Toledo is, perhaps, the most picturesque city in all 
Spain. The picture on page 15 shows a section of the 
Bridge of Alcantara and the old Moorish wall, a severe 
but appropriate background for the group of sheep hap- 
pily portrayed by our camerist. The whole scene is one 
of extreme originality and pictorial effect. 

In the Cathedral of Avila, page 17, we are shown how 
striking a picture may be produced with simple archi- 
tectural means. There is unity and balance in this sim- 
ple arrangement, and the result, in a pictorial sense, is 
more satisfactory than a conventional view of the nave 
of the cathedral itself. A print of this picture, with 
three others by Mr. Phillips, forms a notable feature of 
the Seventh American Photographic Salon. 

We sincerely doubt that so novel a view of Saragossa’s 
great, cathedrals has ever before been taken as shown 
on page 20. This is a rare artistic performance — the 
rocky shore of the Ebro, followed by the. ancient Puente 
de Piedra and culminating with the domes and spires of 
“Nuestra SefSora del Pilar.” 

The interior of the Mosque at Cordova, also on page 
20, severely tests the skill of the photographer on 
account of the strong light-contrasts of the columns and 
arches ; but Mr. Phillips was evidently not of this 
opinion, for he has given us a well-modulated picture 
of this bewildering mass of Moorish architecture. His 
simple foreground serves to emphasize the height of 
the columns. Exposure, 5 minutes. 


The group of 11 Young Americans,” page 11, portrays 
young Hopi children. No room was found for it in the 
article by Mr. Monsen in the October Photo-Era. 

Our insert this month is devoted to a characteristic 
picture illustrating the marked poetic quality of the 
pictorial work of a prominent member of the Buffalo 
Camera Club, Mr. W. II. Kunz, the official photographer 
of the National Arts Publishing Company, Boston, 
Mass. Data : 18 inch single Waterbury landscape-lens, 
made to work at F/22, but altered to F/8 ; (cost $2.00) ; 
8 A.M. foggy; Standard Polychrome plate, 5x7 inches; 
Ys second cap-exposure; no screen; oil-print 11 x 14 
inches from portion of negative about 4 x 0 inches. 

In “Ghetto Children,” page 23, C. F. Dieter presents 
an interesting feature of our alien population. There is 
always a charm about innocent childhood, and in this 
case the little band seems, at least, tractable and peace- 
ably disposed. Happily the spirit of hoodlumism does 
not appear to pervade this juvenile group. The expres- 
sion on the little faces is worthy of note. Technically 
the picture leaves much to be desired — a happier ar- 
rangement of the models, and a full exposure. Data : 
Oct. 3, 1910, 11 a.m. ; light clouds; Kodak with anas- 
tigmat lens ; N. C. Film ; pyro tank -development ; 
Velvet Velox print 3 x 3 inches. 

Our Monthly Competition 

Thf, September competition, “ General,” resulted in a 
Hood of contributions from all parts of the world, the 
pictures being of a general character. The verdict of 
the jury was, as usual, the result of very careful, con- 
scientious and unbiased consideration. The element of 
novelty was taken into account, and it is hoped that our 
readers will be pleased with the pictures which have 
been successful in this contest. 

The picture winning the first prize, page 29, stirs the 
imagination with its bigness and with its suggestion of 
the endless prairie. The lonely horseman gazing over 
the vast plain is well placed and the composition is sim- 
ple, yet forceful. Data: September, 2 jp.m. ; Reflex 
Camera; Voigtliinder & Sons’ Collinear, Ser. II, No. 4; 
focus, 7 7 /s inches; about Mioo second; film-pack 3 (4 x 
5Yj ; pyro tank-developer; 11 x 14 enlargement on 
Eastman’s Royal Bromide paper, printed through fine 
bolting-cloth ; Nepera developer. 

The significance of a lofty, classic portico has never 
been more admirably interpreted than by E. R. Dickson 
in his picture of the library, Columbia University, 
page 31. The weird effect produced by electric light 
seems eminently fitted to reveal the architectural gran- 
deur of these noble Ionic columns. The picture is superbly 
spaced, and the dark masses at the left form an excellent 
foil to the group of light-toned granite shafts. Data: 
8 x 10 Seneca; & Smith Semi-Achromatic 
lens, 18-inch focus; F/8; May, 10 P.M. ; Standard Or- 
thonon ; electric illumination; 28 minutes; but the 
shutter was closed at frequent intervals during the pass- 
ing of surface-cars ; Rodinal ; 8 x 10 American Platinum, 
in delicate sepia. 

Among the younger professional practitioners in Ger- 
many who are rapidly forging to the front is Miss Grete 
Back, of Dresden, whose picture, page 30, reveals inter- 
pretive and technical ability of a high order. It is a 
strong character-study, this, and as a performance meas- 
ures up to the well-known level of distinguished workers 
of the opposite sex. It. is to be regretted, however, 
that the left eye of the model is lost against file mass of 
dark hair — perhaps the only flaw in this otherwise 
superb portrait-study. Data: Half-plate ( T' i x 6! 1>) 
hand-camera ; Carl Zeiss Tessar lens ; 25 cm. (10 inches) ; 
F/4.5; April, about 11 a.m.; light., dull -a rainy day; 

about 5 seconds ; plate, Jahr ; developer, Edinol ; print- 
ing-medium, Platin — a reddish sepia. 

There is a true al fresco feeling in Mr. Saunders’ 
picture, page 32. By using a large stop the artist im- 
parted to the figures desirable prominence, and aplastic 
roundness and stereoscopic quality delightful to see. The 
distribution of light shows rare artistic judgment, and 
the soft flesh-tones assume a life-like appearance in the 
original sepia print. The arrangement and balance of 
the two lads, as well as the harmonious tonal effect, are 
extremely fine. The picture, however, would gain in 
simplicity and balance if the portion containing the tree 
at the left were cut off. Data: Euryplan lens, F/5.6 
used with full aperture ; Imperial S. S. Orthochrome 
plate; August, 1910, nearing sunset; 4io second; pyro- 
soda developer; 4(4 x 5 (h sepia print on Leto C paper. 

The work of Richard Pertuch covers a wide range of 
subjects, and each effort is conceived in a true artistic 
spirit. “ Dawn of Day,” page 33, is in his best vein. 
The serenity of the scene, and the perfect, harmonious 
adjustment of the simple means at the artist’s disposal 
are worthy of high praise. Data: August 10. 1910, at 
5.30 a.m.; lens at F/8 ; Yl(> second ; 5x7 enlargement 
on Cyko paper. 

“The Dolls’ School,” page 34, is a clever and tasteful 
composition. Notice with what excellent judgment the 
“pupils” have been arranged — illustrating a scale of 
gradations with the highest light in the middle and end- 
ing with a halftone. In true masterly style the princi- 
pal figure is placed at the opposite end of the picture, 
and there is your balance ! While we object, on prin- 
ciple, to the prevailing fashion of attaching to a child’s 
head an ugly, fantastic hair-ribbon, out of all harmony 
with the victim and with nature, we find that in 
Mr. Sholes’ picture the huge superstructure serves to 
relieve the threatening monotony of the window-curtain, 
and, thank heaven ! it is black and not white. Data : Feb- 
ruary, 1910, at 10 A.M. ; light from three windows of bay- 
window ; strong sun out of doors ; reflector to the right 
of camera at an angle of 45° with subject; GoerzDagor; 
U. S. 4 ; exposure, 1 second ; Seed Ortho ; pyro devel- 
oper ; print, Cyko Buff ; M. Q. developer; redeveloped 
with Cyko Redeveloper; waxed with Nepera Waxing- 
solution to brighten shadow-detail. 

Sinsaburo Niwa of Kioto, Japan, sent us several spec- 
imens of interesting native types, of which “ A Japa- 
nese Country-Girl,” page 46. is the best. The path at 
the left seems out of place, yet to trim it off would des- 
troy the balance of the figure. Data : June 6, 1909 ; 
10 a.m. ; sunlight ; 6(/o inch Plantograph lens ; full 
opening; Yin second; Ilford Special Rapid plate ; pyro ; 
enlargement on Wellington Bromide 4 1 i* x 7 inches. 

Admirable rendition of tone-values is the dominant 
technical merit of Mr. Rogers’ culinary autocrat, page 40. 
The attitude of the model may signify a dictatorial dis- 
position. but the facial expression certainly suggests a 
happy, jovial nature. Data: 5x7 Seneca view-camera ; 
Pinkham A Smith Semi-Achromatic lens, about 1 1 4 •> 
inch focus; F/ll ; March, 2 P.M. ; hazy sunlight ; (.^sec- 
ond; Seed N. H. Ortho plate ; pyro-soda developer ; Ar- 
tura Iris print. 

( )n page 47. also on the front-cover, is presented a 
picture of an ideal winter-day. One can almost sense 
the crisp, invigorating air about to be enjoyed by the 
warmly-clad youngster, who, with hand on the door- 
handle, seems to typify the opening' of the door to the 
new year. Data : January ; good light ; Vf, second ; 
Goerz Dagor lens, 7 inches; F/0 8; 5 x 7 Seed 27 plate; 
pyro; print on Cyko Normal. Negative and print abso- 
lutely untouched — a superb specimen of straight photo- 
graphy. The model is Mr. Flood’s little son. 



E. O. HOPPE. F. R. P. S. 

This week saw the opening of three very interesting- 
one-man shows in London. At the Little Gallery in 
Long' Acre we have the fine display of some seventy 
masterly portraits by Rudolph Duehrkoop. at the Royal 
Photographic Society’s rooms the splendid collection of 
John M. Whitehead’s exquisite examples of flower-, fruit- 
and landscape-work, and at the Camera Club a combined 
exposition by Cocks — ptre et Jils. 

While the first two shows are characterized as being’ 
representative of the so-called straight or pure photo- 
gTaphv, every print in the Cocks exposition has been 
produced by a hand-controlled process, the Bromoil, in 
fact. 1 have written about my friend Duehrkoop on so 
many occasions, in Photo-Era and elsewhere, and his 
work is so well known in America that l need not dwell 
here upon the beauty and the almost amazing’ versatility 
of his portraiture. Suffice it to say that each of the 
man} 7 prints in the gallery is a gem to be well worth the 
closest study of every portraitist with serious artistic aims. 

The dozen fine pictures at the Salon and at the Royal 
this year by Robert M. Cocks and R. Lincoln Cocks led 
one to anticipate something strong in the near future. 
The exposition of their work now being held at the 
Camera Club has fully justified what has been expected. 
Even if they make no further advance — which is very 
unlikely — they need fear little rivalry, for they hold a 
position unique in the photographic world of England. 
The spacious exposition-room has three of its walls broken 
up by doors, windows and fireplaces which give a very 
satisfactory series of panels upon which the different 
groups of pictures easily arrange themselves and are iso- 
lated from those with which they might otherwise clash. 
This gives an immediate impression of complete satis- 
faction, the harmonious whole being restful to the ob- 
server and at the same time showing each picture to its 
best advantage. The pictures have been mounted in 
three styles of multimounts, all of delicate tones which 
in many cases merge one into another so that they are 
scarcely noticeable until the picture is closely inspected, 
and then in no way detract from the picture itself but 
give it an added charm — a style of mounting which as 
well as being effective on an exposition-wall seems par- 
ticularly adapted to home-decoration. Nearly all the 
subjects are of an Eastern character, the masterly render- 
ing of the play of sunlight being one of the special 
beauties of the pictures. As I have been fortunate 
enough to have obtained some of these striking pictures 
for reproduction, I defer commenting upon them in 
detail until they shall appear in Photo-Era. 

Sincere earnestness is everywhere apparent as soon as 
a close inspection of the work of John M. Whitehead is 
made. Nothing has been left to chance ; nothing weak 
or vacillating, nothing bizarre or sensational, nothing 
but good, sound, honest work is to be found on the walls 
of his present show at the Royal Photographic Society. 
Every picture indicates that the hand of a master was 
used in its making. The preconceived idea, the firm 
decision, is everywhere in evidence. There is no pren- 
tice-work shown ; ever}' frame contains a masterpiece 
which insists on individual attention. Not one of these 
pictures can be passed ; each one calls you with a voice 
that has such charm that it cannot be neglected. Be 
the voice soft and low or strong and sonorous it is always 
sweet and insistent in its call. Platinum has been used 
exclusively as the printing-process and shows in a most 

striking manner the wide range of possibilities possessed 
by this process in the hands of an artist. With great 
skill, Mr. Whitehead has used his medium in every case 
to suit the particular picture under treatment. Tones 
and tone-values have not only received very close study 
but have been most successfully rendered in each in- 
stance, there being no single case of falsity but much 
evidence of infinite care and attention to render u truth 
and beauty beautifully true.” Correct tonality is a 
marked characteristic here. 1 am able to send two ex- 
amples of Mr. Whitehead’s fine work for a future issue. 

Two Englishmen have been honored by the Vienna 
Plioto-Club by invitations to hold a special exposition of 
their work in Vienna. They are Mr. Malcolm Arbuth- 
not and the writer. The first exposition took place in 
November and the other one during December. The 
thing has been done very thoroughly, and decoration of 
the gallery, display of pictures and printing of the cata- 
log’s were very artistically carried out. Up to this mo- 
ment, I hear that many prints have been sold. 

I am looking forward with very much pleasure and 
considerable interest to a collection of prints by Amer- 
ican workers which we are to have here in London 
within a few months. I understand that my Buffalo 
friends and many other workers will he represented by 
pictures. I was much impressed by the great individ- 
uality displayed in the productions of American ama- 
teurs which I had the pleasure to see at Budapest, and 
I am glad to have an opportunity to renew pleasant 
acquaintances and to make new fiiends. 

Mr. H. Snowden Ward — who, by the time this letter 
appears, will he in the United States to renew his inter- 
esting lecture-tour — recently had some interesting re- 
marks to make with reference to “ Photographic Pictures 
for the Collector.” Me wondered whether people thought 
a “ collection was worth while, whether the pictures 
bought to-day will grow in value or whether the years 
that are coming will regard them as useless lumber, to 
be consigned to the box-room.” He gave a list of col- 
lectors of photographic pictures and mentioned as the 
first Mr. Timmins of Syracuse, N. Y. Other well- 
known collectors are Alfred Stieglitz, whose collection 
of European pictorial masterpieces formed a large part 
of the Albright Art Gallery show ; Harold Holcroft and 
Her Grace the Duchess of Sermoneta. But perhaps 
the largest and most select collection of camera-pictures 
is the one owned by Mr. Ernst Juhl of Hamburg. His 
name is, of course, too well known to need an introduc- 
tion here, and he and. later, Stieglitz have, possibly, done 
more for the recognition of photography as an inde- 
pendent art than anybody else. It is very gratifying 
that during the last few years national and municipal 
galleries on the Continent have begun to buy photo- 
graphic pictures and started permanent collections. In 
Berlin Kupferstich-Kabinett ”) Hamburg (" Kunst- 
halle ”) and Vienna such collections were started a few 
years ago, and Bremen and Budapest have followed 
their example recently. The Budapest authorities, in 
particular, have taken great interest in this matter, and 
the Budapest Fine Arts Museum lias bought a splendid 
set of pictures from their International Exposition, 
which has just closed. Among those which were pur- 
chased were four pictures by well-known English, two 
by American, three by German, two by Austrian work- 
ers, and one by a Russian worker. 

Properly speaking, there is no such thing as original- 
ity in artistic effort ; our triumphs of design are merely 
recollections or rearrangements of natural facts. Only 
nature invents. — G. Woolliscroft Hh/ade. 




It is well known that the German people are fond of 
nature’s beauties and of ancient historic spots, which 
they preserve with remarkable care and thoroughness. 
Thus the country is full of wonderful picturesque houses, 
ruins, castles, gardens and the like. Photographers, 
therefore, find a rich field for interesting motives every- 
where. In these days the Silesian society for Home-Pres- 
ervation, with head-quarters in Breslau, has requested 
all amateurs in that province to send it good or had 
pictures showing examples of landscapes or other sub- 
jects pertaining to that section of the country. It is 
immaterial whether these are prints, plates or lantern- 
slides. After a print or a slide has been made there- 
from the original is returned to the sender. It is the 
league’s intention to obtain a full and impressive set of 
good and bad examples for the purpose of propaganda- 
leaflets with pictures and for illustrated lectures. They 
want particularly such photographs as show one and the 
same subject before and after its improvement or resto- 
ration to the original condition or the contrary of it. A 
common example is for instance the spoiling of a land- 
scape by large advertising sign-boards along railways 
and in other prominent positions which in England and 
still more in the United States are an eyesore or insult 
to the aesthetic observer. Also photographs of things 
which have since been destroyed or have for some reason 
•died out are very welcome to the society, particularly if 
their loss is much to be regretted. 

Furthermore, they want photos of former and present 
costumes, popular festivals, such as carnivals, Easter 
processions, Christmas customs and the like, of which 
Germany has a large variety in her different provinces. 
The nation is rather conservative in this respect, yet 
modern ideas and customs are gradually securing a 
firmer foothold and it is feared that in future decades 
we shall not have a chance to view such picturesque 
scenes. Photography is an excellent medium to pre- 
serve these scenes for posterity. Silesia is perhaps the 
prettiest and most conservative province, but it is ex- 
pected that in other parts of the empire societies will 
proceed in a similar manner. A somewhat different pur- 
pose is responsible for the proceedings of the numerous 
clubs for furthering the intercourse of tourists and vis- 
itors which we find in every considerable town. Most of 
these spend appreciable sums for advertisements, artistic 
posters and well-illustrated booklets which are freely 
distributed. In these the best photographs obtainable 
are reproduced, and many arrange prize-competitions 
among amateurs and professionals, in a manner similar 
to that in which British and American railway-companies 
■obtain pictures for their booklets. The Dresden club 
for furthering tourist traffic goes a step farther and gives 
lectures with lantern-slides in many German cities which 
show the beauties and picturesque spots of the capital 
itself, t lie wonderful Elbe valley and the whole of Sax- 
ony. The club announced recently a prize-contest for 
obtaining the very best pictures of old and new houses, 
gardens, people, costumes, typical products, scenes and 
customs. They desire not only that strangers should visit 
their beautiful city, lint, that many should choose it for 
their permanent residence. 

This autumn one of the best photographic schools in 
Munich, the Teaching and Experimental Institute for 
Photography, Chemigraphy, Autotypy and Photo-Grav- 

ure, celebrated its 10 years’ jubilee. At the same time 
it took as headquarters some new and larger premises 
owned by the city. There are no less than 72 rooms, 
of which 30 are reserved for the two classes of photo- 
gTaphic pupils. Each class is entirely separated from 
the other and has at its disposal seven studios, two dark- 
rooms and many other rooms. The institute occupies a 
whole block and is joined by its own large park near the 
outskirts of the Bavarian capital. 

Among other things in the photographic world in Ger- 
many worthy to be reported, a novelty called the pen- 
dulum-developing-dish and turned out by a Rhenish firm 
should be mentioned. This novel method of developing 
combines in many respects the advantages of stand-de- 
velopment with that of ordinary tray-development. The 
apparatus consists of a glass tray which is put into a 
zinc tray, the former being suspended like the pendulum 
of a clock. On the top there are clips for clamping the 
plates to he developed. The whole apparatus is well 
balanced and scarcely any friction is felt, so that the 
plates after having been moved swing to and fro for a 
considerable length of time. The advantage of course 
is that there remain no streaks or stripes on the film ; 
besides, the process of development can be well watched 
without getting the fingers stained, as one lifts the plates 
with the clamps. These vessels can also be used for the 
ordinary methods of development. 


Books reviewed in this magazine , or any others 
our readers may desire, will be furnished by us at 
the lowest market-prices. 

The Book of Happy Days. By Beatrice Stevens and 
Ella M. Boult. 11)4 x 14 % inches. Twenty poems 
and twenty illustrations. Price $3.00. The Pomfret 
Press, Pomfret Center, Conn., 1909. 

“ To happy mothers this book of happy days.” 

Such is the dedication of a work which should bring 
joy into every household into which it enters. The 
poems of childhood have been selected with fine dis- 
crimination and illustrated by photographs of babies in 
the nursery and older children at play outdoors which 
really illustrate. Text and pictures together constitute 
a charming contribution to the literature of the nursery, 
nor will it lack appreciation outside. The volume is 
attractively presented on a brown cover-paper which 
sets off the mounted halftones as well as it does the 
printed matter. The pictures, indeed, have almost the 
effect of real photographic prints on velvet bromide. 

Susan in Sicily. By Josephine Tozier. With many 
illustrations from original photographs. Illuminated 
cover, 12mo, $2.00. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

A delightful personal account of a girl’s first visit to 
Sicily. The book is well written, the descriptions and 
history are interesting, and the writer gives us an inti- 
mate idea of the manners, customs and disposition of 
the Sicilian people. There is a pretty romance, which 
holds the reader’s interest to the close, threading its way 
through the book. Altogether a charming gift-hook for 
a young girl, who cannot fail to sympathize with Susan 
and her friends in their many interesting and varied 
experiences. The volume belongs to the Little Pilgrim- 
ages Series. 



The Editor’s Talisman 

In the .June Photo-Era the editor told the story of 
the talisman — the Ansco coin presented to him at the 
Rochester Convention, last July, 1909 — and how it 
never left his person except during his nocturnal rest. 
Well, that little token played a prominent part in a singu- 
lar adventure not long ago. After partaking of a light 
repast with a friend at a down-town hotel-cafd, after the 
theater, one evening during October and before the end 
of the photo-engravers’ strike, the editor quietly slipped 
a half-dollar into the waiter’s hand instead of leaving 
the fee on the salver, as is customary. A few days 
afterward he missed the coin from its usual place, viz : 
the right-hand trouser-pocket. Every search to recover 
it proved futile. It was gone, irretrievably lost ! Al- 
though far from being superstitious, the editor felt just 
a bit disturbed as he had become greatly attached to 
the pocket-piece. 

Nearly everyone has heard of the grass-crop in a 
certain western state which was so poor that the grass- 
hoppers got lame jumping from one blade of grass to 
another. My case was not quite so bad as that, although 
my legs were giving out, caused by dodging recklessly- 
driven autos, rushing fire-engines and flying patrol- 
wagons — all because I was without that pocket-piece, 
my talisman. These constant hairbreadth escapes were 
sapping my vitality and, in order to recuperate some- 
what, I arranged to pass an evening at the “ Brindisi,” 
a popular Italian restaurant, having great faith in the 
vitalizing properties of a savory Costoletta alia minuta 
and a mezza bottiglia of Asti spumante. There I found 
several other congenial spirits — noted camerists — Adams, 
Peabody and Appleby, all apparently expecting me. It 
was impossible not to mention our hobby, and soon 
technical terms and names of materials filled the im- 
mediate atmosphere. At the sound of the word “ Ansco ” 
the proprietor, who was standing not far away, ready to 
approach and greet us, quickly advanced and. fixing his 
great black eyes upon me, he said politely : “ Mi scusi, 
signore, ma questa porola ‘ Ansco ’ none i Italiano; pos- 
sibile fotografico." Then he explained that from his 
chef, who had gotten it from a waiter in a down-town 
hotel-eaffi, he had received a large, mysterious copper 
coin, seemingly Italian or Spanish. On one side was the 
strange word *■ Cvko,” and on the other the portrait of 
a middle-aged man named “ Ansco Film.” “ Ecco lo ,” 
and with this he put his hand in his trouser-pocket and 
produced — my talisman. 

Photo-Dealers Lose 

In spite of repeated exposures by Photo-Era, the 
traffic in stolen photographic lenses and apparatus con- 
tinues apace. Much booty, including the contents of 
stores in Buffalo and Boston, has been disposed of 
largely through the connivance of a few middlemen — 
certain dealers in second-hand supplies in New York, 
Chicago and Boston. In this connection a valued corre- 
spondent relates the following instance : 

*’ As I was looking over the files of the photographic 
journals in a small up-town photo-supply store, recently, 
a respectably-dressed young man entered and was soon 
talking with the proprietor about a camera that he 
wished to sell. I think it was a 3A Kodak, and it ap- 
peared to be brand-new. He wanted $12 for it but was 

offered only $10 by the business-like proprietor. They 
finally agreed on $11, after a spirited discussion. I was 
convinced that the dealer was buying the camera in good 
faith, i.e., from an honest man, so I kept right on with 
my work. Pretty soon two men entered — an inspector 
and a man who proved to be the actual owner of the 
camera The Kodak, just purchased, was produced 
and, after a close inspection, was recognized as having 
been recently stolen with several others from the 
owner’s store in another part of the city. 

“ ‘ I want that camera ; it’s mine,’ he said firmly. The 
dealer objected, saying that he had bought it in good 
faith but that he would give it up on receipt of $1 1, the 
amount he had paid for it. The owner refused and re- 
peated his demand. A consultation in a low tone then 
followed during which the dealer proffered the inspector 
a cigar which was accepted and lighted. But again came 
the request expressed in a firm voice, ‘ I want my 
camera ! ’ Some more explanations between dealer and 
inspector. Finally the dealer handed the camera to the 
owner, with the remark : ‘ I call that a mean piece of 
business. You won’t even compromise, but make me 
lose all I paid for it.’ Then the two men left the place. 

“ Several days afterward I learned that the dealer had 
been cleverly duped. The man who had sold the camera 
to the dealer, the inspector, and the owner of the 
camera were confederates — a precious trio of swindlers. 
This same camera had figured similarly in a number of 
cases. Five dealers in second-hand apparatus had been 
fleeced by them in one day.” 

Why be Ambiguous ? 

In our British cotemporaries a “ dark room ” means 
either an apartment devoid of illumination, or one used 
for photographic purposes — made available by non-ac- 
tiuic light. Also, the term “ dry plate ” is applied to a 
well-known culinary utensil as it should be before the 
meal is served, or to a sensitized sheet of glass used in 

A Student of Shakespeare 

An interested reader has sent us an account of the 
following incident : 

“ While waiting for my train at a station in the 
Boston subway, recently, I glanced through one of the 
popular magazines. Next to me were several persons 
engaged in looking over the November Photo-Era. 
The picture of the Capitoline Wolf, on page 266, must 
have attracted their attention, for a female voice was 
heard to exclaim, ‘Oh. look! there is a picture of the 
bronze wolf suckling Romeo and Juliet! 

A Field for Camerists 

The editor sincerely hopes that Mr. Phillips’ article in 
this issue will stimulate those of our readers who visit 
Europe seriously to consider a journey to Spain. No 
one who has enjoyed Washington Irving’s fascinating 
tales of the Alhambra can resist a desire to ramble 
through the maze of courts and chambers of that marvel 
of Moorish art regarded by connoisseurs as one of the 
modern Seven Wonders of the World. To those who 
are interested are recommended the delightful works on 
Spain by the following authors: Victor Hugo, TIAoph i le 
Gautier, C. A. Stoddard, Augustus Hare, Edmondo de 
Amicis, George Parsons Lathrop and F. W. II nek bender. 

4 b 






Announcements and Reports of Club and Association Meetings, Exhibitions and Conventions 

are solicited for publication 

The Telephone Contest 

The pictures submitted in the .telephone contest ar- 
ranged by Photo-Era for the New England Telephone 
and Telegraph Company were few in number but high 
in quality. First prize was awarded to H. Romeyn for 
one of the best genres it has been our fortune to see. 
“ An Emergency Call ” represents the interior of an 
office, apparently that of the superintendent of a factory. 
Two workmen support a third, who is plainly seriously 
injured, while the superintendent telephones for the am- 
bulance. The poses are natural, the grouping and com- 
position strong and well-balanced and the technical 
handling superb. 

Mrs. Charles S. Hayden submitted a large group of 
interesting studies, one of which gained second place. 
“ The Night-Letter ” shows a young girl seated at the 
telephone and reading to the telegraph office from a 
manuscript held in her hand the text of the message 
to some absent dear one. Her expression is serious but 
not sad, in keeping with the importance of her occupa- 
tion. The print is a sepia platinotype of very pleasing 
quality, soft yet brilliant. 

The third-prize picture was made by Anthony Graff. 
It is a kitchen-interior, strongly but not harshly 
lighted from a window just out of the picture to the left. 
The light is concentrated on the figure of the mistress 
of the culinary department, who has turned from her 
bread-mixing-board to the telephone to upbraid the de- 
linquent grocer. ‘"'Send up that Yeast-Cake !” is the 
title. The technical quality of the print is good, the 
exposure having been ample to render detail in the shad- 
ows while retaining the full strength of the highlights. 
Honorable mentions were awarded to C. G. Sheldon, 
H. L. Bradley and Mrs. Hayden (three prints). 

We congratulate the telephone company on obtaining 
pictures having so large a measure of human interest 
and at the same time superior pictorial quality. The 
awards were made on a basis of fifty per cent for adver- 
tising value and fifty for artistic excellence. The jury 
was composed of William Howe Downes, art-editor of 
The Boston Transcript , J. H. Garo and Wilfred A. 
French, editor of Photo-Era. 

Postal Photographic Club 

The members of the Postal Photographic Club are 
now enjoying the November 1910 album on its first 
round and the October 1910 and February 1910 albums 
on their second rounds with the criticisms of the mem- 
bers. With the October book is circulating a narrative 
by Harry D. Williar of the week’s outing held by some 
of the members at Athens, Pa., last July. Among the 
members we note the names of the following well-known 
pictorialists : Win. II. Zerbe, E. II. Washburn, C. S. 
Luitwieler, C. F. Clarke, J. Horace McFarland, Harry D. 
Williar and Charles E. Fairman. 

Defective Copies 

Any subscriber who receives a copy of Photo-Era 
which lias been damaged by transmission through the 
mails or otherwise may receive in exchange a perfect 
copy by mailing the defective one to us. 

Exhibitors in the Seventh American Salon 

Name of Exhibitor 

Abbott, C. Yarnall 

Abbott, Gordon C. 

Albrecht, Hermann 0 

Alexander, George _ 

Allen. A. R. 

Allen, E. R. 

Anderson, Joseph W., M.D. . 

Anderson, Paul Lewis 

Anthony, Oscar S 

Arbogast, M. Howard. 

Archer, Charles K. 

Armer. Laura Adams 

Banfield, Jesse T. 

Baumberger, M. E 

Bodine, II. Oliver 

Booz, Charles 

Brown, Edward 

Bruce, Robert 

Bruguifere, Francis 

Chamberlain, Clarence K. 

Chapin, M. W 

Chislett, John ... 

Christiansen, C. W. 

Clarke, C. F. 

Coit, Richard M 

Cooper, Joseph R. 

Crandall, R. S 

Cushman, John M 

Douglas, Benjamin W 

Dove, John 

Evans, W. H. 

Ferrell, W. D. 

Fitts, Donald C 

Fleckenstein, Louis 

Fleischer, Maurice Tracy 

French, Wilfred A., Ph.D. 

Guyon, William A., Jr 

Harvey, E. S 

Heimerdinger, Howard 

Hyde, H. Howard 

Jones, John F. 

Kauffman, R. S. 

Knox, William T 

Krebs, Heinrich 

Langland, B. F. 

Lewis, C. L 

Lidbury, F. Austin 

Lindensclimit, Charles 

McDougall, Frank W. _ 

Me Fail, E. I 

McNaughtan, Wm. Elbert 

Marvel, Charles S. 

Minns, Hervey W. 

Montgomery, Robert B. 

Morris, B. J. 

Muller, Charles A. 

Parker, George B. 

Parrish, W. and G. _ _ 

Pepper, H. Crowell . 

Phillips, William H 

Prints Accepted 















... . 5 











.... .... 1 










... 2 








.... 1 
. 5 
. .2 













Pickering, C. Ney 1 

Porterfield, Wilbur H 5 

Price, Frank C 1 

Randall, R. L. 3 

Reese, Percy M. 1 

Rice, Edw. M. 1 

Schonewolf, H. W 1 

Sewell. E. N. 1 

Sides, Edward B 2 

Sleeth, R. L., Jr 2 

Spanton, William 1 

Stout. Horace E. 2 

Taylor, C. C 1 

Thorne. H. J 1 

Underhill, Janies E 1 

Van Buren, Miss A. C. 1 

Voll. Joseph A. 2 

Wierum, Paul 1 

Williar. Harry D 5 

Willis. W. F. 1 

Witt, M. Richard 3 

Wolcott, Frank 3 

Wood. Frank G. 4 

Wright, F. L. 2 

Zabriskie. R. B 2 

Zimmerman, Walter 9 

New England Association 

The next annual meeting of the New England Photo- 
graphers will be held in the fall of 1911 at Bridgeport. 
The large and attractive armory will furnish a splendid 
exhibition-hall, and, although no prizes will be awarded, 
advance expressions from the members point towards 
a large showing of prints for honorable mention. 
Mr. Garo, the president, and Mr. J. P. Healy of Bridge- 
port, the second vice-president, are already arranging 
the details in order to secure a successful meeting. 

A prize of five dollars is to be awarded to the mem- 
ber who designs the best button. All entries must be 
sent to the executive board before February 1. 

Photographic Club of Baltimore 

Ox Tuesday evening, November 15, Dr. William 
Simon gave an illustrated talk on “ Photography in the 
Colors of Nature,” showing some very fine views taken 
by himself. The following week, Mr. James Locke 
gave a talk and demonstration on “ The Chemistry of 
Photography.” The lecture, which was largely attended, 
was followed by a smoker with refreshments. 

On Thursday, December 8, the club opened its show 
of the Seventh American Salon at The Maryland Insti- 
tute, Mount Royal Avenue and Lanvale Street. The 
formal opening, which was attended by the club-mem- 
bers and invited guests, was on the preceding evening. 

Indianapolis Camera-Workers 

It is greatly to be regretted that Indianapolis, which 
was honored by having the Seventh American Salon 
open at the Herron Art Institute, has no camera-club. 
The city has one noted pictorialist in John Chislett, one 
of whose pictures appears in this issue. Other promi- 
nent workers are Benjamin W. Douglas, Frank W. 
McDongall. Hans Duden, and Brandt Steele. It is sin- 
cerely to be hoped that they will get together and found 
a club for the honor of their city as well as for the 
common benefits they would derive from association. 
An active society of pictorialists, perhaps working in con- 
junction with the Art Institute, might bring Indianapolis 
to a position comparable to that of Detroit, Buffalo, or 
Grand Rapids, with their well-known groups of workers. 

Toronto Camera Club 

The 22d Annual Meeting of the Toronto Camera 
Club was held at the Club Rooms, 2 Gould St., on Mon- 
day evening, November 7. The attendance, sixty-six, 
was the largest in the history of the club. The financial 
statement, which was presented by the Secretary-Treas- 
urer, showed assets of $1,160.25 including $448.66 in 
cash . 

The election of officers resulted as follows : President, 
A. S. Bowers ; First Vice-president, E. Utley; Second 
Vice-president, E. Y. Spurr ; Secretary-Treasurer, Hugh 

Committee : Dr. E. E. King, W. H. Moss, J. H. Ames, 
E. Hoch, J. Y. S. Ross, C. W. Lidbetter. 

Photographers’ Association of America 

The evil of competition with legitimate practitioners 
by irresponsible street-photographers is being vigorously 
fought by the association. A petition adopted at Mil- 
waukee last July is now being - sent out to members for 
presentation to the local town or city governments. It 
is signed by the officers of the national body and is to 
be signed by the local photographers. The text, in 
part, is as follows : “ The Professional Photographers of 
the United States and Canada, in convention assembled, 
hereby petition your honorable body to pass an ordi- 
nance placing a license upon all itinerant, transient and 
non-tax-paying photographers and picture-agents ; thus 
creating a revenue for your city and, at the same time, 
protecting your home-photographers, who are tax-payers, 
from ruinous and demoralizing competition.” 

Duehrkoop’s London Exhibition 

A collection of Rudolph Duehrkoop’s latest pictures 
has been on exhibition in the Little Gallery of our Eng- 
lish cotemporary, The Amateur Photographer. The show 
ran from November 8th to December 10th, and the forty 
pictures from the studio of the eminent German master- 
photographer were greatly admired by a large number 
of visitors. 

H. Snowden Ward’s Lecture-Tour 

Mb. II. Snowden Ward, F.R.P.S., is again in 
America, and will deliver his lectures in various cities. 
Our Boston readers will have the opportunity to hear 
him at Tremont Temple. He gives With Charles Pickens 
in His Hooks on Wednesday afternoon, February 8th; 
Marvels of Photography on the evening of the same day 
as well as on Wednesday evening, February 15th, and on 
the afternoon of Washington’s birthday; The Canterbury 
Pilgrimages on Wednesday afternoon, February 15th; 
and Shakespeare' s Merry England and its Songs on the 
evening of February 22d. These lectures should not be 
missed by the ardent eamerist, for the lantern-slides are 
of unusually fine quality and the lecture of an equally 
high literary merit. For information about dates 
Mr. Ward maybe addressed at 122 East 25th Street, 
New York City. 

Camera Club of New York 

The Club had on its walls during the month of No- 
vember a collection of about thirty small prints by 
Ferdinand Gebhardt of Munich, Germany. Although 
small, these prints demonstrated the rare artistry of this 
worker. Mr. A. H. Stoiber of Paris, a member of the 
Club, showed seven large snow-scenes of superior excel- 
lence. There was also shown a collection of prints by 
Harry D. Williar of the Baltimore Camera Club, con- 
taining several Round Robin Guild prize-pictures. 

An exhibition of members' work will soon be held. 


Have You Seen Elmendorf? 

One of the surprises of the lecture-platform is the 
phenomenal success attending' the lectures by Mr. Dwight 
L. Elmendorf, -well known in photographic circles as a 
worker of unusual ability, and also as a singularly able 
colorist of lantern-slides. Being a profound student, 
fond of travel and a speaker of uncommon gifts, he spent 
many years in preparing himself for the career of a 
lecturer. He gave his first series of illustrated lectures 
on European topics six years ago, and felt encouraged 
to extend his travels, accompanied by his faithful and 
efficient camera, to various parts of the world. His 
extraordinary success as a lecturer is proved by the fact 
that to-day he is able to fill the largest auditoriums, his 
audience being people of the educated class, including 
many who have traveled extensively. All of them at- 
test the accuracy and beauty of Mr. Elmendorf ’s stereop- 
ticon-views. His present series, which includes Berlin, 
Vienna, Paris, London and Famous Paintings in the 
Galleries of Europe, is particularly interesting. 

We urge every reader of Photo-Era to make an ef- 
fort to attend these lectures which, for the rest of the 
season, will be given in Chicago, St. Louis and Milwau- 
kee. No photographic practitioner, whether a beginner, 
advanced worker or expert, can afford to miss the lecture 
on famous paintings. It is an education in itself. 

Recent Deaths 

Dr. Charles L. Mitchell, the well-known maker 
of the Mitchell photographic specialties, died at his 
home in Philadelphia on November 24. 

A former president of the P. A. of A., John H. Kent, 
passed away at Rochester, N. Y., on November 25, aged 
82. Mr. Kent was the oldest professional photographer 
of the “ camera city,” and his high-class work made a 
profound impression on the craft. He was noted for his 
sterling integrity in business and devotion to the highest 
ideals. As adviser to George Eastman while the latter 
was devising the first kodak, his great experience made 
him invaluable, and be reaped his reward by entering 
the Eastman Kodak Company as one of its incorpora- 
tors in the position of vice-president. 

Permanent Opera in Boston 

The Boston Opera House, now in its second year of 
existence, has not only fulfilled all the promises made 
by the directors, but has come to be looked upon 
throughout the world as a musical institution which is 
destined to exercise a great influence in the musical 
development both of this country and Europe. 

While the array of artists gathered together by Direc- 
tor Henry Russell presents such an imposing list of 
names as few other opera houses can boast of, the chief 
strength of the Boston Opera Company lies in the 
wonderful ensemble that characterizes all the perform- 
ances there. No matter how small the part, no matter 
how insignificant the detail, nothing is omitted to make 
the performance full of artistic value. 

The orchestra has justly come to be looked upon as 
one of the finest of its kind ; the chorus, both in its 
singing and acting, has won fame the country over and 
the scenic management leaves no room for criticism. 

Under Mr. Russell’s skilful management the Boston 
Opera House has blossomed forth within the short period 
of one year into an institution that is already the envy 
of the old world, where America has come to be looked 
upon as a land that does not foster any musical ideals, 
and the present prospects are that in time to come 
Boston will rightfully claim the distinction of being 
America’s musical center. 

The cut which appears above is a reproduction of the 
bronze medal given at the recent International Photo- 
graphic Exhibition at Budapest. This souvenir was 
awarded to all of the American contributors whose pictures 
were accepted by the jury. Only one side of the bronze 
is figured, the reverse being flat, from which fact is derived 
the French term plaquette, corresponding to plaque, 
although the latter term is seldom applied by us to so 
small an object. The cut is full size. Inscribed in 
Hungarian are the words meaning “ International Photo- 
graphic Exhibition ” and the initials standing for “ Hun- 
garian Amateur Photographers’ Association.” 

The “ B. J.” Almanac for 1911 

The mammoth work in yellow paper covers known as 
the British Journal Almanac has made its annual ap- 
pearance. This year’s number is the Jubilee Issue, as it 
is the fiftieth consecutive volume. An excellent review 
of the history of the work, with illustrations showing 
its former diminutive size, as well as portraits of the 
editorial staff from the beginning, forms an appropriate 
introduction. The usual article on some one field of 
photography is lacking this year. The remainder of the 
text is, as usual, a complete epitome of the materials, 
processes, apparatus and formulas in every branch of 
photography. We cannot help but feel, when looking 
over the many superior designs of hand-cameras, that 
the advanced amateur is better cared for by the British 
manufacturers than the American user is by our own. 
The universal swing-fronts provided on many English 
hand-cameras have so many advantages that we wonder 
our camera-makers have not brought out something 
similar. Folmer and Sell wing at one time made a swing- 
front camera, but we believe it was long ago discontinued. 
The result is that anyone wishing a strictly universal 
camera must perforce order from the British Isles and 
fatten Uncle Sam’s treasury with 45% import-duty. The 
advertising-pages of the almanac, in fact, are worthy 
study not only by the American manufacturer but also 
by the individual camerist. There should be a place on 
every practitioner’s book-shelf for a copy of this work, 
for it is almost invaluable for reference. As the entire 
edition of 25,000 was sold on publication, we advise our 
readers to send in their orders at once. The almanac 
will be found listed on the page of photographic club- 

“To prove that the camera, the negative and the 
print are simply our tools, and that everything depends 
upon the man behind the gun — just look over any ex- 
hibition of pictures and you can at a glance say who 
made it. It is the individuality of this man who has 
studied, who has felt, that goes through that camera ; 
it is told in his composition, in what he produces.” — 
William Shewell Ellis. 


Kodak Prize-Competition Pictures 

Too late for insertion in this issue, we received prints 
of the prize-winners in the annual kodak advertising- 
contest. Data concerning them reached us so late that 
the halftone cuts could not be made before we went to 
press. Our readers, however, will benefit by the delay, 
and will have the pleasure to see most or all of these 
excellent pictures adequately reproduced. The East- 
man Company has found the standard of the prints sub- 
mitted so high that it has decided to make a special 
class for the champions next year. This will give the 
less expert competitors a better chance to win one of 
the generous prizes offered by the company. Many of 
our Guilders, whose work in genre has taken prizes, 
should study the conditions of this contest and apply 
themselves to carry off prizes later. 

In Class A the prizes were awarded as follows : First, 
William Skewell Ellis, $500; Second, II. E. Lawson, 
$400; Third, F. and C. A. Maynard, $250; Fourth, 
R. T. Dooner, $150; Fifth, A. F. Bradley, $100. 

In Class B the prizes were awarded to R. B. Marsh, 
First, $300; Nancy Ford Cones, Second, $150; R. .1. 
Barber. Third, $75; Dr. Robert Nones, Fourth, $50; 
Mrs. N. A. II. Bromley, Fifth, $25. 

Our New Dress 

With the new year Photo-Era assumes a new dress 
of type. The change has been long under consideration 
and was made only after we were convinced that it 
would make not only a more legible but a more beauti- 
ful page. The heavier face of the type, combined with 
the extremely clear-cut impression of the individual 
letters, makes the page very easy to read, as compared 
with the machine-set type formerly used. Following the 
best traditions of the planting art, we are now employing 
only hand-set type. The result, we feel, is a credit to 
-our printers, The Barta Press, whose advertisement ap- 
pears in another column. Their reputation for doing 
only the highest-class work should recommend them to 
photographers who desire artistic printing. 

Theft of Cameras 

We have previously remarked upon the excellent 
judgment displayed by burglars and sneak-thieves in 
selecting as their booty quickly-convertible and remun- 
erative high-class photographic lenses and apparatus. 
There seem to be many purveyors in second-hand 
photographic materials who have no scruples about buy- 
ing and selling such merchandise, and that without 
making the least effort to ascertain their origin. 

The home of a prominent Boston amateur was recently 
visited by a sneak-thief and relieved of considerable 
clothing and also two photographic outfits. The latter 
consisted of a 4 x 5 Anschutz camera, fitted with focal- 
plane shutter and C. P. Goerz Celor lens with foeusing- 
mount, the outfit being of German manufacture. 

The other outfit is a No. 4 A Eastman Folding Kodak, 
with Staley’s Euryplan lens fitted to a Compound 
•Shutter. This outfit was purchased in London, England. 

Anyone obtaining a clue to either or both of these 
cameras will confer a favor by communicating at once 
with J. W. H., care of Photo-Era Magazine, 383 Boyl- 
-ston Street, Boston, Mass. 

An Appreciation from Cadby 

ill Cadby, the noted English pictorialist, whose 
pictures, with Mrs. Cadby’s, formed the leading feature 
•of the November Photo-Era, writes to us as follows : 
“ Your reproductions of our work in the November 
number are a continual pleasure.” 

The Albright Exhibition 

Mr. Stieglitz informs us that the Trustees of the 
Albright Art Gallery have appropriated $300 for the pur- 
chase of a number of the prints shown in the photographic 
exhibition under Photo-Secession auspices which closed 
December 5. These pictures are to form the nucleus 
of a permanent collection which is to be hung in the 
gallery as a memorial to the exhibition. The success of 
the undertaking may be estimated from the fact that on 
one day no less than 5,000 people visited the exhibit — a 
number which would lie a tribute to a showing of pic- 
tures in any medium. It would seem that Mr. Stieglitz’s 
devotion to the cause of pictorial photography, or, if one 
chooses, to the campaign for recognition of photography 
as a department of the fine arts, has been crowned with 
triumph of no mean order. From several sources we 
learn that the display was overwhelming. Some who 
went to criticize were silenced and lost in admiration 
at the beauty of the show. 

From William H. Phillips 

“ I am very much pleased with your supplementary 
references to the illustrations accompanying my Spanish 
article. This page is always of much interest to 

English Visitors 

Our readers may be interested to know that Mr. Wil- 
liam Crooke, of Edinburgh, and Mr. H. Walter Barnett, 
of London, sailed on December 17 for a six-weeks’ 
tour in the United States, when they hope to visit some 
of the leading photographers in New York, Philadel- 
phia, Washington, Baltimore, Pittsburg, St. Louis, 
Chicago, Milwaukee, Niagara Falls, Buffalo, Rochester, 
Boston and other cities. 

The Ives Color-Process 

At the New York Camera Club, December 9, Mr. 
Frederic E. Ives of Philadelphia gave a very interesting 
lecture on his new direct color-process. It was illus- 
trated by colored slides. As our readers know, the new 
Ives process is a one-plate method, often called a film- 
block, because the sensitive materials necessary for 
recording the three primary color-sensations are bound 
together in one plate, thus requiring but a single expo- 
sure. The rendering of color by this method is par- 
ticularly accurate. 

Fugitiveness of the Autochrome 

The editor has a plate which was formerly a partic- 
ularly excellent autochrome portrait of a sitter in a 
rose-colored silk gown. He was so proud of it that he 
had it framed and hung it in a north window. For. 
about six months no change could be noticed, but after 
that period a decided weakening of all the colors took 
place. At this writing, after about fifteen months’ ex- 
posure to light, the picture has lost almost all its 
brilliancy and is flat and lifeless. Evidently the beauti- 
ful autochrome transparencies must be kept in the dark 
and withdrawn from such safe-keeping only for occa- 
sional examination. 

An Appreciation 

“ I am much pleased with the reproduction of my 
print in the December number of Photo-Era. It is 
fully equal to the original print. You are certainly 
giving us, to my mind, the best photographic magazine 
published, and I wish you continued success. 

“ Very truly yours, 

“ Harry G. Phister.” 


The Watkins Specialties 

Last month we reprinted an important article on 
time-development by Alfred Watkins. The system, as 
there given, is undoubtedly one of the best ways to 
handle red-sensitive plates, which do not allow the dark- 
room to he illuminated without grave danger of general 
fog. Cramer’s “ Spectrum ” plates, for instance, are 
sensitive even to the narrow hand in the green which 
hitherto has not been registered, and so not even a green 
safe-light can he used with them. The advanced worker 
will undoubtedly test his own pet developer for its 
temperature-coefficient, hut the beginner will prefer a 
simpler system. This is found in the Watkins Time- 
Developer, for which Burke and James of Chicago are 
American agents. To use the system it is necessary 
to find, from the card furnished with each package of 
developer, the development-speed of the plate in use. 
One then looks in the table and finds that the time of 
development at 60° Fahr. for that particular plate is so 
many minutes. The Thermo-Indicator on the box or on 
the bottle is then set so that the 60° pointer is against 
That time. The scale then shows how many minutes to 
develop for any other temperature. For example, a 
Seed 26X plate is listed as MS, and its time at 60° is 
7 minutes. If the temperature of the developer is 48°, 
the time of development will be 10 minutes. 

Another useful and thoroughly reliable product of 
Mr. Watkins’ inventive genius is the Bee Meter, which 
sells at the very low price of $1.25. Its value is par- 
ticularly gTeat. for dull lights or for weak sunlight in the 
early morning or the late afternoon, because the sensi- 
tive paper gives the exact actinic power of the light and 
the scales calculate with perfect accuracy the exposure 
necessary. Tables are of little use in such conditions, 
hut the user of the Bee Meter can rely on it absolutely 
whenever there is light enough to make an exposure. 

The time-thermometer, referred to in Mr. Watkins’ 
paper, is now being tested by the editor, and will lie 
mentioned more fully in an early issue of this magazine. 

New Goerz Head-Quarters 

On account of its greatly increased business, the C. P. 
Goerz American Optical Company has been obliged to 
move to larger quarters at 317-323 East 34th Street, 
New York City. At the new head-quarters the facili- 
ties for handling orders will be ample, so that customers 
will receive the promptest attention. 

The Bissell Colleges 

That the reputation of the Illinois College of Photo- 
graphy and the Bissell College of Photo-Engraving is 
widespread is shown by the fact that two students re- 
cently entered from countries so remote as Bulgaria and 
Japan. That this high reputation is fully deserved is 
evident from the magnificent catalog which has just 
reached us. It is a 64-page hook 9% x 6 % inches, 
attractively bound in heavy rough paper of a pleasing 
buff tone, with cover-design in brown ink. Numerous 
excellent halftones of the college buildings, inside and 
out, fully illustrate the equipment. There are, in addi- 
tion, specimen prints as inserts. The first of these is a 
full-page portrait on Defender Triple A Velours. The 
technical quality of the print is superior and the pose 
and lighting have been well managed. Our only criti- 
cism is that the retouching shows rather too much on a 
paper with such a smooth surface if the print is very 
closely examined. The second insert is on Triple A 
Buff. The paper is 6 I 4 x 8 ^ inches and the print itself 
is attractively presented within a tinted line which 
frames the vignetted bust-portrait of a good model well 
handled. The last of the inserts is on Professional Cyko, 
double weight, studio surface. It is a sepia obtained by 
the hypo-alum-bath and rivals much of the best profes- 
sional work in quality. 

Five examples of the three-color-work done by the 
college are also given. These do not impress us as 
favorably as the other examples, particularly as the ren- 
dering of the greens is raw ; but students capable of 
doing so well are surely capable of improving with 

The courses in photography are planned so as to 
allow individuals of all stages of knowledge, from the 
absolute novice to the half-taught professional, to enter 
a group or class in which the instruction is exactly 
adapted to his needs. Each student has to do all the 
work for himself, hut the instructor sees that he con- 
quers each difficulty before he is allowed to pass to a 
new problem. Lighting in all its varieties is taught 
before the subject of posing is studied. The art of 
negative-making is considered from both the scientific 
and the practical sides : the chemistry and manufacture 
of the plate ; the chemistry and the actual practice of 
developing; the processes of intensification and reduc- 
tion — all are completely demonstrated and mastered. 
Retouching, etching, printing and finishing, and a special 
course in carbon-work are also taught. A new feature 
is the two to four weeks’ course for amateurs, the price 
of which is $50. 

The faculty of the two colleges includes Lewis II. 
Bissell, President, David J. Cook, Clifford J. Killen, 
Felix Raymer, Charles W. Fisher, Joseph A. Kern. 
Charles C. McCorkill, John F. Gums and Ruby W. 
Bissell, each member being an acknowledged expert. 


A New Developing-Tank 

For simplicity, ease and excellent results the supe- 
riority of the devehiping'-tank cannot be questioned. 

The Prize Reversible Developing-Tank, a new model 
of unique construction, develops twelve or fewer plates 
with equal facility and requires a minimum quantity of 
solution. The lid. which is furnished with a rubber pad. 
clamps down securely over the top of the tank by means 
of catches at the side which have considerable leverage. 
This permits reversing - the tank or placing it in any 
position with no fear of leakage. Its handsome appear- 
ance and sound construction of solid brass polished, then 
nickel-plated, are gaining for it a well deserved popu- 

This tank is of special interest to both professionals 
and amateurs as the plate-rack, in all its sizes, has an 
adjustable set of grooves which make it possible to use 
any size for different sizes of plates. Any one contem- 
plating the purchase of a tank should send to G. Gen- 
nert, 24-26 E. 13th St., New York, for their booklet, 
“ On Developing-Tanks,” which contains a full descrip- 
tion of all the models made by them. 

The “Wellcome” Photographic Exposure- 
Record and Diary 1911 

The “Wellcome” Exposure-Record is one of those 
hardy annuals which the photographic public has 
learnt to expect at this season of the year, and one 
which has established a permanent position in their 
esteem by its remarkable utility and the compact mass 
of information it contains. 

In this handy pocket-volume, under the title of 
“ Modern Photographic Methods,” the problems with 
which the photographer has to deal are explained and 
illustrated in a series of brief, lucid articles. 

Ample provision is made for notes and memoranda 
and the book is bound in neat pocket-book form, with a 
pencil, automatic catch, and wallet, so that it may con- 
veniently become the photographers companion on all 
excursions in place of any other note-book. 

In the latter portion of the “ Wellcome ” Photographic 
Exposure-Record and Diary, the whole problem of cor- 
rect exposure is dealt with in a very thorough and in- 
genious manner ; all the facts and data which bear upon 
this important subject are carefully tabulated and ex- 
pressed as factors. 

A new feature which will appeal with particular force 
to the user of roll-films is a supplementary disc. This 
is arranged to paste over the sector of the exposure- 
calculator bearing the list of plate-factors. It is printed 
separately and furnished free by Burroughs Wellcome 
on return of a postal card enclosed in each copy of the 
book. The user has simply to cut out the sector and 
paste it on the celluloid disc. Then, after one turn of 
one scale, the exposures for all stops from F/4 to F/32 
are shown. This plan is much more convenient, when 
one uses only one speed of plate or film, because the 
necessary exposure for any aperture may be read at a 
glance. Sectors are furnished for plates of factors from 
V 2 to li o. and an additional blank one to be filled in by 
the user for any other plate-speed. If they are attached 
by a clip instead of by some adhesive, they may be 
changed at will ; but most eamerists will find that one 
supplementary disc will cover almost all of their work. 
Both U. S. and F/ numbers are marked, so the calculator 
is suitable for both systems. This simplification renders 
the calculator even more useful than formerly and 
should greatly popularize its use. It is an extremely 
useful device. 

Cramer Developing-Papers 

Shortly after the first of the year a line of developing- 
papers wilj be put on the market by The Cramer Photo- 
Paper Co., 6616 and 6618 Cottag'e Grove Avenue, Chicago, 
111. ; G. Cramer, President. 

These papers are no lucky accident, but the result of 
careful scientific investigation. They surpass in many 
respects other developing-papers, and will greatly assist 
the photographer in obtaining his ideal of what a print 
should be. Full details will be given later but, first, 
last and at all times, Cramer reputation backs them. 

Michigan Photo-Shutter Co. 

The manufacturers of the well-known and reliable 
Packard Ideal shutters advise us that their business has 
been increasing so rapidly that they have recently had 
to put in a large number of extra machines. From 
now on they expect to be able to fill orders as soon as 
received. They also state that from the large number 
of requests they receive for their monthly photographic 
calendars, distributed all over the country, they realize 
that Photo-Era is widely read and is therefore one of 
the best advertising-mediums. 

Graflex Cameras 

The Folmer and Schwing Division of the Eastman 
Kodak Company, manufacturers of the famous Graflex 
Cameras, has been over 300 orders behind on the popu- 
lar 3A and Auto Graflex models. Notwithstanding the 
delay in delivery, only three customers canceled their 
orders. This well-merited confidence caused the com- 
pany largely to increase its facilities, so that it filled 
all back orders and was in a position to make imme- 
diate deliveries for the Christmas trade. 

Spirit-Levels for View-Cameras 

We bought, some seven years ago, a T. T. and H. 
circular spirit-level. It was guaranteed for one year, 
but it lasted six before the bubble began to show a 
gradual increase in size. During the last few months it 
finally went out of commission. Without a spirit-level 
on our 6% x 8% view-camera, we were lost, so a 
search was made through the office file of catalogs for a 
substitute. At last, in Burke and James’s list, was 
found what was needed — the Ingento No. 5. This is a 
folding level to be attached to the side of the box. 
When it is pushed down it projects only about three- 
eighths of an inch, so that it is quite out of the way. A 
touch of the finger raises it to a horizontal position, and 
the bubble is seen by looking - through the metal case, 
which is cut out for the purpose. Fixed at a convenient 
height for the eye, it furnishes a rapid and accurate test 
for the proper position of the camera. Amateurs, par- 
ticularly beginners, should not fail to provide their 
boxes with a good level. Many otherwise excellent 
prints are thrown out of the winning class in the Guild 
competitions because the horizon-line does not appear 
level in the prints — a fault easily remedied as sug- 
gested above. 

American Photographic Text-Book Company 

The remarkably low price at which the % leather 
edition of the popular and exhaustive Self-Instructing 
Library of Photography has been offered lias secured a 
doubling of business each month. The plan of sending 
the entire set on approval has been consistently followed, 
and not one set has ever been returned. So remarkable 
a record proves the sterling quality of the work. We 
keep these books on our desk for reference. 

New Fast Printing-Paper 

The Kilborn Photo-Paper Company, of Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, is putting- out a new product — a fast printing- 
paper and postcard that prints five times faster than the 
regular Kruxo grades and yet retains all the brilliancy 
and softness of the slower grades of paper. This paper 
has the quality of a chloride paper with the speed of a 
bromide paper. It. is excellent for enlarging. While it 
is not so fast as a bromide paper, it gives a much more 
beautiful print. The Kilborn Photo-Paper Company 
requests all photographers interested to send for free 
sample packages. The little booklet, giving many use- 
ful suggestions including the sepia-tone-in-first-develop- 
ment, may be had for the asking. 

The Federal Trust Company 

Nearly every bank in this country is trustworthy, 
but some of the largest banks are not as conscientious 
and painstaking in their attention to depositors as they 
should be. In this respect there is much to be desired 
in banks, not excluding those of Boston. From per- 
sonal experience, joined to that of many prominent busi- 
ness-men, we are safe in declaring the Federal Trust 
Company one of the best and soundest banks in the Hub. 
Anyone locating in Boston or vicinity, or anyone desir- 
ing to change his bank-account, cannot do better than to 
consider the Federal Trust Company. 

The American Annual of Photography, 1911 

A welcome visitor to our desk at this season each 
year, the new American Annual has reached us from the 
trade sales-agents, George Murphy, Inc., 57 East Ninth 
Street, New York. The three hundred pages of text 
and illustrations surpass in general interest the volumes 

of former years. There are many excellent short articles 
on practical points which have occurred in the experience 
of the authors. In addition, we note particularly valu- 
able articles from R. James Wallace, the noted authority 
on color-photography ; C. II. Claudy, whose writings are 
quite familiar to readers of Photo-Eba ; A. Radclyffe 
Dugmore ; William H. Zerbe; H. Oliver Bodine, and 
William II. Kunz, the director of photography of the 
National Arts Publishing Company of Boston. We con- 
gratulate the editor of the Annual on having’ obtained 
so many articles which are at once entertaining and 
instructive. As usual, the illustrations have been care- 
fully selected and excellently reproduced They ex- 
emplify no extremes, and encourage us to believe that 
“ straight ” photography is able to express the eamerist’s 
artistic temperament without resort to some of the fads 
once so prevalent. 

Following the precedent of recent issues, the makers’ 
formulas, which at one time padded the book, are con- 
spicuous by their absence. There is given in their place 
a careful selection from the note-books of prominent 
workers. The formula-section is unusually compact and 
useful, and the thoroughness with which the volume is 
indexed makes it easy to find any desired information. 
The editor finds his file of Annuals very pleasant reading 
and invaluable for reference, and will enjoy adding the 
present one to his collection. Amateurs who have not 
hitherto bought the Animal every year are advised to 
begin at once to form their library of them. 

Like Some “Artistic” Photographers 

She — Here comes Diana Weybridge. Doesn’t she 
entirely satisfy your artistic sense ? 

He — Dear lady, she savors too much of a statement. 
We anti-post-prandial impressionists see beauty only in 
semi-suggested interpretations. — Punch. 



Information for publication under this heading is solicited 

Society or Title 


Entries Close 

Particulars oj 


Earl’s Court, London 

May 5 
indef . 

Seventh American Photographic Salon 

Nov. 1, 1910 

June 1, 1911 

C. C. Taylor, Sec’y 
Toledo, Ohio 

International Photographic Exhibition 
Moscow, Russia 

March 1 

May 1, 1911 

Dr. A. Prochoroff 

Moscow, Russia 

International Circulating Exhibition 

March 18 

May 15, 1911 

Mr. M. Kiesling-, Dept, of 
Photographic Apparatus 
8 Kaiserplatz, 

Wilmersdorf, Berlin 

International Industrial Exposition 
Turin, Italy, 1911 

Round Robin Guild Pictures for 1909 

April to 
Oct., 1011 

Prof. Emmerich, Dept. Photo- 
graphy and Reproduction 
2 Martin Greif Str. 

Munich, Germany 

Grand Rapids Camera Club 

Dec. 1, 1910 

Jan. 1, 1911 

E. S. Gage, President 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 



The American Journal of Photography 

Yol. XXVI FEBRUARY, 1911 No. 2 

Published Monthly by WILFRED A. FRENCH, 383 Boylston Street, Boston, U.S.A. Entered as Second-Class Matter, 
June 30, 1908, at the Post-Office, Boston, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


United States and Mexico, $1.50. Canadian postage, 35 cents I Foreign postage, 75 cents extra. Single copies, 20 cents each, 
extra. Single copies, 15 cents each | Always payable in advance 




Contributions relating to photography in any and all of its branches are solicited and will receive our most careful consideration. 
While not accepting responsibility for unrequested manuscripts, we will endeavor to return them if not available, provided return- 
postage is enclosed. 



The Laughing Girl 

A Rainy Day 

The First Drive 

A Northern Hamlet 

"Abuse of the Ray-Filter” 



A Florida Summer-Scene. 

A Dutch Baby 

Study of Soft Snow 



After the Storm 

Kodak Competition 1010 — First Prize, Class A 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Second Prize, Class A 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Third Prize, Class A 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Fourth Prize, Class A 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Fifth Prize, Class A 

Kodak Competition 1910 — First Prize, Class B 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Second Prize, ('lass B 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Third Prize, Class B 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Fourth Prize, Class B 

Kodak Competition 1910 — Fifth Prize, ( 'lass B. . 

First Prize — Scenic Beauties of America 

Second Prize — Scenic Beauties of America 

Honorable Mention — Scenic Beauties of America 

Honorable Mention — Scenic Beauties of America. 

Honorable Mention — Scenic Beauties of America 

Third Prize — Scenic Beauties of America 

Honorable Mention — Scenic Beauties of America 

Honorable Mention — General 

New Britain Camera Club 1910 — First Prize 

New Britain Camera Club 1910 — Second Prize 

E. 0. Hoppe Front Cover 

.A. E. Boultenkouse Frontispiece 

Julian A. Dimock 58 

Julian A. Dimock 59 

Julian A. Dimock 60 

Julian A. Dimock 62 

Julian .1. Dimock 63 

Julian A. Dimock 65 

F. J. Sipprell 67 

Will Cadby 68 

_ _ Will Cadby „ 70 

Will Cadby 71 

Will Cadby 72 

William Shewell Ellis . 74 

II. E. Lawson 74 

_ F. and C. A. Maynard 75 

R. T. Dooner 76 

A. F. Bradley __ _ __ 77 

__.R.B. Marsh 78 

Mrs. Nancy Ford Cones _ 78 

.. R. J. Barber ... 79 

Dr. Robert Nones , Jr. 79 

Mrs. N. A. II. Bromley 80 

Jeanette Anderson and Beatrice B. Bell 83 

...F. A. Hodges 84 

Rupert Bridge 85 

John J. Reilly . . 85 

Beatrice B. Bell 86 

J. G. Beach 86 

Harry G. Phister 87 

_ _ Alexander Murray .. 88 

_ _ A. IF. Stipek 96 

F. G. Patience 97 


In the Good Old Winter-Time Julian A. Dimock 57 

The Lantern at Home C. H. Cloudy 61 

Some Successful Lantern-Slide Toners, and How to Lise Them T. Thorne Baker , F.C.S., F.R.P.S. 66 

Picture-Making in the Snow Will Cadby 69 

flic Eastman Advertising-Competition Malcolm Dean Miller , A.B., M.D. 73 




The Crucible 

Thk Round Rodin Guild 


Berlin Letter 



London Letter 

Beginners’ Column 


Our Illustrations.. 

Answers to Correspondents 


Book -Reviews 



On the Ground-Glams 


Exposure-Guide for February 


1 1 

1 1 
1 1 
1 1 
1 1 

1 1 
I 1 

Notes and News _ 
With the Trade... 

/ 77, , A fitericun .Journal of Photography , C opyrighl. lull, by Wilfred A. French. 








The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI FEBRUARY, 1911 No. 2 

In the Good Old Winter-Time 


W ATSON resembled nothing that was 
human. Only his eyes were visible, 
peering through a little circular 
opening of thick caribou fur. Cap and coat 
were in one piece, while his hands were pro- 
tected by gauntlets of the same material which 
came well up over the ends of the sleeves. 
The main garment was pulled on over the head 
as a shirt is put on. but to get the thing oh' was 
harder than to get out of an old-fashioned 
sweater, for heavy fur will not turn back on 
itself as will soft wool and so cannot be peeled. 
A valet bad to grab hold of cap and sleeve and 
hold mightily while Watson slowly wriggled 
out. He was as helpless as the modern woman 
in a back-buttoned gown. 

It didn’t seem so very cold that morning 
when we got into the sleigh, but before we left 
it my breath had congealed into solid ice on the 
inner side of the scarf that I wore around my 
face, and my eyelashes were frozen together. 

I was copiously bundled up in more than a 
year's supply of clothing. I wore several suits 
of underwear, an assortment of French flannel 
and Pontiac shirts, a vest of sheep’s wool, a 
lumberman’s jacket, a twelve months’ outfit of 
hosiery, fur-lined moccasins, a couple of caps, 
scarfs, silk gloves, woolen mittens, and a lot of 
garments that I have forgotten. But then it 
was a sudden jump for me from a summer 
spent in the sunshine of Florida to the cold of 
the Canadian woods, and this was my acclima- 
ting drive. 

When we stopped at a habitant’s for dinner 
I could scarcely walk from the sleigh to the 
house. The cold had found every crevice and 
the bitter wind which we had faced for hours 
had driven it straight through the many thick- 
nes>cs of clothing until I was fast sinking into 
a condition of lethargy. It was a considerable 
time, even under the influence of a hot kitchen- 
tire. before 1 could remove the outer layers of 

garments. My one comfort was that Watson, 
inured to drives when the mercury was freezing, 
was thoroughly chilled and even the driver, 
enveloped beyond recognition in a huge fur 
coat, was nearing his limit of endurance when 
we stopped at the little village of St. Jean de 

I had been vaguely wondering how my cam- 
era was expected to catch the lumber-jack at his 
work or how it was to learn of the life at 
Hudson’s Bay Company’s posts, when its oper- 
ator was too cold to care whether he was alive 
or dead. But after thawing for an hour before 
the warm fire and stowing away an astonish- 
ingly large dinner, I dropped some of the gloom 
of the morning and began to consider camera- 
demands. Outside was a country the like of which 
I had never seen. Several feet of snow covered 
the ground, the sun shone brightly out of a 
cloudless sky, and the atmosphere glittered with 
cold — intense, dry, metallic cold. The smoke 
from chimneys hovered close as if reluctant to go 
out into the frozen wilderness. It was all a new 
world to me and 1 simply had to get some 

Camera and plate-holders were packed away 
in the bottom of the sleigh under a pile of 
robes and various impedimenta, and it was a 
work of considerable time to extricate them. 
But the joy of the scene on the ground-glass 
made up to me for the hardship of the long 
drive, for on it was reflected the beauty of color, 
although the plate could translate the picture 
only into black and white. Mittens are clumsy 
things and I could not turn the focusing-screw 
without removing one from my left hand. Then 
I found that I could not easily press down 
the exposure-knob without taking one off the 
right hand. The slide of the holder stuck, and 
I took off the silk glove, too, from my right 
hand. After exposing a plate on a particularly 
charming view I happened to look at my hand 


and discovered the tell-tale whiteness of thumb 
and forefinger. Hastily putting down cam- 
era and plate-box, I grabbed a handful of snow 
and gave that freezing hand a vigorous rubbing. 
Then it seemed about time to return to the 
kitchen. I entered the room only to have Wat- 
son pull me outside and savagely massage my 
face with snow ! 

That particular picture will always possess an 
added interest for me. It reminds me of the 
boy who was kicked in the face by a mule. 
When lie came slowly out of unconsciousness he 
anxiously inquired if his beauty had been spoiled. 
“ You will never be as handsome, my son.” re- 
plied his father, “ hut you will know more.” 

I am yet looking for a solution to that prob- 
lem of a practicable way to protect my face 
in extremely low temperature. A foray in pic- 
ture-making, when the mercury is low in the 
bulb, means an occasional massage with snow to 
work out the frost. A series of pictures taken 
one morning cost four distinct freezes. Another 
set combined a frozen nose with clothes wet 
with perspiration. The trail had led over a 
hard hill and the necessary violent exertion that 
served to drench ray clothes could not prevent 
the exposed portions of my anatomy from almost 
literally turning to ice. 


But these are scarcely troubles. The good 
things far overbalance them. When the follow- 
ing spring I went over much of the same region, 
I vowed that never again would I wander through 
the woods of Quebec save in the winter-time. 
At every stop in the season of cold I had to 
limit the plates to be used on landscape-work to 
the number that I could spare from more press- 
ing demands. The snow-scenes were entran- 
cing ; everywhere were views crying out loud to 
he taken. The spring offered no opportunities 
whatever in this line. I spent four weeks fol- 
lowing the log-drives and used not a single plate 
on a landscape ! 

If you want the best that the country offers, 
go to Canada in the winter and, by all means, 
go to Florida in the “ good old summer-time.” 

Both extremes have their individual ways of 
attacking plates and camera, but neither calls 
for special apparatus. Plates deteriorate rap- 
idly under the semi-tropical sun, but stay good 
in the northern cold. But then oil never coag- 
ulates in the warmth of the south, while it makes 
a shutter immovable in the north. 

I knew little about the conditions which I 
was to face and sought advice. My camera and 
plate-holders I took to a sporting-goods house 
and requested that their case-man be turned 




loose on the job of preparing these for the trip. 
A 6y 2 x 81/ 2 Keflex camera is as bigas a house 
and as heavy as a trunk, and neither si/.e nor 
weight must be unnecessarily increased, which 
limited the workman’s opportunities. As a re- 
sult of his efforts the camera was fitted with a 
pantasote case, the top of which fastened with 
patent snap-catches, and made practically water- 
proof by an inner throat of soft rubber cloth 
with a tie-string. Around the working-parts of 
the camera the case was reinforced with leather. 
The plate-holders were first enclosed in a wooden 
box, and this fitted with a pantasote case. Both 
have been left out in tropical rain storms and 
in blizzards of snow without injury. The neu- 
tral color prevents the absorption of too much 
sun m the south and soaks in enough heat from 
its rays in the north. My extra plates were car- 
ried in the original crates, around which were 
wrapped several thicknesses of rubber (doth. 
Another time I shall have pantasote cases made 
for them. 

I knew that the cold would make trouble with 
oiled springs, and so I sent my camera to the 

factory with instructions to wipe all working- 
parts dry. With apparatus so prepared the 
main responsibility seemed to rest with me. 

Too sudden raising of the temperature must 
be avoided as scrupulously as the plague. One 
day my bare hand was left for an instant too 
near the lens. The condensation formed a thin 
cloud of ice that it took me an hour to thaw 
even with the help of a warm room. Another 
time the camera was brought into a warm room 
and immediately collected drops of moisture 011 
all the metal parts. These drops formed little 
lumps of ice the moment the instrument was 
carried out again into the cold. Of course 
nothing would work until the whole apparatus 
had been warmed through and thoroughly dried. 
After that experience neither lens nor camera 
was brought indoors until the end of the trip. 
Fhe trouble came with the holders and plates. 
The latter could not be handled in the cold and 
must not be warmed too suddenly lest condensa- 
tion ensue. By bringing them into the house a t 
night wrapped up in the protecting cases the 
heat soaked through so slowly that by morning 


the plates in the holders could he packed and 
the holders easily refilled in a changing-hag. 

The big error that I made was in the matter 
of exposures. Camera-users dinned into my 
ears the strength of the snow-light and the cer- 
tainty of over-exposure, until I was afraid to 
open the slit of the curtain for work by moon- 
light. Dugmore and a collection of spoiled 
over-exposures were quoted to me as a warning. 
Some day I hope to catch Dugmore in a quiet 
corner and tell him what I think of a photo- 
grapher who would over-expose in the north ! 

L am a crank about a ray-filter. J believe 
it should always lie used. To he sure it rarely 
tells the truth, hut it fetches some kind of an 
atmospheric effect that is individual and spectac- 
ular. Proper photographers warn you against 
under-exposing a plate with a ray-filter. But 
what proper person ever had the best out of life 
anyway ? Silhouette a figure against a cloudy 
sky and then expose for the sky and see what, 
you get, someday. It won’t he nature, it may 
not he art, hut it. will he worth more than 
either — for an experiment. 

While admitting idiosyncrasies I may as well 
own up to the glass-plate species. I never got a 
decent result with a film, and rarely made a 
success under hard conditions with an unknown 
brand of plates. A new brand will give me a 
beautiful negative when the exposure is made in 
the front yard where I know conditions, but, 
when exposed in the woods or on the water, it 
develops into a bit of useless glass. 

This is not a plea for the tyro to follow 
my way — may the Fates preserve him from 
that ! — but it is a suggestion that he follow his 
individual bent. If a certain brand of plates 
fits him, let him stick to it. If he succeeds with 
a film, he is a fool to take the trouble involved 
in the use of plates. As for doing what the 
other fellows do, that is a mistake always. Does 
the tourist go south in the winter ? Then let 
the photographer turn southward when the sun 
is overhead and the rainy season brings its won- 
derful clouds. Does the personally-conducted 
traveler go to Canada in the summer? Then 
the time for the photographer is in the winter. 
Never do the conventional thing! 


The Lantern at Home 


T ime was when the magic lantern was 
either a delight to he enjoyed at rare 
intervals, in the lecture-hall, or a miser- 
ably inefficient and evil-smelling toy for the 
edification of the very young. To-day. home- 
outfits can he purchased at such reasonable 
prices, and are so effective, complete, and easy 
to operate, that thousands are in use for home 
entertainment, instruction and amusement. 

But — alas that it should he so! — there is 
no royal road to perfect projection, any more 
than to knowledge of things in general or pho- 
tography in particular. Be it simplified to never 
so complete a degree, there yet remains a certain 
personal skill in the handling of even the 
smallest camera, which marks the difference 
between the tyro and the expert, the difference 
between the common or garden variety of photo- 
graph and the beautiful and distinctive. 

So with the lantern. Simplified though it 
may he, easy to use though it is, there is a cer- 
tain amount of knowledge and skill necessary to 
its handling to produce results which will mark 
its operator as proficient. 

Any one can light a lantern, stick in a slide, 
and turn the focusing-screw of the projection-lens 
until the image is in some degree presentable. 
And that is about all of projection many who 
project pictures attempt to learn — nay, all they 
think there is to learn. Nor, indeed, is the 
knowledge requived profound or deep, nor the 
manual skill at all difficult to acquire. But a 
little more than that stated above is necessary. 

All projection-lanterns have three essential 
parts, viz : light, condensors, projection-lens. 

The source of light may he oil, gas, mantle, 
calcium, incandescent lamp or arc — it is still 
hut a source of light. Its function is to make 
the picture visible. 

The condensors may he of any one of several 
forms, two or three lenses, ventilated or “ tight,” 
well ground of (dear glass, pressed out of poor 
glass. Their function is to gather in all the 
light possible from the source of light and pass 
it on in the form of a cone with a more or less 
indefinite point, through the lantern-slide, to the 

The projection-lens may be of any one of a 
dozen makes or kinds ; usually it is a cheap 
form of lens of portrait-construction, without 
any optical corrections save for color and, over 
a small field, for spherical aberration. Its func- 

tion is to take the light given to it by the light- 
source, condensors and slide, and with it form a 
real image at some point beyond itself, which 
image is made visible by reflection from a 
white cloth screen. 

All this is very elementary. Yet it is upon 
tlie proper arrangement and coordination of 
these three essentials of a lantern that good 
projection depends. 

The light must be clear and unobstructed. 
Thus, if it is an incandescent gas-lamp, using a 
mantle, it is essential that the wire supports of 
the mantle be not between the light and the 
condensors. It is necessary that the mantle he 
entirely, not partly, heated and without smoke- 
spots if the result is to he of the best. If an 
arc is the source of light, the hotter and brighter 
carbon must he the upper horizontal one (in a 
right-angle lamp) and the lower carbon must he 
kept well down out of the field of brightness of 
this arc. If it is an acetylene lamp, the flame 
must be properly placed with reference to both 
reflector and condensors. 

The light must he central with the condensors 
and the proper distance from them. This po- 
sition is determinable by experiment. Light the 
lamp, put in a slide and manipulate t lie projec- 
tion-lens, so that the slide is clearly in focus on 
the screen. Remove the slide, leaving the screen 
illuminated with plain light. The screen should 
appear of an even color, and the edges of the 
circle of illumination should lie sharp. If colors, 
moons, shadows, circles or blotches show on the 
screen, the light is not properly placed with 
reference to the condensor. Move the source 
of light up, down, forwards, hack, from side to 
side, until the circle of illumination is clear, 
clean-cut, shadowless and without color. The 
light is then central with the screen. 

Keep it so. If it is an arc — about the only 
kind of illuminant which moves while burning — 
watch it to see that in adjusting the carbons 
for the length of arc, as they burn away, you 
do not alter the position of the arc with refer- 
ence to the condensor, and, to make this the 
easier to do. do not run the rheostats up any 
higher in amperage than is necessary to get a 
good light. The higher the amperage, the 
hotter the arc ; the hotter the arc. the faster it 
burns ; the faster it burns, the more adjusting it 
needs and the more likely it is to get decen- 
tralized and throw a shadow on the screen. 



Adjust the light with reference to the con- 
densor and projection-lens whenever you use 
the lantern. Different lengths of “ throw ” and 
different-sized images will make different adjust- 
ments necessary. Don’t attempt to throw a 
huge picture with a condenser made for a small 
one, or vice versa, and expect the best results — 
there is no universal condensor made. 

Having learned correct adjustment of light, 
condensor and projector, turn your attention to 
securing a real dissolving effect, if you have a 
dissolving-lantern. The mere interchange of 
one picture into another is not a dissolving. To 
get the real effect see to it that both lanterns 
throw their pictures on the same part of the 
screen ; do this by focusing first one, then the 
other, and finally throwing both images on 
the screen together. Then adjust the upper 
lantern until its image exactly overlaps that of 
the lower lantern. 

Next, adjust the dissolver, of whatever type, 
whether iris, bat-wing or key (for a gas-lamp) 

so that the maximum of one lamp is reached 
just as the other is shut off. Finally, don’t 
dissolve as if your life depended on it ; work 
the dissolver slowly and evenly, for only in this 
way is the true effect obtained. 

See that your lantern is as “ square ” with 
the screen as possible. The pernicious habit 
of some home-exhibitors of tilting their lantern 
skyward, in order to get a throw well above the 
heads of the audience, cannot but result in some 
part of the picture’s being out of focus. Ele- 
vate the whole lantern, not one end of it, or 
depress the screen, or throw from one side, but, 
as nearly as possible, have the lantern level. If 
projecting from one side of the room, have the 
screen swung a little out of position, so that it 
is “ square ” with the lantern — is parallel to a 
cross section of the lenses, in other words. 

The adjuration so often given beginners in 
photography, “ Keep your lens clean.” is fit to 
he printed on a sign and hung above the lan- 
tern. But it applies more particularly to the 



condensers than to the projection-lens. Not 
that a projection-lens is at all improved by 
dirt — quite the contrary — but dirt on the 
projector merely dulls the image, dirt on the 
condensing-lenses makes spots, streaks and 
shadows in the image. By the same token, 
slides which are full of finger-marks, grease- 
stains and other dirt, are not so enjoyable as if 
well cleaned. Many slide-holders are so con- 
structed — for some peculiar and non-under- 
stood reason — that it is necessary to pick the 
slide up with the fingers against the glass-slides, 
rather than the edges, to get them out of the 
lantern. Each such insertion and removal of 
the slide leaves a finger-mark upon it ; con- 
sequently. it is a good plan to go over any set 
of slides carefully with a clean cloth and. if 
necessary, a little alcohol, before giving an 

Carelessness in putting in. removing and ad- 
justing slides marks the operator as a tyro in 
the art. ^ our audience does not care for en- 
larged images of your thumb, nor for the finger- 
prints which you may deposit on the slides. 


You must never forget that your audience is 
being furnished an illusion — if the slides are 
good and the projection well done, a very per- 
fect illusion. They are not looking at images, 
or slides, or light, but at the very scenes them- 
selves. To change a slide, adjust its position 
so its movement is visible to the audience, or 
throw with it a picture or shadow of a finger, is 
rudely to disturb this illusion. 

In a single lantern, don’t change slides with 
the lens open. Cap it between changes. Don’t 
wiggle the slide while it is being shown. And 
don’t, for the love of all that is beautiful and 
dignified in a lantern-exhibit, show a slide up- 
side down. Thumb-marks on slides should he 
arranged beforehand ; but if your slide is tlmmb- 
markless, and you are in doubt as to which side 
goes next the lens, take the slide and look 
through it, see that it is right side up and that 
left and right are properly placed to your eyes, 
which will happen when you are looking through 
it with its film-side towards you. Then turn 
the slide upside down, and insert with the film 
side towards the light, the glass side towards 

the projection-lens, and it will show right and 
left quite properly on the screen. 

Home-lanternists are enthusiastic lantern-slide 
makers, as a rule. Who makes lantern- slides for 
long, begins to make them in color. Yet how 
often does it happen that, after making a land- 
scape in brown, a seascape in blue, an alleged 
moonlight in green or a portrait in chalk red, 
the results are unsatisfactory. 

The following simple scheme for trying differ- 
ent colors on slides will be found of consider- 
able service in deciding what color to make the 
final slide. 

Prepare color-screens as you color lantern- 
slides. Thus, if you use dyes on your slides, take 
several lantern- slide plates and fix in the dark 
without development. Soak these for different 
times in different dyes ; thus, you may soak one 
for ten, one for thirty and one for sixty seconds 
in an aniline red, and secure three shades of red 
on drying them ; the same may he done with 
greens, blues and browns. Now, take any plain 
black slide and place the color-screen behind it, 
and project. The result will be the slide in 
color. It will not be quite so brilliant as the 
finished slide will be, since there are three 
glasses and two films, here, instead of two 
glasses and one film, in the finished slide ; but it 
will give a good idea of how the slide will look 

O o 

when colored. The same slide can he tried with 
all the color-screens, and the proper color, or the 
one best suiting your taste, selected for making 
the final slide. The black slide can then be 
unbound and dyed or a new slide can be made 
and dyed. 

If you color your slides chemically, by rede- 
velopment, uranium toning or other processes, 
it will be necessary, in order to get the same 
colors in the color-screens, to flash lantern-slides 
to the light, develop and fix, and then color 
chemically. The length of the flash to the light 
will, of course, govern the opacity of the de- 
posit and thus the strength of the color. But it 
should be noted that a light halftone should l>e the 
general depth aimed at in this flash, otherwise 
the color-screen will be so deep that the slides 
projected with its aid will appear too dark to 
judge properly. 

If so great an accuracy is not desired as to 
color and you merely want to know whether 
to color a slide red, blue, green, without any 
particular reference to any particular blue, or 
red, or green, the dyed screens can be used, or 
sheets of colored gelatine, obtainable in any 
notion-store, can be substituted. The writer re- 
calls with much pleasure the learned discussion 
which took place in a lantern-slide society as to 

how one particularly impressive and beautiful 
slide had been colored. It showed a blue of 
unusual purity and depth, yet without that virile 
strength which seems so unnatural in many blue- 
toned slides. One man said this process, an- 
other said that, and quite an argument resulted. 
Finally, the owner was appealed to tell his se- 
cret. He cut his slide open and took out a strip 
of blue gelatine ! 

No one, by the way, in that learned society, 
admired the blue slide very much after that. 
It wasn’t made according to the rules. But all 
this is by the way. 

It hardly need he said that, in giving any 
home-entertainment with the lantern, some sort 
of talk to go with the slides is an aid to their 
fuller enjoyment. The mere showing of a mis- 
cellaneous collection of slides may be interesting 
once or twice, but speedily grows monotonous. 
Again, few slide-workers are so indefatigable 
that they can produce fifty or more slides, 
worth seeing, often enough to make the lantern 
justify its purchase. So it becomes necessary to 
get slides, and talks to go with them, from some 
outside source. Many who read this may know 
how such material can be obtained, but to some it 
will be news that there are houses which make 
a specialty of renting slides and lectures. All 
large cities have such lecture-bureaus, and those 
localities which are not so supplied are close 
enough, usually, to some near-by depot, to make 
the obtaining and return of slides a small 

Slides are rented for a small sum per set, 
and are usually accompanied with typewritten 
or printed lectures. Thus, one can give a com- 
plete series of travel-talks at home, renting 
slides of different localities, together with a very 
fair talk, which, if impersonal and somewhat 
“ guide-hooky.” is usually informative. Those 
who have had the advantage of travel can rent 
slides of the places they have visited and supple- 
ment the hired lecture with personal experiences. 

Educational subjects, apart from travel, will 
make* a welcome break in such a home-series, 
and the many interesting fruit, flower, plant and 
animal sets, as well as those more technical, 
such as botanical, entomological or geological 
collections, can be obtained with equal ease. 

[Inasmuch as these columns are strictly for con- 
tributed matter, it has seemed unwise to include 
herein any list of commercial enterprises which 
rent slides, but application by letter, enclosing 
stamp, either to the writer or the Editor, will 
bring the necessary addresses by return mail.] 



Some Successful Lantern-Slide Toners, and How to 

Use Them 


T HERE is rather a tendency in these days 
to get tones on lantern-slides by direct 
development ; warm tones are readily 
obtained with suitable developers, and lantern- 
plates made particularly for the purpose ; and 
ordinary “ black-tone ” lantern-plates can also 
be employed for obtaining warm tones by de- 
velopment. Many workers, however, desire an 
alternative method of obtaining colors on slides, 
with the certainty of repeating the same tone 
every time. 

A lantern-slide lias to be so brilliant, trans- 
parent and “fogless,” in order to look well on 
the screen, that, as a rule, the best results in 
warm colors are generally produced by straight- 
forward development for clean black and white 
effects and subsequent toning. But the toning- 
bath itself requires consideration, for the simple 
fact that a toner usually deposits a colored com- 
pound on the image, and this may, or may not, 
be transparent ; if not, it will be quite unsuitable 
for lantern-work. 

A large variety of brown, green and blue 
tones can be obtained with the three solutions 
given below, which are about the most useful 
and simplest of all the numerous lantern-slide 
toners so far discovered. Three ten-ounce bottles 
should be well rinsed out. labeled A. B and C 
respectively, and filled up with these toning 

solutions : 

A. Uranium nitrate 60 gr. 

Distilled water 10 oz. 

B. Potassium ferricyanide .... 60 gr. 

Distilled water 10 oz. 

C. Ferric chloride 45 gr. 

Distilled water 10 oz. 

An ounce each of glacial acetic acid and pure 
sulphuric acid should also be kept handy. 

There is a little trick about the uranium 
toner — a very simple key to success. It. is 
merely the really thorough washing of the slides 
as well as the thorough fixing of them. The 
milky appearance of the lantern-slide disappears 
quickly, as the him of emulsion is extremely 
thin, yet at least ten minutes should be allowed 
for the fixing, and the bath should be one of 
plain hypo and water for preference, not acid. 
Thorough washing can only be done by using 
several changes of water. 

A toning-bath made up of equal parts of A 
and B gives the ordinary uranium tones ; in this 
bath the black image gradually becomes brown, 
and eventually tones to bright, foxy red. A de- 
posit of uranium ferrocyanide is in the ordinary 
way thrown down, owing to the reducing action 
of the metallic silver on the ferricyanide. The 
toning may be stopped at any stage ; thus a wide 
range of cold and warm tones can be obtained. 

After toning, the slides should be rinsed in water 
containing a drop or two of acetic acid to the 
ounce, then washed for ten minutes in five or six 
changes of water. 

Toning by any method in which one employs 
a deposit of a metallic salt on the image causes 
more or less intensification, hence slides to be 
toned should be made rather thinner than usual. 
The intensification becomes noticeable more par- 
ticularly when the slides are drying. 

Slides toned brown in the uranium-ferricya- 
nide bath can be toned blue by subsequent im- 
mersion in bath C, given above, and by stopping 
the operation in the early stages a very fair 
green can be obtained. There is a certain knack 
in obtaining this green, as only just the right 
amount of time in the iron bath (C) must be 
allowed. It must also be borne in mind that 
whatever “green ” is obtained will become bluer 
during the drying of the plates. 

Blue-toned slides should be soaked after ton- 
ing for about three minutes in a little water 
acidulated’ with five drops of the sulphuric to 
each two ounces. They must then be well rinsed 
and dried in the rack. 

A bath for giving bine tones direct may be 

made with a ferric salt, as follows : 

I. Ammonio-citrate of iron .... 50 gr. 

Water 5 oz. 

1 1. Potassium ferricyanide 50 gr. 

Water 5 oz. 

M ix the two solutions, and add two drams of 
glacial acetic acid. 

The ever-popular sulphide-toner will be found 
to answer quite satisfactorily for lantern-slide 
work, and the two solutions given hereunder 
may be taken for the purpose. Great pains 
must be taken to ensure that the plate is quite 
free of hypo before placing it in the bleacher, 
or the halftones may be destroyed by the action 
of tbe hypo combined with ferricyanide. 




Ammonium bromide 

| oz. 

Potassium ferricyanide 

i oz. 


10 oz. 


Pure (fresh) sodium sulphide 

1 dr. 


10 oz. 

The plate is first bleached in the A 



the silver image is converted 

to silver 

ferrocyanide. This process should he allowed 
to continue for a few minutes, until the action 
has taken place throughout the entire image. 

The bleached slide is then washed for ten 
minutes under the tap. put into a clean dish and 
flooded with the sulphide solution, which, unlike 
the bleaching-bath, should he used only once, 
and then thrown away. W hen the “ redevelop- 
ment ” is complete, the lantern-plate should he 
well washed and after a careful swabbing set in 
a dust-free place to dry. A tine brownish sepia 
image of silver sulphide is obtained in this way. 
— ■ The Amateur Photographer. 


Picture-Making in the Snow 


I T is singular how few photographers treat 
snow as a serious proposition. They will 
take snap-shots of pretty bits, or, perhaps, 
make records just to show how deep the snow 
has been, hut they do not go into it, and ham- 
mer out their problems, or make pictures as they 
would with ordinary landscapes, trying again 
and again at a subject until they have succeeded 
in expressing pictorially the idea which was 
latent in their mind. 

Possibly the temperature has something to do 
with this neglect of a subject which is, before 
all others, the photographer’s own, for, at pres- 
ent. most of our best work is in monotone, and 
a black and white world — a snow-covered land- 
scape, should lie our ideal hunting-ground in 
which we find the material for picture-making. 
Color, the pitfall of the inexperienced, is practi- 
cally eliminated : the subject can be studied in 
life just as it will appear on the print, which is 
an enormous advantage. Besides this, many 
ideas can he expressed by snow-scapes ; they can 
he grave or gay, and Nature can he caught in 
many moods while the earth is under snow. 

Then what an admirable background snow 
makes for figure-studies ! These alone might 
keep an enthusiast busy all winter. Think of 
the delightful rendering the camera will give of 
figures on snow — all the tiresome detail of the 
background obliterated. This is one of the 
strong features of snow-portraiture, and it is 
curious it is so seldom used. If we wish to 
break up the white sheet of paper which a plain 
snow-field will give, we can swing the camera 
round until we include in the view a pictorial 
hit of fence which will just suggest distance. 
Indeed, the background can be controlled to al- 
most any extent to suit the portrait we are mak- 
ing. The results are camera sketches, and very 
often character sketches, thanks to the simpli- 
fication of the surroundings produced by the 
snow, which in turn gives emphasis to the salient 
points of the figure. 

A snowy landscape offers grand opportunities 
for what we might describe as decorative treat- 
ment. The delicate tracery of a branch, every 
twig of which is outlined with snow, is a subject 
which is full of possibilities. A bit of forest, 
too. heavily draped in fresh snow, where the 
light and shade are almost bewildering in their 
subtlety and infinite gradation, will yield many 
decorative effects — effects which will tax the 
technical skill of the photographer to its utmost. 

And now how to go about taking snow-pho- 
tographs : to begin with, we must aim at the 
technically-perfect negative. We have not the 
same latitude here as with ordinary subjects ; 
for, with the latter, if the exposure has not been 
hopelessly wrong, a print which is passable can 
he produced. Now a passable print of a snow- 
subject will not do ; it will not represent snow. 
Ever so little over-exposure will probably result 
in flat fogginess ; and chalk and soot will he 
the effect of the opposite fault, when all the 
delicate highlights will he buried in the depths 
of the negative, never to appear on a print. So 
we must ensure correct exposure, working system- 
atically with an actinometer, making the cal- 
culations very carefully. If this is done, the 
rest is comparatively easy. A thinnish, brilliant 
negative is the sort to aim at, unless, of course, 
it is intended to print in carbon, when it must 
Vie built up more steeply in development. Per- 
sonally, I rely on dilute Rodinal for all my 
snow-negatives, using, as a rule, one part Rodi- 
nal to forty parts water, but it must not be for- 
gotten that Rodinal works much slower at a low 
temperature, and as snow-photography is essen- 
tially a cold-weather job, the water with which 
the developer is diluted should be warmed to 
about 62° Fahrenheit. 

As to printing, black platinum is, perhaps, the 
most all-around useful medium. With a good 
negative it will yield beautiful snow-prints, and 
its color is suitable. But we have another string 
to our bow, which I for one delight to use. If 
any of my readers have a snow-negative, the re- 
sults from which are not entirely pleasing in 
platinum, then I recommend them to try bro- 
mide. and unless their negative is shamefully 
dense, a bromide enlargement. There are capa- 
bilities in bromide, particularly for this descrip- 
tion of work, which seem almost unknown, or 
unrecognized or, perhaps, forgotten in the rush 
of modern printing-processes. But for delicacy 
and differentiation in the highlights, it is un- 
rivaled. especially now that we have a grade to 
suit almost every sort of negative. 

The actual taking of the photograph has been 
left till the last. Snow-photography needs no 
special camera. A tripod is certainly to he 
recommended, for it is much easier to study the 
composition on the ground-glass than through a 
view-finder. If the snow is deep, round discs of 
wood or bent cane may be attached to the ends 
of the tripod-legs to prevent their sinking in, 





just in the same way as the present-day ski- 
runner’s sticks are arranged. Backed plates we 
must have, preferably isochromatic. They are 
just as easy to carry and manipulate as the ordi- 
nary variety, and may turn the scale in our favor 
when the sky is blue or our models’ faces are red. 

A lens-hood is another of the indispensables. 
A sky-shade is insufficient protection ; for when 
the snow is on the ground, the reflected light 
is pouring into the lens from every direction, 
and even slight fog will ruin our snow-pictures. 
There are efficient lens-hoods on the market 
now. and it is a good plan to get the makers to 
fit the color-screen into the hood, and so turn 
two pieces of apparatus into one, thereby avoid- 
ing tbe not unlikely catastrophe of dropping and 
losing the color-screen in the snow. 

Readers will gather from the foregoing that 
tie- apparatus necessary for snow-photography 

is nothing more than most camera-users have hy 
them. There is much to be gained from work- 
ing in the snow, even apart from high-toned pic- 
tures. for it must improve our technique and 
thereby raise our whole standard of photographic 
efficiency ; and certainly the climatic conditions 
will develop and encourage many Spartan char- 
acteristics which are not taxed — anyhow not so 
severely — when pursuing our craft under more 
clement and kindly conditions. 

[Mr. Cadby refers to under-exposed negatives 
as having all the delicate highlights buried. This 
is of course the case when under-timing has been 
followed by forced development in a strong solu- 
tion. The lens-hoods referred to are much 
used by English workers and generally take the 
form of a folding bellows or similar device. 
They are particularly efficient with modern 
anastigmats of large aperture. — Et/itor.~\ 


In starry Hake and pellicle 
All day the hoary meteor fell ; 

And, when the second morning shone, 

We looked upon a world unknown, 

On nothing we could call our own. 

Around the glistening wonder hent 
The blue walls of the firmament, 

No cloud above, no earth below — 

A universe of sky and snow! 

The old familiar sights of ours 
Took marvelous shapes ; strange domes 
and towers 


Rose up where sty or corn-crib stood, 

Or garden-wall, or belt of wood ; 

A smooth white mound the brush-pile showed, 

A fenceless drift what once was road ; 

The bridle-post an old man sat, 

With loose-flung coat and high-cocked hat ; 

The well-curb had a Chinese roof ; 

And even the long sweep, high aloof, 

In its slant splendor, seemed to tell 
Of Pisa’s leaning miracle. 

— Whittier , “ Snowbound.” 


The Eastman Advertising-Competition 


T HE Eastman Kodak Company, always a 
most generous patron of photographers, 
both professional and amateur, lias just 
closed its advertising-competition for 1910. 
This contest has become one of the most im- 
portant fixtures of the photographic world, not 
only because of the remarkably large cash- 
prizes awarded, but also because of the tremen- 
dous stimulus it has been to the application of 
photography to advertising. Photo-Era has 
many times called attention to the increasing 
use of photographs by the general advertiser, 
and one has only to pick up almost any of the 
popular magazines and glance at the advertising- 
pages (more interesting, oftentimes, than the 
body of the letter-press) to see how greatly the 
ad-writer depends on the halftone cut from a 
photograph to present his goods in an attractive 
manner. In this development, beyond ques- 
tion, the Eastman Company has had a large 
share, and the successful contestants in its con- 
tests have gained valuable experience which 
they can apply with profit, should they so de- 
sire. to photographic illustration-work. 

The bearing of this on the work of the 
amateur whose expense-account is growing faster 
than he can afford to let it is evident. Given a 
sufficient mastery of photographic technique to 
ensure first-class results, such an amateur may 
make his camera pay for itself by selling prints 
to advertisers. The compensation for advertis- 
ing-photographs is generally above the average, 
and the work itself is easy and pleasant. The 
special fitness necessary may readily be gained 
by a little patient observation and study, par- 
ticularly if the practitioner has the narrative 
sense, that is. if he understands bow to make 
his picture tell a story. It is the purpose of 
this paper to discuss the results of the competi- 
tion with a view to help camerists to enter this 
attractive and remunerative field. 

Perhaps the best illustration of the superla- 
tive importance of the narrative quality is found 
in the fact that several of the prize-winners this 
time are the same photographers' who took 
prizes last year. William Shewell Ellis of 
Philadelphia now lias the distinction of winning 
first prize in the professional class two years in 
succession. In the circumstances which sur- 
rounded the judging of the prints submitted 
there was nothing to betray the names of the 
makers, for the prints were merely numbered 

on the backs, and the judges did not know who 
the makers were until after selections had been 
finally made. Now, had Mr. Ellis's picture 
not possessed in an unusually marked degree 
the story-telling quality, there is little likelihood 
that judges of the sort who passed on these 
pictures would have given him the first place 
In addition to two prominent photographers, 
F. R. Harrows, ex-president of the P. A. of A., 
and G. W. Harris, president-elect of the same 
body, there were on the jury George H. Hazen, 
advertising-manager of The Century Magazine ; 
Robert Frothingham, of Everybody's Magazine 
and the Butterick publications ; and Walter R. 
Hine, vice-president and general manager of 
Frank Seaman. Inc. Men like these have the 
trained critical faculty which enables them un- 
erringly to determine the appeal of a picture as 
an advertisement. Study this picture of Ellis's 
reproduced on another page and see how skil- 
fully he has combined several of the most popu- 
lar elements. The automobile always attracts 
attention, for there is hardly a person who is 
not directly or indirectly interested in the won- 
derful development of this most luxurious mode 
of modei'n transportation. To ibis interest 
Ellis has added another, that of a particularly 
good model. Pretty girls invariably merit more 
than a passing glance, whether the observer be 
of the sterner or of the gentler sex ; but the 
supreme interest is centered in the advertised 
article, for our excellent model is absorbed in 
the “ witchery of Ivodakery.” Thus the story 
is successfully told. 

H. E. I xiwson’s second-prize picture of the 
little girl taking the boy with the kittens is well 

Here again the story told was the deciding 
consideration. The children often prove more 
enthusiastic kodakers than do the grown-ups, 
and the reason is not far to seek, because the 
simplicity of the Brownies and the lower-priced 
Kodaks makes their management something 
well within the comprehension of any child. 
File results they get are often surprisingly good. 
What the children's pictures lack in artistic 
merit they often make up by their naturalness 
and appeal to the sympathies id' the adults. 
Hence the suggestion of the Lawson picture 
should prove a money-maker by determining 
many a wavering parent to “let the children 




The group-portrait by F. and C. A. Maynard, 
to whom the third prize was awarded, is one of 
the best groups we have had the pleasure to 
see. The chief merit consists in this, that all 
the members of the party have their interest 
concentrated on the Kodak. Too often the 
camerist permits his sitters to stare at the 
camera, thereby losing the effect of an other- 
wise good composition. Here, however, there is 
nothing to detract from the main idea — surely 
an interesting one, as it shows the extremes of 
life and suggests that one is never too old to 
kodak. The advertising-value of this particular 
picture seems to us very great. 

Fourth prize in the professional class brings 
in the well-known and highly-popular film-tank 
in a convincing way. The simplicity of the 

methods which allow all the steps of picture- 
making to be conducted successfully to the 
completion of the negatives, in camp or on an 
outing, is well shown. Most enthusiastic ama- 
teurs of a few years’ experience remember the 
impatience they suffered until the darkroom 
could he reached or until the photo-finisher re- 
turned the films. Nowadays the darkroom is 
packed along with the camera, and the results 
may he seen as soon as the last exposure has 
been made on the roll. Light weight, sim- 
plicity and convenience make it possible to take 
the roll-film camera and the tank along and 
thus secure pictures which would otherwise he 
difficult to obtain. Most picture-makers on a 
holiday are willing to take only such equipment 
as will not be in the way ; but the sternest 



stickler for lightness can hardly object to the 
bulk or heaviness of the tank, in view of the 
results which it ensures. During the spring 
and summer months such a picture as this one 
of Dooner’s will have a tremendous appeal to 
people who would like to have pictures of their 
outing, hut who have hitherto considered photo- 
graphic processes too complicated and incon- 
venient for the conditions of camp-life. As an 
advertisement, then, its success is evident. 

In quite another vein, hut carrying on the tra- 
dition of the “ Kodak Girl ” of former years, is 
A. F. Bradley’s fifth-prize picture. Here again 
the judicious selection of a first-rate model has 
brought its reward. The figure, free from any 
distracting objects in the background, catches 
the eye at once. After the observer has ad- 
mired the girl herself he notes the ever-present 
camera, which is, after all. the most important 
object in the picture. This is, or should he, the 
difference between a good portrait and a good 
advertisement. In the portrait pure and simple 
all lines should lead towards the face, and the 
lighting should he so managed as to concentrate 
the highest lights there. In the advertisement, 
on the other hand, the chief interest should lie 
in the article to he sold, the figure, charming as 
it may he, subordinating itself in drawing and 
illumination to the central idea. This is good 
composition even if the resulting picture is not 
so artistic as it might be, for the object of com- 
position is to enable the picture-maker to arrange 

his elements so as to make one prominent and 
the others less important by contrast with the 
theme of the whole. The truth of these re- 
marks is shown by the following quotation from 
the Eastman Company’s announcement of the 
results of the contest : u It is true that many 
beautiful pictures, good to look at, were passed 
by the judges because they told no story — car- 
ried no idea, or because their story-telling and 
idea-conveying qualities were not as strong as 
the winners’. We mention this to impress again 
upon the minds of our readers the vital impor- 
tance of making pictures that tell a story — 
otherwise, though technically good, they fail for 

Turning now to the amateur work, or Class 
B, we find the same principles ruling. Mr. R. B. 
Marsh won the first prize with a simple little 
picture which has great merit. The barefooted 
hoy is a subject dear to almost everyone, and we 
see at once that his day’s outing with the fishing- 
rod is not complete unless the faithful Brownie 
is included. To country-dweller and to city- 
dweller alike this should suggest that the camera 
he a constant companion of the children as well 
as of the older people. There can he no question 
of the advertising-merit of this particular prize- 

Mrs. Nancy Ford Cones, winner of the sec- 
ond award in the amateur division, is a worker 
who is well known to readers of Photo-Era. 
In our annual contest for 1907 she won the 



grand prize for the best group of pictures. Note 
how well the story is told by making the cam- 
erist the most prominent object in the foreground 
and at the same time bringing the Kodak into a 
position where it at once attracts attention. Pos- 
sibly there maybe readers who think this picture 
merits a higher distinction ; but the ways of ju- 
ries, not excepting even the Photo-Era jury in 
our monthly competitions, are inscrutable to 
outsiders. We have ourselves at times been as- 
tonished at the lack of appreciation shown some 
of our favorite works. 

R. J. Barber’s picture of the little girl taking 
the boy with the pony is one to delight all lovers 
of children and to enforce again the idea how 
greatly the “ kiddies ” enjoy picturing each 
other. As an advertisement it is not quite so 
good as the preceding ones, for the camera is 

not so prominent against the darker background, 
and the interest is divided between the two 
white-dressed children. Still, a little examina- 
tion leads the observer into the picture, and re- 
veals the motive. 

Dr. Robert Nones, -Tr., has chosen to show 
the results rather than the process, though the 
instrument occupies a prominent place on one of 
his sitters' laps. The attention of the two girls 
concentrated on the album brings up at once a 
train of ideas about the pleasures of retrospec- 
tively living over, by means of prints, the happy 
times gone by. How many of the older gener- 
ation there must he who would give almost any- 
thing could they hut have a photographic record 
of the past ! The present generation, however, 
is not so “cribbed, cabined and confined,'’ for 
the inexpensive apparatus and easy methods of 






to-day bring photography within the reach of 
everyone. Those who desire a pictorial record 
have no excuse for not making it, particularly 
when such a suggestive advertisement as the one 
under consideration will shortly he spread broad- 
cast throughout the country. 

Last of the prizes comes another rendering of 
the use of the film-tank. The finished nega- 
tives in the strip are well displayed. The table 
in the foreground shows the apparatus by which 
the results were obtained, its disposition in the 
strong light from the window proving that 
the tank needs no darkroom. The interest of the 
two hoys is evident, for they are both looking at 
the film. Once more, then, we see that intelli- 
gent study of the elements of the advertisement 
has led to success. 

In the same number of Studio Light, the 
Eastman monthly for professional photogra- 
phers in which the awards were announced, ap- 
pears a mention of another competition for 
pictures to he used in advertising. This was a 
contest managed by the Canajoharie firm which 
produces the well-known Beech-Nut Bacon and 
other specialties. More than a thousand prints 

were submitted. Such events are constantly 
taking place in different parts of the country, 
and we have consistently tried to give them the 
widest publicity for the benefit of the craft. 
The field of photographic advertising is just being 
opened, and there is a splendid chance for pho- 
tographers to train themselves to produce desir- 
able material. Not only should they keep in 
touch, through the pages of Photo-Era and 
other magazines, with the prize-competitions from 
time to time announced, but they should look 
over their own local field and go out for the 
business. Instead of waiting for advertisers to 
come to them for pictures they should study the 
requirements of their home-advertisers, plan 
some campaign requiring photographic illustra- 
tion, make specimens and persuade the advertis- 
ers to use them. Another field which could be 
profitably worked is the advertising-agencies. 
Get into communication with them and see that 
they send to you for pictures whenever they need 
any for special advertising-propositions. Thus, 
and only thus, will this movement result in the 
highest benefits which can come to the prac- 
titioner, professional or amateur. 



Publishing Restricted Photographs 

S OME of our friends have been chiding us 
for not seizing what they consider a rare 
opportunity to reproduce work of members of 
the Photo-Secession offered us, which might have 
accompanied our review of the Albright Art 
Gallery show. As was explained at the time, 
we saw no good reason for publishing prints 
which lacked the element of novelty and which 
had no connection with the subject under consid- 
eration. and of the artistic importance of which 
we were in ignorance. We might have added 
that had we so desired, we could easily have 
drawn upon our store of admirably-executed 
halftone plates of prints by Photo-Secessionists 
and of other well-known progressives published 
in Photo-Era several years ago, which, for vigor 
and saneness of conception and pictorial attract- 
iveness, have not been surpassed by the present- 
day efforts of these same workers. Should a 
reasonable excuse present itself, we may repub- 
lish these historically-interesting plates, and our 
readers may he able to judge for themselves to 
what degree, if any, certain members of the ad- 
vanced school have progressed ; or whether, com- 
pared with real or alleged latter-day efforts, 
their work has retrogressed. 

This brings to mind the charge made by our 
most excellent cotemporary, American Photo- 
graphy, to the effect that our publication of 
prints accompanying a review of the Seventh 
American Photographic Salon, by John F. 
.Tones, was unauthorized. This is. indeed, un- 
kind. when Photo-Era takes care scrupulously 
to observe the rights of the originators or owners 
of photographs. In negotiating with Mi'. Jones 
for an article on the Seventh Salon, we stipu- 
lated that it be suitably illustrated, whereupon 
Mr. Jones, vice-president of the Federation, an- 
swered that he would comply to the best of his 
ability. The task was not an easy one, as MS. 
and pictures were to be in the publisher’s hands 
before the first of the month preceding the date 
of publication, and ten days, at a time when the 
jury was busy passing upon the entries, seemed 
hardly sufficient. Yet Mr. Jones, on behalf of 
Photo-Era. wrote for duplicate prints to suc- 
cessful contributors who were most accessible, 
and had copies made of others, presumably with 
the owners’ assent. The plates were made in 
Boston. At the suggestion of Mr. Jones, we 

then asked the contributors to state their pleas- 
ure regarding the duplicate prints still in our 
possession, and the replies, quite unexpected in 
their character, were to the effect that we keep 
them with the compliments of the makers. The 
copies we returned to Mr. Jones. Not a word 
of criticism lias come to our attention other than 
the gratuitous accusation from one cotempo- 
rary, whose motives are. however, quite trans- 
parent. Incidentally, we compliment American 
Photography on its form, its substitution of “ Bos- 
ton. U. S. A..” for “ Boston, Mass.,” and its “ Ber- 
lin Letter” and “London Letter” — features 
imitated directly from Photo-Era without so 
much as one word of credit. 

Photographic Realism 

A DVOCATES of “straight ” photography, 
several of whom have recently written to 
us complaining of what they considered the 
preponderance of “ fuzzy ” pictures among our 
illustrations, will be pleased with the character 
of the prize-winners in the Eastman adver- 
tising-contest. It is evident that for advertis- 
ing-purposes, at any rate, the most competent 
judges prefer direct, truthful rendering of detail 
and texture. That such unassuming efforts 
may still possess pictorial quality is seen on 
examination of the accompanying reproductions. 
Photo-Era, however, while adhering to no 
school, recognizes that the modern tendency 
among workers of artistic temperament is to se- 
cure effects of atmosphere, tone and values by a 
broad treatment which subordinates too-insistent 
detail. Hence we give representation to works 
by photographers of all shades of opinion. 

In this connection we quote the following 
from Erewhon. by Samuel Butler (1(112— 
1(180): “Neutral tones are one thing, muddi- 
ness is another : the losing in deep shadow is 
one thing, a diffused smudginess or fuzziness is 
another. No picture is great unless both draw- 
ing and color are in some parts found, and 
again in others lost in formlessness and neutral- 
ity ; . . . but in the picture let that which is lost- 
lie lost, that which is found be found, and that 
which is midway between them be treated 
vaguely ; but let not that which should he found 
be lost, nor what should be lost he found - 
this is fatal ; above all, let there not be a dif- 
fused losing, a diffused finding, or a diffused 



An Association of Amateur Photographers 

This association, conducted under the auspices of PHOTO-ERA, and of which PHOTO-ERA is the offi- 
cial organ, is intended primarily for the benefit of beginners in photography, although advanced camerists 
are just as welcome and many are numbered among its members. The aim of the association is to assist 
photographers by giving them information, advice and criticism in the Guild pages of PHOTO-ERA and by 
personal correspondence. Membership is free and may be obtained by sending name and address to 
PHOTO-ERA, The Round Robin Guild, 383 Boylston Street, Boston. Send a stamp for complete prospectus. 

Photographic Valentines 

Each month brings its own holiday, and February 
claims for its own the day of good Saint Valentine. In 
times gone by lace-edged missives were exchanged be- 
tween swain and sweetheart, this day being devoted to 
their interests ; but the modern fashion has made it the 
custom to send a valentine here and there to one’s 
friends, either as a merry reminder of some day or occa- 
sion or as a remembrance. 

A photograph makes a particularly appropriate valen- 
tine, and the amateur may use his pictures for his valen- 
tines, sure of the fact that they will not he duplicated. 
One need not make elaborate prints unless lie chooses. 
The ready-sensitized postcards offer a very attractive 
medium for conveying one’s valentine message. One 
may buy the blue-print cards either matt or glazed sur- 
face, the self toning cards or those which require toning, 
or he may buy the ready-prepared solutions and sensi- 
tize his own cards. 

The beauty of a card of this kind is in the attractive 
way in which it is printed. The picture should never 
cover the whole of the card. It should he printed through 
a cutout or vignetted so as to leave plenty of clear sur- 
face on which to send the message. One may buy a 
set of cutouts of different shapes and sizes, or they can 
be cut from nonactinie paper in any device one chooses, 
a heart-shaped opening being an appropriate device, 
though it cannot he said to he very artistic. If the 
blue-print card is used then the writing or lettering on 
it should he in blue — ultramarine or Prussian blue 
being near the tone of the print. With the brown card 
the lettering could be done with gold paint, the water- 
color variety which requires only water to moisten it. 
Sepia and gold lettering look very pretty on a brown- 
toned card. ( )ne way to make a print is to cut a heart 
out of nonactinie paper, lay it in the center of a sensi- 
tized card, put both into the printing-frame and expose 
to the sun till the exposed part of the card is well 
blackened. When removed from the frame there will 
be a white heart on a black ground. Now print a pic- 
ture in the space outlined by the heart, tone and fix 
and one has a very clever valentine. Many ways of 
making valentine postals will occur to you, once the 
work is begun, for one idea always begets another. 


To make a negative which is an ideal printer is one 
of the things which most photographers find it hard to 
do. The professional photographer under the skylight 
works only in slightly-varying conditions of light, so that 
he is able to gage exposures pretty correctly. The ama- 
teur who essays to photograph all sorts of subjects, both 
indoors and out, finds that he has a collection of nega- 

tives among which is only a small proportion of good- 
printing negatives, the reason being that he photographs 
under all conditions of light from brilliant sunlight to 
dull, cloudy and foggy weather. Consequently his nega- 
tives frequently require more or less after-treatment 
to make good prints. 

If one has a negative which is good in detail but which 
has too great contrasts, such a negative may he turned 
into a good printer by a very simple process. This is 
the making of a thin positive on film to he used in con- 
nection with the negative during the printing. For this 
thin positive use a sensitive film. Lay the negative in 
the printing-frame film-side out, and place over it the 
film with the sensitive side toward the glass side of the 
negative. Push the negative tight up into one corner 
of the frame and see that the film also comes close to 
the same end. A very thin positive is to be made, so 
the printing-frame should be at least eight feet from the 
light. Make a short exposure, the length of time being 
governed by the density of the negative. Develop until 
detail is well out, fix, wash and dry. This thin positive 
is to he used as a mask through which to print the pic- 
ture. Place the negative in the frame with the film side 
up, pushing the edges which were in the corner of the 
frame during the making of the positive tight against 
the frame, lay the positive over it, and if both film and 
plate have been pressed evenly against the side of the 
frame they will now register exactly when placed in the 
same position. Put the paper over the positive, close 
the frame and print as usual. In using printing-out 
paper care should he taken in examining the progTess of 
the printing that the film -positive is not moved out of 
position. This masking by means of the positive retards 
quicker printing parts of the negative and allows the 
denser parts to have more time. It reduces the con- 
trasts and makes a fine print from what would other- 
wise he a very poor-printing negative. 

Negatives may be coated on the glass side with matt- 
er ground-glass-varnish, which makes a medium very 
easy to work on with pencil or knife. One may buy the 
matt-varnish ready prepared or may mix it one’s self. 
A good formula is as follows : To each ounce of ether 
add twenty grains of gum mastic, forty-five gTains of 
sandarac, and one-quarter ounce of benzol. This makes 
a very fine matt surface, but if a coarser is desired then 
add more benzol. The varnish is applied cold to the 
glass side of the negative, which must he perfectly 
clean, as, if it is at all greasy from finger-marks, the var- 
nish will not stick. Wash the glass and then rub off 
with a rag dipped in alcohol. The proper way to apply 
the varnish is to pour a small quantity on the glass, 
then taking the negative by opposite corners incline it 
so that the varnish will run down to one corner, but 
before it gets to the edge reverse the position of the 
glass and let the varnish flow to the opposite corner. 



and so till each part of the glass is covered. Drain oft 
the superfluous varnish into the bottle and tilt the nega- 
tive up and down till the varnish is set. 

The coating retards the printing of the picture and if 
the negative is simply weak in density this yellowish 
coating will hold back the light and enable one to get a 
fairly good print. The use of the varnish is not for 
this purpose, however. It is to enable one to work on 
the glass side of the negative. If the shadow parts of 
the negative print too quickly for the highlights, then 
with a sharp knife scrape away the varnish from the 
parts which print slower. The part to be printed 
longer should have the edges softened so the varnish 
must be scraped in a sort of wavy line about the objects. 
This will soften the printing somewhat as vignetting 
does, and the masking will not be apparent. 

If the varnish itself does not hold back the printing 
sufficiently, then a little coloring-matter may be added. 
A very little iodine added to the varnish will give it a 
yellowish tone ; the more iodine used the deeper the 
yellow. Aurantia will also give a yellow tone to the 
varnish, and when a negative is very thin a gTeenish 


tone will give better results in the printing. For green 
use malachite green thirty grains to an ounce of alco- 
hol. Use six minims of this solution to each ounce of 
the matt-varnish. 

Matt-varnish makes a good medium for retouching, as 
it takes the pencil or crayon-stump easily, and one may 
work up shadows and detail in objects very quickly. 
The pencil marks may be removed, if desired, by a bit 
of absorbent cotton dipped in alcohol. 

A soft print may be made from a harsh negative by 
interposing between the film and the printing-paper a 
piece of clear celluloid or of very thin glass. Sheets of 
celluloid come particularly for this purpose, and many pro- 
fessional photographers use them always when printing. 
They make very sharp negatives in order to get good 
detail, then print through the celluloid. The result is a 
very soft picture with full detail and fine modeling. 

It often occurs that one makes a negative of a land- 
scape where the sky, though full of clouds, is much 
over-exposed and requires a much longer time for print- 
ing in order to bring out than does the landscape. One 
may control the printing or equalize it by making a 



mask to fit either one or the other portions of the land- 
scape. Make a print on printing-out paper and cut it 
in half along- the horizon line, taking care to follow the 
outlines carefully. Lay the pieces in the sun until they 
have blackened. One then has an opaque mask which 
will fit one's landscape. With this he covers the land- 
scape part of the picture and prints the sky until it is 
of the desired depth; then the mask is removed and the 
landscape part printed. 

Though one should aim at producing the best possible 
negative, one that shall be a good printer without any 
manipulation or masking, yet it is the rule rather than 
the exception that one gets a straight-printing negative, 
so one should endeavor to do the hest thing, use some 
means to improve the printing-quality of the negative. 

The February Competition 

The subject for our February competition is “ Copying 
Works of Art.’’ This includes both paintings and statu- 
ary, each of which requires entirely different treatment 
In photographing paintings one must use orthochromatic 
plates in order to get correct color-values. The picture 
must l>e set in a good light, and. if lighted from the side, 
care must be taken to set it so that the brush-marks do 
not cast shadows. Sometimes an artist uses his paints 
rather thick and the surface of the picture is very much 
roughened. If the u copy ” is not evenly lighted the 
photograph will show the defects very materially. If 
glass is over the picture then it should if possible be 
removed, for with a good-sized picture it is almost im- 
possible to get the glazed picture set in such a position 
that there will not he a reflection. 


In copying pictures one must see that the picture and 
the camera are exactly parallel to each other. Unless 
they are there will be distortion. The hest way is to 
use a table or long board, set the picture at one end of 
the board against a support which shall be at right 
angles with the plane of the board. Then remove the 
camera from the stand or tripod and attach it to the board 
so that it can be moved back and forth to get the 
proper focus. One gets better results if the copying can 
be done out of doors, for then the lighting is uniform all 
over the picture, whereas if it is lighted from a win- 
dow, the part nearest the window is in the stronger light 
and consequently the exposure is more rapid. It will be 
found advantageous to the focusing of the picture to 
have it upside down so that the image in the camera 
will be right side up. 

In photographing statuary the light on those of white 
marble should be rather subdued in order to get soft 
lights and shadows. The lighting should be at one side, 
though this is not always possible to arrange owing to 
the place which the subject occupies. Screens can be 
used to advantage, a dark shawl or blanket answering* 
the purpose very well. The time for photographing* 
outdoor subjects should he chosen when the lights and 
shadows are at their best on the object to be photo- 
graphed. The early morning or late afternoon will be 
found the best time, as in the middle of the day the 
light is not only too strong, hut it is in a position where 
it throws the deepest shadows. Some beautiful pictures 
of statuary have been sent to the editor from time to 
time, and it is expected that our February contest will 
bring forth some examples of particularly flue work. 





.1. G. BEACH 





Single-Transfer Carbon-Printing 

Carbon prints are the most permanent of any. The 
color, being' a pigment, does not fade, and by the process 
one has a wider range of tones than with any other 
printing-paper except the gum-bichromate. The begin- 
ner is deterred from attempting the making’ of carbons, 
for in most of the directions for making these prints the 
process seems to be very complicated. The contrary is, 
however, the case, particularly if one uses the ready- 
sensitized tissue. Until recently the carbon tissue was 
to be had already pigmented or colored, but not sensi- 
tized. While the sensitizing is not a very tedious process, 
still one has to exercise great care to prevent tearing the 
tissue and also to protect it from the light, as the least 
bit of actinic light sets up action in the paper to the 
future spoiling of the print. Then there is the double- 
transfer. which adds further to the delicacy of the opera- 
tion. so that carbon-printing was practised by oidy a few 
professionals or advanced amateurs. 

All that is now changed. The amateur who has 
become fairly expert in other methods of printing may 
essay the carbon with a surety that it will be a success. 
The tissue now comes already sensitized and the print is 
made by the single-transfer process. The drawback to 
making carbons is the expense, but when one has a 
particularly good negative, and wants to make an un- 
usually attractive print for a gift, the carbon is an ideal 

The quality of the negative determines the quality of 
the print. It should be a “good printer” with full 
gradation of lights and shadows. When one has become 
an expert in carbons, one can get pretty good pictures 
from poor negatives. The negative must have what is 
called a “ safe edge ” which is nothing more than a strip 
of paper pasted around it on the glass side. Lantern- 
slide-binding' is very convenient. It is not pasted Hat, 
but attached to the glass here and there so that it is 
easily removed. The object of the kk safe edge ” is to 
leave a white margin on the print, as otherwise the pic- 
ture sometimes leaves its support during development. 
A strip of postoffice or other nonactinic paper will answer 
the purpose if binding-strips are not handy. 

The printing-process is as simple as any other. The 
negative is placed in the printing-frame, the sensitive 
tissue adjusted over it and the negative exposed to day- 
light as in ordinary printing. The judging of the prog- 
ress of the print is another matter. One cannot examine 
the print as one does printing-out paper, but the time of 
exposure is governed by an act! nometer. In case one 
has not an actinometer — and to do satisfactory carbons 
one should have — a strip of solio paper may be used for 
a trial print, noting the time the paper was exposed to 
the light and the length of time it takes to make a print 
of right depth for a picture, but not dark enough to re- 
quire toning. 

The print is on the surface of the pigmented film and 
not in contact with the paper supporting it, so it must 



be transferred to what is called a “ support ” — paper, 
ivory, celluloid or wood, which has previously been 
coated with insoluble gelatine. One may coat the sup- 
port if he chooses, but it is wiser to buy the paper sup- 
port already prepared. These papers come either white 
or tinted and in smooth and rough surfaces. 

The apparatus for development consists of four trays, 
a squeegee, and a sheet of glass or a smooth board. Two 
of the trays are filled with cold water, one with a five 
per cent solution of alum, and the fourth with water at 
about 100° F. Lay a sheet of the transfer-paper — the 
“ support ” — in one of the trays containing cold water and 
let it. soak for a few minutes until it is thoroughly wet. 
Now take the print from the frame and lay it face down 
in the dish of water containing the transfer-paper. At 
first it will have a tendency to curl, but as it becomes 
wet it flattens out and sinks to the bottom of the tray, 
where it should be brought into position on the transfer- 
paper, taking care that no bubbles are between the 
support and the film. Take hold of the lower edges of 
the transfer-paper and the print, lift them from the 
water gently, draw them over the edge of the tray 
and lay them print-side-up on the plate-glass. Next 
take the squeegee and rub the film into contact with the 
paper so as to expel all water between the two, but do 
not rub hard enough to tear the tissue. When this 
is done the picture is placed between blotters under 
weight for fifteen or twenty minutes. At the end of that 
time have the tray of hot water ready and place the print 
in it. Watch it carefully, and presently gelatine will be 
seen to exude from between the transfer-paper and the 
tissue. As soon as this occurs, take hold of a corner of 
the tissue and pull it gently away from the transfer. Un- 
less it peels off very easily without pulling' it should he 
allowed to soak a little longer. When the tissue is re- 


moved the pigment is left on the support in a messy- 
looking coating without the slightest semblance of a 
picture. The print is left in the hot water and presently 
the image begins to creep out, and in a short time the 
picture is fully developed. For the beginner it is a good 
plan to have a sheet of glass at the bottom of the tray 
so that when the print is developed it may be lifted on 
the glass without danger of harming the print. As soon 
as development is complete the print is rinsed in the 
tray of cold water, immersed in the tray of alum water 
for ten minutes to harden the film, given another rinsing 
to remove the alum water, then hung up and dried. The 
long clips used for hanging up films are just the things 
for hanging up carbon-prints. When the picture is dry 
it may be mounted the same as any other print. 

The beauty of carbon-prints is not excelled by any 
other style. There is a depth and richness about a car- 
bon which gives the print a quality which distinguishes 
it at once from other prints. Then, too, one has a 
variety of colors from which to choose, and he may make 
his print in the tone best suited to the character of the 
picture. While carbon is no “ every-day ” print, it is the 
ideal medium for a picture which is to be a special 
“ thing of beauty.” 

A Device for Self-Portraiture 

Mr. John J. Manwable revives an old method of 
taking one’s own picture. His suggestion is to stop down 
the lens as far as possible, after focusing on the chair in 
which the sitter is to be, draw the slide and walk over 
and pose. It is evident that slight movement of the 
camerist will not show, lint the exposure may well run up 
to a minute or more. 


The Round Robin Guild 
Monthly Competitions 

Closing the last day of every month. 

Address all prints for competition to Photo-Era, 
The Round Robin Guild Competition , 3S3 Boyl- 
ston St., Boston, U.S.A. 


First Prize : Value $10.00. 

Second Prize: Value $5.00. 

Third Prize : Value $2.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is deemed 
worthy of reproduction with the prize-winning picture, 
or in later issues, will be given Honorable Mention. 

Prizes may he chosen by the winner, and will be 
awarded in books, magazines, enlargements, mounts, 
photographic materials, or any article of a photographic 
or art nature which can be bought for the amount of the 
prize won by the successful competitor. 


1. These competitions are free and open to all photo- 
graphers, whether or not subscribers to Photo-Era. 

2. As many prints as desired, in any medium except 
blue-print, may be entered, but they must represent the 
unaided work of the competitor from start to finish, and 
must be artistically mounted. 

3. The right is reserved to withhold from the com- 
petitions all prints not up to the Photo-Era standard. 

4. A package of prints will not be considered eligible un- 
less return-postage at the rate of one cent for each two 
ounces or fraction is sent with the data. 

5. Each print entered must bear the maker's name, ad- 
dress, Guild-number, the title of the picture and the name 
and month of the competition , and should be accompanied 
by a letter sent separately, giving full piarticulars of 
date, light, plate or film, lens, stop, exposure, developer and 
printing-process. Enclose return-postage in letter. 

6. Prints receiving prizes or Honorable Mention be- 
come the property of Photo-Era. If suitable, they will 
be reproduced, full credit in each case being given to 
the maker. 

Subjects for Competition 

December — “Flashlights.” Closes January 31. 


January — “Winter-Scenes.” Closes February 28. 
February — “Copying Works of Ait.” (Paintings and 
statuary.) Closes March 31. 

March — “ Artistic Interiors.” Closes April 30. 

April — “Spring-Pictures.” Closes May 31. 

May — “Decorative Flower-Studies.” Closes June 30. 
June — “ W ater-Craft.” Closes July 31. 

July — “ Gardens.” Closes August 31. 

August — “ \\ ood-Interiors.” Closes September 30. 
September — “ Shore-Scenes.” Closes October 31. 
October — “ Rainy Days.” Closes November 30. 
November — “ Christmas Cards.” Closes December 31. 
December — “ Home-Scenes.” Closes January 31. 

Awards — Scenic Beauties of America 

First Prize: .Jeanette Anderson and Beatrice B. Bell. 
Second Prize: F. A. Hodges. 

Third Prize: J. G. Beach. 

Honorable Mention: Harry Adams, Beatrice B. Bell, 
Rupert Bridge, Ward E. Bryan, Geo. A. Flamburg, 
B. L. Huff. Harry G. Phister, John J. Reilly, Florence 
Marie Roberts. 


Quarterly Contests for Beginners 

In these contests all Guild members are eligible pro- 

or Honorable Mentions in the past, from any 


All prints submitted, except prize-winners, will be 
returned if postage is sent in a separate letter with the 
data. See rules 4 and 5. 


First Prize: Value $5.00. 

Second Prize: Value $2.50. 

Third Prize: Value $1.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is worthy will 
be given Honorable Mention. 

Subjects for Competition 


Pictures of all sorts of winter amusements outdoors, 
skating, sleighing, coasting, snowballing, hunting, or 
any other sport, as well as indoor games, will be con- 
sidered eligible. 


Landscapes of trees in bud, early vegetation, late 
snow in the woods, flowering trees and shrubs, April 
showers and cloudy skies. Landscapes made on ortho- 
chromatic plates with a ray-filter not later than May 20. 

Sending Prints Safely 

It is strange that workers sending us prints persist in 
enclosing them between sheets of cardboard with the 
corrugations running in one direction. Photographs sent 
finis, or placed against one single sheet, very seldom 
reach their destination safely. Prints should first be 
wrapped in soft paper, and then placed between two pieces 
of cellular board — the kind which is covered on both 
sides — with the corrugations running in opposite directions. 

How to Send Stamps 

Readers are requested not to send postage stamps 
loosely placed in the envelope either before or after the 
insertion of the letter. In extracting the letter, the 
stamp remains in the envelope unless the recipient takes 
care to look into the envelope. Some thoughtless per- 
sons take a number of stamps and fold them so that the 
backs shall come together, which is not so bad as to 
have the hacks cover the face. If the letter happens to 
be in a warm place during transit, the stamps become 
glued together and must be soaked apart by the recip- 
ient. The proper way is to moisten a small place in the 
center of the stamp and attach it to an upper corner of 
the front page of the letter. Or, if there are a number 
of stamps, they can be safely enclosed in paraffine-paper, 
which prevents them from sticking to each other during 
transit in the mails. 

Special Notice 

Competitors must write their names and addresses 
plainly. We often receive letters unsigned, without city 
or state address, or otherwise so defective that it is im- 
possible to trace the sender. 


Answers to Correspondents 

Readers wishing information upon any point in 
connection with their photographic work are invited 
to make use of this department. Address all in- 
quiries to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 743 East 
"27th Street, Paterson, N. J. If a personal reply 
is desired, a self-addressed, stamped envelope must 
he enclosed. 

S. A. Marlow. — To Remove Iridescent Stains 

from your negative, dip a piece of absorbent cotton in 
Farmer’s Reducer and rub the places gently until the 
spots disappear. If not of too long standing a piece of 
chamois dipped in alcohol will often prove effectual. 
Soak your negatives for half an hour before intensifying. 
The secret of success in intensifying is to wash the plate 
well at every stage of the operation. 

Jean Weight. — A formula for Copper Toning of 
Bromides is prepared as follows: No. 1. Copper 
sulphate, 15 grains ; potassium citrate (neutral), 60 
grains ; water, 5 oz. No. 2. Potassium ferricyanide, 
12 grains; potassium citrate (neutral), 60 grains; water, 
5 oz. To use, take equal parts of both solutions. By 
leaving the print a longer or shorter time in the toning- 
bath one may vary the color from a warm black to a 
rich red. Prints to be toned with copper must be fully 
printed, as this toning-solution does not intensify the 

B. D. Fallon. — You do not need to use a Hypo 
Eliminator if you are particular about washing your 
plates well. The best chemical for removing all traces 
of hypo is potassium percarbonate, using from three to 
five grains for each four ounces of water. Place the 
plate in the solution, and the hypo will cause the liquid 
to effervesce. As soon as effervescence ceases, remove 
the plate and wash in running water for five minutes. 

Sakah F. — To Remove Oil=Stains from your 
prints, soak for a few minutes in pure benzine, then blot 
off with “ World ” blotting-paper. If the oil is not 
entirely removed repeat the process. Sometimes simply 
laying a blotter over the print and ironing with a warm 
iron will remove the grease, but if the stain has turned 
yellow then neither benzine nor ironing will remove it. 
Better make fresh prints. 

D. A. T. — In the July number of Photo-Era. 1910, 
you will find detailed description on taking Pictures of 
Animals, also suggestions in regard to the making of 
certain pictures of this kind which will find a ready 
market. Animal-picture postals, particularly if the sub- 
jects be kittens, seem to find a very ready sale. 

Charles Towne. — A very clever Exposure=Scale 
is manufactured by the Eastman Company. It is at- 
tached to the camera in place of the regular plates 
on the lens and shutter mounting, and is called the 
Autotime Scale. At a glance one can see what ex- 
posure will be correct under the conditions in which 
he is taking his picture. For the beginner this is a 
particularly helpful bit of apparatus, and it is found 
useful also by the advanced amateur who has learned to 
regulate his exposures by experience. The price of the 
scale is one dollar. 

Katherine Floyd. — To Retard Printing of thin 
negatives, place the printing-frame at the bottom of a 
wooden box and print in the shade. A green-tinted 
glass placed over the printing-frame will also hold back 
the printing and give a fairly good print. The slower 
the printing of a thin negative the better the resulting 

Alvan Rowe. — Formalin is a Solution of 
Formaldehyde Qas ill water, about forty per cent 
strength. It renders gelatine insoluble and is used for 
hardening films. An ounce of formalin in ten of water 
is the proper proportion to use. It requires about five 
minutes in the solution to harden the film of plates. 

W. I. T. — To Remove Fog from negatives, make 
a solution of an ounce each of hypo, water, and glycer- 
ine. Dissolve the hypo in hot water, then add the 
glycerine. Make up enough of the solution to cover 
the negative entirely, place it in a tray and leave it 
soaking for ten or twelve hours. The plate must be 
thoroughly washed after taking it from the liquid. 
This treatment will remove the veiling which is called 
fog, but will not remove light-struck places. Those 
must be subjected to a reducing-solution. 

B. L. E. — A Screen to Use with Flashlights is 
made of what is called cheesecloth, a thin transparent 
muslin. Stretch this over a frame and place it between 
the flashlight and the sitter. The screen softens the 
light but does not deaden it. The lights and shadows 
are much softer and the gradations of the halftones 
much better when the screen is used. The trouble 
with the average flashlight is that the highlights are too 
strong and the shadows too dense. 

T. L. R. — A Clear Varnish for Lantern=Slides 
is made by dissolving gum dammar in benzol. Use 
twenty-five grains of the gum to each ounce of the 
benzol. If the varnish does not flow easily add a 
little more benzol. If you protect the film with a 
cover-glass there will be no need to varnish the slide. 
You can intensify a weak print by first bleaching it in a 
saturated solution of mercury bichloride, washing well, 
then darkening it in a solution of ammonia, one dram 
of the ammonia to ten ounces of water. 

Mollie IIearn. — In Sending Prints to the Prize 
Contests have them mounted in an attractive manner, 
choosing a paper which will harmonize with the tone of 
the print. Leave plenty of margin and mark each print 
on the reverse side of its mount with your full name and 
address. Note also on the back of the prints whether 
or not postage was enclosed. Glossy prints are the best 
for reproduction, but the matt-surface papers make the 
more artistic picture. 

Bertran I). F. — The United States is not a sub- 
scriber to the Berne Convention of International 
Copyright, and copyright is regulated by its own 
laws. You can get a copy of the laws of copyright by 
applying to the Librarian of Congress. The laws have 
been changed during the last year in regard to 

Eleanor D. — To Prevent the Chemicals from 

Injuring the Hands or staining them during develop- 
ment, put a little milk into the palm of one hand and 
rub the hands with the milk. This will keep the hands 
soft and prevent the skin being poisoned by such 
chemicals as metol. 

C. M. Gerard. — The abrasions or Marks on Your 
Bromide Prints may be removed by rubbing the dry 
print with a piece of wet absorbent cotton. Enameled 
bromide paper is very easily marred or scratched and 
great care should be taken in handling it during the 

James 1). L. — To Tint Matt= Varnish use a little 
malachite green for green, asphalt for brown and auran- 
tia for yellow. The matt-varnish on the glass side of a 
negative enables one to work on the image, building up 
the weak places. If the work is not satisfactory it is 
easily removed by using alcohol and a piece of clean 
absorbent cotton. See the article in this number on the 
use of matt- varnish. 


W. L. J. — The letters U. S. when applied to stops do 
not mean United States, but Uniform System. The 
size of the stop is designated by “ F/ ”, and the figure 
following shows the size of the stop. To obtain this, 
the focal length of the lens is divided by the diameter of 
the stop. Suppose that the lens was of eight inches focus 
and the stop-opening was quarter of an inch in size. Then 
we would divide 8 by 14 and the quotient would be 32. 
If the opening in the stop was one inch, then the length 
of the lens would be divided by 1, and the quotient 
would be 8, the focal value of the stop. 

Margaret D. — An Alum Bath for Ozotypes 
is made of powdered alum, 1 oz. ; water, 20 oz. ; hydro- 
chloric acid, 30 minims. Leave prints in this bath for 
five minutes, then rinse in three or four changes of cold 
water. Full directions come with the paper, but one 
needs to have some experience before becoming an expert 
at any sort of work. 

F. Browne. — Do not photograph Architectural 
Subjects when the sun is at the zenith, for then the 
shadows are nearly vertical and you not only get harsh 
lighting but you lose effects which are to be obtained 
only in the early or late hours of the day. The shadows 
at noon-time are also deeper and you cannot get detail 
enough in them to make soft contrasts without over- 
exposing your highlights. An article on architectural 
photography is in preparation and will appear in an 
early number of the magazine. 


Address all prints for criticism , enclosing return 
postage at the rate of one cent for each two ounces 
or fraction thereof, to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 
74-8 East 87th St., Paterson, N. J. Prints must 
hear the maker's name and address, and should be 
accompanied by a letter , sent separately , giving full 
particulars of date, light, plate or film, stop, expo- 
sure, developer and printing-process. 

“Anemones.” F. 1). S. — This print is a very inter- 
esting study of garden anemones, the large translucent 
white blossoms of which lend themselves so well to 
decorative effect in photographic studies of flowers. 
There are only three blossoms in the picture and these 
are artistically arranged. The transparency of the 
blossoms is very well rendered and they have excellent 
modeling, the effect being heightened by their shadows 
thrown against the background. The weak thing about 
this print is the placing of the flowers too near the 
background so that they have rather a strained than a 
natural look. The print is in sepia and is very beauti- 
fully mounted. A very, very narrow line of dark sepia 
is interposed between the print and the mount, adding 
much to the artistic effect. Flower-studies are very 
interesting to make, and may be used for many purposes 
of decoration and illustration. 

“The Factory.” B. H. A. — This is a very inter- 
esting study. The picture is low in tone, having been 
taken in the late afternoon. It shows in the distance 
the tall chimneys of a manufactory from which are 
pouring clouds of smoke. The building itself is outlined 
against an evening sky and therefore shows no detail but 
is silhouetted against the background. The foreground 
is entirely taken up by a body of water. A barge is 
drawn up near the shore. All of the foreground is in 
shadow, the only highlight in the picture being that of 
the sky behind the factory. This is one of the best 
studies of the kind that has come to the editor's table 
for some time. If this print bad been made in sepia in- 

stead of cold gray it would have been particularly pleas- 
ing - . Toned to sepia color and mounted on a warm 
cream-colored mount, it would be worthy a place in an 
exhibition of artistic prints. 

“ Playfellows,” F. D. S. — This is a picture of two 
children at play, one of them being on a sofa drawn up 
to a window, and the other outside of the window lint 
with head and shoulders thrust into the room. The 
child on the sofa is looking - at a book, and is very well 
posed, but the child in the window is too much posed 
and looks stiff and uncomfortable. The title does not 
seem to fit the picture at all, for the child on the sofa is 
half reclining, and is covered with a blanket and one 
would infer that she was convalescing from some illness 
and that the child at the window had just peeped in on 
her. The halftones in this picture are very good indeed, 
but there are too many highlights and they are too 
scattered, so that the picture has a spotted appearance. 
In the making of a picture of this kind it is wiser to let 
the children do the posing, for they usually take grace- 
ful attitudes. The subjects themselves are very attract- 
ive and it would be worth while making another study 
of the little “ Playfellows.” 

“ The Village-Street,” M. L. II. — This is a par- 
ticularly attractive picture. It shows a quaint street in 
some foreign town. In the foreground three women 
have paused on the sidewalk for a hit of gossip, while a 
woman is seen leaning from the window of the house in 
front of which they are standing, evidently either listen- 
ing to the conversation of the three cronies, or else tak- 
ing - part in it. A little farther along the street a child 
is playing with a dog, while farther on a horse is drink- 
ing at the public fountain. These latter figures are not 
strongly in evidence and one sees them simply as objects 
supplementing those of more immediate attraction. The 
point of view in this picture has been well chosen, the 
camera having been so placed that there are no dis- 
tracting lines. The picture has very pleasing contrasts 
and is a good bit of genre work. The criticism of this 
print would be that it is not well printed or mounted. 
The tone is a cold gray. A warm sepia would be more 
appropriate. The mount is white and the print is pasted 
flat. The mount should be much larger and of some 
tone to harmonize witli or contrast with the tone of the 

“Day-Dreams,” S. B. R. — This is a picture of a 
young woman sitting before a window. She is dressed 
in a light, filmy gown ; her hair is done simply and fol- 
lows the outline of her head in artistic lines. The face, 
which is in shadow, is turned toward the window and 
shows only a half profile. In most cases this would he 
a detriment, but in this is very fitting. She has dropped 
the book which she has been reading and with her hands 
clasped lightly on her knees is gazing out of the window 
and her very attitude shows that she sees nothing of 
what is going - on outside, but is lost in dreams, which, 
from the expression on her face, must be very pleasant. 
This is a very artistic picture, and has an airy look quite 
in keeping with the subject. The halftones have been 
well managed and the whole picture has been kept light 
in tone. The only drawback to this picture is the 
straight line of the edge of the window which is seen at 
the back of the subject and which is broken at one place 
by the contour of the head. This has been worked on to 
lighten it and if it were worked out altogether the pic- 
ture would lose this flaw. 

“ The Musicians,” B. L. — This is rather an am- 
bitious study. The musicians are two young women, 
one seated at the piano, the other standing behind her 
with her violin in position for playing. Both are dressed 
in white, and the gowns are in sharp contrast with the 


carpet and the piano, which are dark and without detail 
in the print. The pose of the figures is very good, but 
the wall in the background is very distracting on account 
of the pictures. There is one very large picture of a 
landscape, a small oblong one under it, an oval one just 
beyond the large one, while another picture shows at the 
edge of the print. The girl with the violin stands so that 
her head comes just at the corner of the large picture. 
The exposure of the plate was not correct, for the gowns 
of the musicians are well exposed, hut the darker objects 
are under-exposed. This was due, doubtless, to the 
lighting of the room, which was insufficient to produce a 
good negative. In such a case the camerist should use 
a flashlight. The picture itself is well printed and is 
mounted in an artistic manner. 

“ East Livekpool, Ohio, Dec. 27, 1910. 

“ Mr. Wilfred .1. French , Boston , Mass. 

“ Dear Mr. French : 

“ To say that I am pleased with the reproductions ex- 
presses it very mildly, as I really believe in some cases 
the reproductions are better than the originals sent to 
you. I am very glad that you received permission from 
Doubleday, Page and Company to use the most excel- 
lent reproduction of the ‘Cloisters. 1 

“ Yours very truly, 

“Wm. II. Phillips.” 

The Off Side in Driving Oxen 

On page 314 of the December Photo-Era appeared 
a picture which has raised a tempest in a teapot. We 
refer to Miss I. Robinson’s third- prize winner in the Fa- 
vorite Pets Competition for Beginners. Hardly had the 
December number been mailed before a stream of letters 
began to flow in to the editor. Some criticized the jury, 
some Miss Robinson. The gist of the opinions seemed 
to he that she did not deserve the prize because she had 
perpetrated a monstrosity by representing her driver on 
the off side of his favorite beasts. The editor, however, 
remembers seeing a left-handed man drive his yoke from 
the right; but the old man in this case is holding the 
goad in his right hand. Accordingly, we turned to the 
maker of the picture for an explanation, which is as fol- 
lows : 

“ In reply to your letter of December 17, let me say 
that the picture of oxen was taken in France. As you 
and your correspondents are doubtless aware, the rules 
of the road in most foreign countries are directly the op- 
posite of ours. That is, vehicles keep to the left instead 
of to the right. I think this explains the position of the 
driver I may add that the picture was not posed or 
‘ faked 1 in any way. It represents an ordinary street- 
scene, and the driver did not even know he was being 
‘ taken. 1 “ Very truly yours, 

“ (Miss) I. Robinson.” 

Plate-Speeds for Exposure-Guide on Opposite Page 

Class 1/3 

Lumi&re Sigma 

Lumifere Non-Halation Sigma 

Class 1/2 

Barnet Super-Speed Ortho 
Ilford Monarch 

Class 3/4 

Barnet Red Seal 
Ilford Zenith 
Imperial Flashlight 
Eastman Speed-Film 

Class 1 


Ansco Film, N. C. and Vidil 
Barnet Extra Rapid 
Barnet Ortho Extra Rapid 
Barnet Studio 
Cramer Crown 
Cramer Crown Non-Halation 
Cramer Instantaneous Iso 
Cramer Inst. Iso Non-Halation 
Cramer Isonon 
Ensign Film 

Hammer Special Extra Fast 
Imperial Special Sensitive 
Imperial Non-Filter 
Imperial Orthochrome Special 

Kodak N. C. Film 
Lumifere Film 

Premo Film Pack 
Seed Gilt Edge 27 

Standard Imperial Portrait 
Standard Polychrome 
Stanley Regular 
V ulcan 

Wellington Extra Speedy 
Wellington Film 
Wellington Anti-Screen 

Class 1 1/4 

Cramer Banner X 
Cramer Banner X Non-Halation 
Eastman Extra Rapid 
Hammer Extra Fast 
Hammer Extra Fast Ortho 
Hammer Non-Halation 
Hammer Non-Halation Ortho 
Seed 20x 
Seed C. Ortho 
Seed L. Ortho 
Seed Non-Halation 
Seed Non-Halation Ortho 
Standard Extra 
Standard Orthonon 
Wellington Speedy 
Wellington Iso Speedy 
Class 1 1/2 
Lumifere Ortho A 
LumRre Ortho B 

Class 2 

Cramer Medium Iso 

Cramer Medium Iso Non-Halation 

Cramer Trichromatic 

Ilford Rapid Chromatic 

Ilford Special Rapid 

Imperial Special Rapid 

Class 2 1/2 

Barnet Medium 
Barnet Ortho Medium 
Cramer Anchor 
Hammer Fast 
Seed 23 

LumRre Panchro C 
Class 3 
Wellington Landscape 

Class 4 

Stanley Commercial 
Ilford Chromatic 
Ilford Empress 

Class 5 

Cramer Commercial 
Hammer Slow 
Hammer Slow Ortho 
Wellington Ortho Process 

Class 8 

Cramer Slow Iso 

Cramer Slow Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford < hdinary 

Class 12 

Cramer Contrast 
Ilford Halftone 
Seed Process 

Class 100 

Lumifere Autochrome 


Exposure-Guide for February 


Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground ; river-scenes ; figure- 
studies in the open ; light-colored buildings and monuments ; wet street- 
scenes, with stop F /8 (U. S. No. 4) on Class 1 plates. 

For other stops multiply by the 
number in third column. 











U. S. 1 

X 1/4 

11 A.M. to 1 P.M. 
10 a.m. and 2 p.m. 












U. S. 2 

X 1/2 

9 a.m. and 3 p.m. 







U. S. 2.4 

X 5/8 

8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 







U. S. 3 

X 3/4 

The exposures given are intended merely as a basis for trial, and 
will vary with latitude and other conditions, but they should give 



U. S. 8 
U. S. 16 

X 2 
X 4 

full detail in the shadows, except when iso or ortho plates are used 
without a screen, when the exposure should he doubled, unless the 


U. S. 32 

X 8 

light itself is yellow. Color-sensitive plates in sue 
faster than plain plates. 

i a case are much 


U. S. 64 

X 16 

SUBJECTS. For other subjects, multiply the exposure for average landscape by the 
number given for the class of subject. 

1 8 Studies of sky and white clouds. 

1/4 Open views of sea and sky ; very distant 
landscapes ; studies of rather heavy 
clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. 

1 2 Open landscapes without foreground ; open 
beach, harbor and shipping-scenes ; 
yachts under sail ; very light-colored 
objects ; studies of dark clouds ; snow- 
scenes with no dark objects ; most tele- 
photo subjects outdoors ; wooded hills 
not far distant from lens. 

2 Landscapes with medium foreground ; 
landscapes in fog or mist ; buildings 
showing both sunny and shady sides ; 
well-lighted street-scenes ; persons, ani- 
mals and moving objects at least thirty 
feet away from the camera. 

4 Landscapes with heavy foreground ; build- 
ings or trees occupying most of the 
picture ; brook-scenes with heavy foli- 
age ; shipping about the docks ; red 
brick buildings and other dark objects ; 
groups outdoors in the shade. 

8 Portraits outdoors in the shade ; very dark 
near objects, particularly when the 
image of the object nearly fills the plate 
and full shadow-detail is required. 

16 Badly-lighted river-banks, ravines, glades 
and under the trees. 

32 W ood-interiors not open to sky and with 
dark soil or pine-needles. 

48 Average indoor portraits in well-lighted 
room, light surroundings, big window 
and white reflector. 

PLATES. 'When plates other than those in Class I are used, the exposure indicated above 
must be multiplied by the number given at the head of the class. 


With Reviews of Foreign Progress and Investigation 

Conducted by MALCOLM DEAN MILLER, A.B., M.D. 

Readers are encouraged to contribute their favorite methods for publication in this department 
Address all such communications to The Crucible, PHOTO-ERA, 383 Boylston Street, Boston 

How to Avoid Cold-Weather Troubles 

Only a few months ago we were deliberating how to 
avoid the many troubles incident to hot weather, but the 
problem has now become one of lack of heat. Amateurs 
who have to work in improvised darkrooms are particu- 
larly liable to difficulties depending on cold work-rooms 
and the icy water-supply. Chemical action is accelerated 
by heat and retarded by cold, and in the case of develop- 
ment of the latent photographic image the difference 
made by a drop of a few degrees is often startling. I lur- 
ing the warm months, when the faucet gives us water at 
seventy or eighty degrees, it is hard to escape excessive 
density ; but now, when the supply ranges from forty to 
fifty, development is extremely slow and the negatives 
are likely to fix out too thin for any but the hardest- 
working gaslight-papers. 

The problem, then, is to get the room and the solu- 
tions to the desirable mean of sixty-five. There are 
many ways to accomplish this result if one is willing to 
take a little trouble for the sake of uniformly good neg- 
atives the year around. Perhaps the simplest course is 
to have a gas- or an oil-stove in the darkroom. Suppose 
you have some plates to develop after supper. If the 
stove is lighted as soon as you arrive home, the room and 
the solutions will be in good condition during the evening 
and will remain so for some time after the stove has been 
turned out. W ater for diluting the stock-solutions should 
be drawn in a large pitcher or other suitable vessel and 
placed near the stove or in one of the heated rooms until 
required for use. The stock-bottles may be warmed by 
setting them in a dish of hot water before use. A 
small pitcher of very hot water, judiciously used with 
a thermometer as a guide, will enable you to bring the 
developer to seventy, which is a good starting-point, be- 
cause the temperature of a trayful falls rapidly if the 
room is cooler than this. If several plates are to be de- 
veloped in succession it is often well to place the tray in 
a larger one and pour the hot water into the latter. The 
only trouble which is then likely to occur is blistering or 
frilling, provided the fixing-bath is too strong or too 
cold. 50° F. is the lowest temperature allowable. 

If, however, the room has been well warmed before 
beginning operations, the hypo will generally come nearly 
to the temperature of the room. If it does not, as 
proved by the thermometer, it may be necessary to pour 
it into a granite-ware saucepan and heat it. Those who 
make up a fresh plain hypo-bath for each batch will of 
course use hot water to dissolve the salt and, after filter- 
ing, will add hot or cold as needed. With both the de- 
veloper and the fixer at about the same warmth there 
should be no difficulty in getting the same results as dur- 
ing' the summer months. After the plates have remained 
in the hypo — which should not have the same amount 
of hardener added as for summer use — for double the 
time necessary to dissolve all the white bromide of silver 
from the back of the plate, they are to go in very cold 
water. It is, therefore, advisable to let them drain for a 

short time and then to give them a preliminary rinse in 
water at a temperature midway between that of the 
bath and the faucet-water. This gTadual reduction pre- 
vents uneven expansion of the wet film and also aids 
greatly to eliminate the hypo. Very cold water requires 
more time to act, so if your rule for summer is to wash 
one hour in running water you had better allow ninety 
minutes now. 

Drying must be rapid and even or the most carefully- 
handled negatives will show defects which ruin them as 
printers. Select a dust-free place where a gentle heat 
is available. Put the negatives at least an inch apart 
on the drying-rack. Too much heat is, however, as bad 
as too little, because it may increase the density greatly. 
If. on the other hand, the negatives have fixed out thin, 
owing to too cold a developer’s not having acted long 
enough, a rapid drying by stronger heat may improve 

Some developers are better than others for winter 
work unless they are kept above sixty by the methods 
suggested above. Glycin, liydroquinone, eikonogen and 
pyro and their combinations are provoking because of 
their slowness and their tendency to hold back the shad- 
ows even of properly-timed plates. A developing- 
solution containing metol is more suitable. Either the 
favorite metol-hydroquinone or pyro-metol makes a 
good developer which is not much retarded by cold. 
One of the best formulas is the “ Imperial Standard.” 

A — Water to make 20 ounces 

Metol 45 grains 

Potassium metabisulphite 120 grains 

Pyro 55 grains 

Potassium bromide 20 grains 

B — Water to make 20 ounces 

Sodium carbonate, anhydrous 2 ounces 

To develop, mix equal parts. 

Should the worker have a favorite developer which 
he does not care to give up, a better plan is to find its 
temperature-coefficient as directed by Alfred Watkins in 
Photo-Era for December. Then the times for all 
temperatures may be tabulated. By covering the tray 
and leaving the darkroom until the expiration of the 
required time, the vexatious waiting for density to de- 
velop will be done away with. It is surely more com- 
fortable to sit in a warm room with a watch than it is 
to remain in the cold, dimly-lighted darkroom rocking a 
tray and trying to bring out detail with a cold solution. 
In the latter circumstances one’s patience gives out and 
one is prone to take the plate out too soon, when a few 
minutes’ more development would have righted matters. 

Double-Coated Plates vs. Films 

Professor Louis Derr of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology has in the 101 1 American Annual an article 
in which he makes a strong plea for the double-coated 
plate. After conceding the convenience, portability, 


daylight-loading and non-halation advantages of film, he 
remarks: “But the film is very far from perfection. 
The individual sheets of the film-pack often fail to lie 
flat during exposure, and the detail of many a picture is 
marred in consequence, if the exposure is made at full 
lens-opening. Roll films are less subject to this trouble, 
hut it cannot be wholly eliminated except by a tension- 
device. The film costs nearly twice as much as the 
plate of equal size, and its sensitiveness is less than that 
of the rapid plates ordinarily used. In spite of all the 
efforts of the makers, celluloid is not photographically 
inert like glass, and developed films show a much larger 
percentage of spots and streaks than plates do — a result 
not wholly chargeable to the practice of developing a 
number of films at a time in the same tray. Finally, the 
texture of the image on the film is coarser than that on 
the plate, thus limiting the size of enlargements rather 
closely. In a word, the film is not nearly so satisfactory 
a photogTaphic product as the plate is.” Professor 
Derr might have added that the permanence of the film- 
negative is also not complete, owing to the celluloid 
support. Another reason why films “ go to pieces ” after 
several years' keeping’ is that from their physical form 
they are likely to he imperfectly fixed and washed. We 
have films from eight to ten years old which have gone 
bad and are now utterly unprintable, though they were 
apparently perfect when filed away. Films, too, are ex- 
tremely hard to reduce or intensify. 

As a result of exposures under a photogTaphic wedge, 
illustrations of prints being shown, Prof. Derr concludes 
that “the film has a shorter scale of gradation than the 
double-coated plate, and this means that the plate not 
only has a greater latitude of exposure, but is better 
able to render contrasts of light and shadow, and conse- 
quently to give ’ pluckier ' negatives, to the very great 
advantage of the final print.” 

Many of our most prominent workers use double- 
coated iso plates for all their work. 

Improving Bromide Prints 

The Rev. F. C. Lambert suggests in Photographic 
Scraps a method of intensifying bromide prints to im- 
prove their color. The best agent he finds to lie mercu- 
ric iodide and sodium sulphite, this being followed by 
an alkaline developer. An enlargement which is a trifle 
lacking in brilliancy is immersed in : Water, 10 oz. ; 
sodium sulphite (anhydrous), 400 gr. ; mercuric iodide, 
40 gr. The prepared intensifier as issued by Lumifere 
or Burroughs Wellcome may also he used. In this bath 
the print is allowed to remain until it ceases to change 
color, when it is removed without washing to any non- 
staining developer, such as metol-hydroquinone, diluted 
with an equal quantity of water. After the redevelop- 
ment is complete, which process takes about five min- 
utes, the print is well washed and dried. The process 
slightly increases contrasts, gives tones from warm black 
to cool sepia, and preserves shadow-gradation. 

For the production of soft, pearly, delicate and at 
the same time rich bromides, Frank E. Huson uses a 
process of chromium intensification. He says, in an 
article in the 1911 American Annual , “If we give a 
bromide print ample, but not gross, over-exposure, with 
a reasonably dilute developer the print will come up 
regularly and the tone-values of the negative will be 
proportionately rendered, even if the negative is on the 
dense side. Supposing we require certain of our light 
tones to he white in the finished print, we must on no 
account develop till they get veiled, or our after-process 
will fail. The finished print being thoroughly dry, it is 
soaked until limp and immersed in : Potassium bichro- 
mate, 70 gr. ; hydrochloric acid, 35 minims ; water. 

7 oz. When bleaching stops, remove the print and 
wash it well in several changes of water. The final 
step is redevelopment with a strong metol-hydroquinone 
developer. Unless the first developer is extremely 
dilute and the second very strong the results will not be 
good. It is, of course, necessary to wash the print free 
of the second developer to ensure freedom from stain. 

Workers accustomed to gaslight-papers often fail to 
realize that bromide behaves very differently from the 
slow chloride papers. The slowness of development 
allows control in the following manner: If a soft print 
from a harsh negative is desired, the exposure should be 
very full with a powerful light, so that the light will 
penetrate the densest deposits. Development should lie 
brief , when it will be found that the lights show detail 
but the shadows are not blocked up. For contrast, on 
the other hand, short exposure followed by complete 
development, until the print stops and refuses to gain 
any more density in the blacks, is the proper treatment. 

'flic quality of the negative for enlarging is important. 
In these days, when almost everyone makes most of his 
prints on gaslight-papers, a fully timed but rather thin 
negative is found to give the best range of gradation. 
It is precisely such a negative that makes the best 
enlargement. Amateurs are likely to over-develop. A 
good rule to prevent this fault is to remove the plate 
from the developer as soon as the highest light (not the 
sky) shows on the back of the plate. This is particu- 
larly necessary when the camerist uses a strong developer 
or one of the slow-working class, such as pyro. Devel- 
opment should never be forced in the attempt to make 
up for under-exposure. Always aim to get a full ex- 
posure and then avoid developing until the image shows 
strongly on the back of the plate. Our papers are 
defective enough at best, and it is hopeless to try to 
reproduce the full scale of gradation from a harsh 

Smokeless Time-Flashlight 

A simple scheme for rendering pure magnesium pow- 
der practically smokeless is to burn it with a pure 
gun-cotton smokeless powder. Perhaps the easiest 
method is to purchase a box of loaded shotgun-shells 
containing 2)4 drams of either DuPont or Hazard smoke- 
less. Save the shot for washing bottles. Cut with a 
sharp knife all around the paper case over the wads and 
pour the powder out on a sheet of paper. Next cut the 
paper off even with the brass head of the shell and use this 
as a measure for the magnesium powder. The quantity 
of the latter should be approximately the same in hidk as 
the gunpowder. Mix the two substances intimately by 
means of a feather. To ignite, arrange the mixture in a 
pile on a thin wisp of absorbent cotton placed in the 
middle of a tin plate and touch a match to the cotton. 
The heat generated by the gunpowder causes complete 
combustion of the magnesium, and the oxide formed re- 
mains as a solid on the plate instead of passing into the 
air as smoke. Twelve flashes in rapid succession may he 
made without forming enough smoke to fog the last 

A Safe-Light for Panchromatic Plates 

William II. Kunz prepares a safe-light as follows : 
Old dryplates are stained as deeply as possible in 

Water 10 ounces 

Tartrazine 75 grains 

Patent blue A 75 grains 

Naphthol green 75 grains 

Sulphuric acid 30 minims 

Two such plates should be used together. 


A Criticism 

December 16, 1910. 

Photo-Era, Boston , Mass. 

Gentlemen : — In renewing’ again subscription to Photo- 
Era, I beg' to say that I find it a superior publication, 
but believe you give undue prominence to the impres- 
sionistic school. Some of your reproductions, such as 
those of G. R. Ballance, Wilfred French and others, are 
without the suggestion of fuzziness, and are pictures in 
every sense. As for certain others of the other extreme 
type, if 1 should go into the open and have my retina im- 
pressioned as depicted in some of those ultra specimens, I 
should immediately consult an oculist. Photography will 
never be able to ape art, and in a bundled years to come the 
Steichen-Stieglitz ideas will have contributed nothing 
permanent to the future generations. In my bumble 
opinion, in every photograph, some one plane should be 
in focus, as it always so appears to the eye itself. 

I trust you will take this criticism in good part, and 
endeavor in future issues to consider those of your sub- 
scribers who share ray views. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Percy S. Benedict. 

[We refer Mr. Benedict and others to the editorial in 
this issue of Photo-Era. — Editor .] 

Photographic Pictorialism 

Denver, Col., Dec. 12, 1910. 

Editor of Photo-Era, 

Dear Sir : — 

The December number of Photo-Era lias just 
arrived. In reading the article by Mr. Jones on the 
Seventh Salon, I notice, in several places, statements 
which, to say the least, are overdrawn and show a 
misunderstanding of the aims of pictorial photography. 

The first place in which this misapprehension is 
shown is on page 273, where he says: “. . . . the pic- 
torialist’s greatest ambition is to produce a picture — a 
work of art, and not in the strict sense of the word a 
photograph.” Now 1 should like to take issue with 
Mr. Jones on that. The photo-pictorialist’s ambition 
should be to produce a photographic work of art or else 
he should not allow his work to be hung in a photographic 
exhibition. And I think that most of the makers of 
pictures hung in the Seventh Salon intend to produce 
photographic pictures, but many, on account of a lack of 
technical knowledge or power of execution by photo- 
graphic means, have to resort to the methods of painters 
and to hand-made negatives. 

Mr. Jones gives an illustration of the different stages 
of “ photographic growth.” lie instances the “ Old 

Dutch Mill” and calls it perfect in “straight photo- 
graphic technique,” but says it “ loses in atmosphere, 
perspective, texture, and absence of mystery ” — which is 
equivalent to saying its straight photographic technique 
is imperfect because all the qualities named can and 
should he obtained by pure, straight photography. 

He says that when Mr. Chislett worked in the whole 
sky to “ Moonrise ” he was practising “ legitimate picto- 
rial photography.” I say that no man has the right to 
call that legitimate photography and that a work of that 
kind should not be presented as a photograph. I admire 
the work of Mr. Chislett and consider him an artist in 
every sense of the word, and I don’t believe he wanders 
far from straight photography in the majority of his 
prints. But I believe that he and a great many others 
should spend less time in modifying negative and print 
and more time in the study of nature and its interpreta- 
tion by photography. 

I wish Dr. Emerson had more followers in this 
country. Let me suggest that Mr. Jones and others 
who are in the same position as regards pictorial photo- 
graphy read “Naturalistic Photography” and see if 

they don’t agree with Dr. Emerson and then see if they 
can still call some of the best (?) pictures produced to- 
day and called photographs, works of art. They can’t 
do it. No photograph that is untrue to nature is a 
work of art and no hand-work on negative or print can 
produce a picture that is true to nature. 

Men seem to forget that photography has limitations 
and are constantly overstepping - them, which action 
makes prints which are not photographs. 

If we earnestly desire to advance pictorial photo- 
graphy we must produce photographs and not half- 
breed paintings or even carbon prints from hand-made 
negatives. Henry C. Shaw. 


“ We are in receipt of the December Photo-Era. It 
is a fine issue. The full-page illustration by Reginald 
Craigie is superb. Also, the article on ‘ The Art of the 
Retoucher,’ by Clara Weisman, one of our graduates, is 
good . 

“ Yours fraternally, 

“ The Bissell Colleges, 

“ By L. H. Bissell.” 




The photographic industry cannot be compared in size, 
importance or extent to the greater industries. The 
whole value of its productions is but trifling in propor- 
tion, for instance, to that of the chemical industry. 
During the last ten years, however, enormous strides 
have been made, and photographic products have ac- 
quired a well-merited reputation in the world’s market. 
The development of the photographic industry began 
with the invention of the dryplate. By means of the 
dryplate the possibility arose of rendering photography 
more popular, and the last decade has seen the expansion 
of this process in a quite unanticipated and rapid manner. 

Photo-mechanical book -illustration has particularly 
been brought to a high state of perfection in all civilized 
countries, and its productions take an important place 
among the means of illustration. The value of the 
photo-mechanical reproductive process for the history of 
civilization is due to two circumstances : first, that it 
can supply an objective photograph of the illustration ; 
second, that its productions are superior to and less 
costly than any that can be obtained from the hand of 
an artist or technician. Wood-cuts, lithographs and 
copper-plate engravings in their different variations have 
competed with the mechanical reproductive process in a 
struggle the energy of which lias been almost without 
precedent; this struggle, however, terminated in a vic- 
tory for the mechanical process wherever the older illus- 
trative methods could not hold their own by the artistic 
merit of their work. The possibilities of photography 
in serving science and technology through its objective- 
ness have also been increased. The triumphs obtained 
in this field are great and numerous. Not only has re- 
productive photography largely increased, not only do 
its productions take a numerically favorable place in 
illustrating, but they have also considerably increased in 
value. In Germany the three-color print in particular 
has reached a high state of perfection. In illustrating 
scientific and artistic works it now occupies an important 
place. The three-color print is adapting itself more 
and more in its production to existing requirements, and 
the facsimile reproductions of even the most difficult 
originals are no longer impossible. Three-color helio- 
graphic printing has yielded the most astonishing results 
in Germany, and, having been developed on a purely 
mechanical basis, it can now be employed in the most 
difficult work by reason of the perfection of its technic. 
In this branch such names as Obermetter, Albert, 
Biixenstein, Sclielter & Giesecke, Frisch, and others 
have obtained a widespread reputation. 

Some branches of photo-mechanical reproduction in 
Germany have passed through a stormy epoch of develop- 
ment, caused principally by the popularity of picture- 
postcards. Large sums are turned over annually in 
Germany in their production, and still the demand in- 
creases. It cannot, however, be denied that the enormous 
quantity of picture-postcards produced has to a certain 
extent damaged plioto-mechanical reproduction and thus 
caused it to degenerate. This is particularly the case in 
heliographic printing, which the illustrated postcard has 
affected only so far as quantity is concerned. 'Die 
prices have also sunk in an alarming manner through 
wholesale multiplication. The mechanical reproductive 
process, in which a printing-press is used, has lately met 
an unexpected competitor in the shape id' the photo- 

graphic rotary printing-machine ; this is a mechanical 
and chemical process in which bromide paper plays an 
important part, and was originally very limited in its 
sphere of activity. Germany formerly possessed only 
one establishment which produced the so-called rotary 
photographs in any quantity. To-day this establishment 
has not only increased its works on a large scale, but 
many other establishments have sprung up beside it as 
well ; their number is constantly increasing, and most of 
these works are doing a large and successful business. 
The bromide postcards and other productions of this in- 
dustry are sent by Germany to all parts of the globe, 
and she dominates the world’s market in this article. 

If we turn to the single photographic-chemical indus- 
tries, we find foremost in Germany the manufacture of 
photographic chemicals, plates and paper. The increas- 
ing development of the chemical industry in Germany 
also causes its photo-chemical productions to enjoy a 
well-deserved reputation. The manufacture of develop- 
ers, salts of the precious metals and other chemical 
preparations for photographic purposes, forms an im- 
portant part of the chemical productions of Germany. 
'Die number of chemical works which make a specialty 
of photographic preparations has considerably increased 
during the last few years, and whereas formerly practi- 
cally only raw-material was manufactured, the manu- 
facture of photographic solutions and preparations ready 
for use has made great progress. Hereby the require- 
ments of amateurs have been met. Photographic paper, 
the manufacture of which — thanks to the general use of 
albumenized paper — was formerly almost a German 
monopoly, is now no longer so. Chloride of silver col- 
lodion paper, which partly ousted albumenized paper and, 
in particular, different sorts of bromide paper, which en- 
joy increasing favor, are manufactured in equally good 
qualities in all civilized countries. Chloride of silver 
development-paper, after having been first manufactured 
successfully in America, is gradually becoming more 
popular in Germany, and is produced in the best quality 
by German manufacturers. The manufacture of photo- 
graphic apparatus has now reached a climax of technical 
finish, and is largely carried on in Germany. The man- 
ufacture of first-class apparatus for all branches of scien- 
tific photography, for exploration and for the increasing 
requirements of reproduction-technique in Germany, is 
almost entirely carried on at home, and large numbers of 
cameras, amounting to a considerable value, are sent 
abroad. The industry in cheaper instruments of smaller 
value has especially increased and become more varied. 
The principal seats of manufacture are Leipsic, Dresden, 
Gorlitz, Berlin, Frankfort 0. M. and Munich. A distinct 
type of apparatus, such as is made in America and Eng- 
land for the use of amateurs, has not developed in Ger- 
many. On the contrary, apparatus of very different 
construction and shape is produced. From the expensive 
apparatus in the hands of the wealthy and earnest lover 
of photography down to apparatus which with plate, 
paper and chemicals, is sold at a retail-price of 7 
cents, all kinds are supplied by German manufacturers. 
In Germany, the so-called folding camera ( Klapp-kamera) 
such as the Goerz “ Anschutz ” is, in contra-distinction to 
the peculiar types of English. French and American 
cameras, much sought after ; although cameras of the 
kodak type are gaining more and more. One can say. in 
general, that the average sale-price of German apparatus 
is about equal to the average price of French apparatus, 
and keeps above the sale-prices of English and American 
amateur-apparatus. German cameras are, as a rule, 
less adapted to the purely mechanical and simple use of 
superficial amateurs than is generally the case with those 
of foreign manufacture. 



E. O. HOPPE, F. R. P. S. 

I do not, know to what extent the American photo- 
graphers with pictorial aims have adopted the oil- or 
bromoil-processes as mediums for the expression of their 
artistic ideas. In this country their popularity seems to 
be continuously increasing, and a very large number of 
pictures at the two recent London expositions were 
printed in this medium. Among the pioneers in Eng- 
land. Robert M. Cocks and his gifted son, R. Lincoln 
Cocks, are facile principes. At the Camera Club the 
other evening they gave a most delightful and instruct- 
ive demonstration on the bromoil process. They im- 
pressed on the audience the great importance of an 
absolutely correct exposure followed by a thorough de- 
velopment. Amidol seems to give the best results, and 
Messrs. Cocks’s formula is as follows : crystals of sodium 
sulphite, 4 oz. ; potassium metabisulphite, 1 oz. ; water, 
20 oz. Of this stock-solution take 1 oz. , add 2 oz. of water 
and amidol 6 grains. The prints are fixed in hypo, 
IV 2 oz. in the pint, then washed and dried. As a bleach- 
ing-agent the demonstrators warmly recommended the 
new Williams bleacher which has been put on the market 
by Messrs. Griffin of London. This bleacher is very 
economical in use, as it can be used over and over again. 
The pigmenting should be started with a stiff or hard 
ink and not (as is sometimes advocated) with a soft or 
thin ink. If one finds the ink too hard the best thing to 
dilute it with is megilp (the artist’s medium) or better 
still a drop of oil of cloves. There are a good many inks 
on the market now of English and French make in a great 
many varieties of color. For bright effects nothing is 
said to beat litho. ink with a little litlio. varnish. 

Petrol [gasoline] plays an important role in this fas- 
cinating process and can be used in many ways. For 
cleaning brushes, for example, a pad of cheesecloth 
should be moistened with a little petrol and the brushes 
rubbed on with a circular motion ; never, however, should 
the brushes be completely immersed in a basin contain- 
ing petrol, as it will be found extremely difficult to get 
rid of all traces of the petrol. Should one wish to re- 
move all the pigment from a print and to start inking it 
afresh, all that is necessary to do is to moisten a pad of 
cotton-wool with petrol, dip it in water and gently rub 
it over the surface of the print. This will remove every 
trace of the ink. It is very important to keep all the 
various solutions at the same temperature, namely, about 
70° F. Too high a temperature may easily lead to the 
melting of the gelatine, while insufficient relief is ob- 
tained by too low a temperature, without which it is 
impossible to make the pigment adhere to the surface of 
the print. One frequently has to complain of dust and 
fluff which the brushes may take up from the blotting- 
boards. It is a good plan to soak the pad thoroughly in 
cold water and, after having drained it, stretch a piece 
of soft clean cheesecloth over it. 

Though a considerable number of enthusiastic workers 
have forsaken the so-called straight print, such as car- 
bon, platinum or bromide, in favor of the brush-con- 
trolled print, such as oil or gum-bichromate, there seems 
to be a decided tendency just now in various quarters to 
go back to pure photography, to seek to develop its own 
peculiar beauties and to preserve the qualities which are 
intrinsically photographic. For this reason the able dem- 
onstration which Mr. W. H. Smith of the Platinotype 
Company gave to the members and their friends at the 
Royal Photographic Society in December drew a large 

audience which followed the various methods and varia- 
tions with the keenest interest. Some of the hints which 
the demonstrator gave are sure to be of great interest to 
the many platinum-printers in America. It is quite as- 
tonishing what amount of control can be exercised 
purely by varying the temperature of the developer. 
For delicate, light-gray effects a concentrated cold de- 
veloper will yield the best results on a black paper. A 
very small quantity of potassium bichromate added to 
the cold developer, say one grain bichromate to each 
ounce of normal developer, will give clear and bright 
prints from thin or soft negatives. Heating the devel- 
oper to 150° or 1 60° F. produces warm black tones on 
ordinary black paper; it will also give softer results from 
hard negatives which with a cold developer would print 
too contrasty. In the case of underprinting, a hot de- 
veloper will frequently save the print; while very short 
development may be tried in the case of overprinting, 
but frequently this is a little dangerous as it may yield 
granular results due to partial development. A very 
popular brand of the platinotype paper with our ama- 
teurs and some of the professionals is the Japine paper, 
a very strong paper with a semi-matt surface. This 
stands very rough handling and gives a great range of 
most pleasing tones. Prints on this paper which have 
become soiled and dirty can easily be cleaned with some 
soap and water or strong ammonia. Extra detail is ob- 
tained with the black Japine paper by adding a very 
small quantity of mercuric chloride to the hot developer. 
It is not so generally known that old paper will give 
much softer prints from hard negatives than fresh paper. 
The greatest authority in this country on platinum-print- 
ing is without doubt Frederick II. Evans, and it is his 
unvarying rule always to keep several cans of old paper 
in store ; in fact, he much prefers to work with old paper. 
Of course it is absolutely essential that the paper should 
be kept perfectly dry. It appears as if old paper is more 
impregnated with the platinum and that it does not wash 
away so much as with new paper. I recently obtained 
from a salvage wreck several dozen cans of sepia plat- 
inotype paper which had been exposed to very rough 
conditions of weather. They were subsequently found 
to be in perfect working condition. I think this was a 
very severe test and speaks well for the keeping-qual- 

I hear that the Professional Photographers Society of 
New York is arranging for February an exhibition of 
work produced in the ordinary way of business and that 
it is making a special feature of showing work by 
leading German and Austrian professionals. Mr. Pi l ie 
MacDonald and Mr. Falk have asked Mr. Ed. Blum, the 
well-known and energetic head of the gTeat trade print- 
ing-firm at Berlin, to secure for them a representative 
collection of the best work, and I understand that the 
idea has been enthusiastically received by practically all 
the “ big ” men, such as Duehrkoop, Erfurth, Ruf, 
Grainer and others. There is a hearty feeling existing 
between the American professional photographers and 
their German brothers and I should be glad to see similar 
friendly relations brought into existence between our men 
here and your people. Ed. Blum, by the way, intends 
to extend his enormous field of action to the United 
States. I understand that he will soon open a branch 
of his establishment for the finishing of all kind of high- 
class professional work in one of the leading cities. He 
is a thorough business man and possesses at the same 
time an unusual amount of artistic ability. These two 
qualities, I am sure, will go far to make him popular. 

[The exhibition referred to by Mr. 1 Ioppti will take 
place February 15-17 in New York City. See note on 
page 106 for further details. — Editor . ] 




The cover-illustration this month is a notably-sue- 
cessful genre, by E. O. Iloppd, our London correspond- 
ent. The original print has been gTeatly admired in 
England on account of the felicitous expression and 
comely appearance of the model, as well as for its ad- 
mirable technical qualities. As a portrait, pure and 
simple, it invites attention on account of its roundness 
and breadth of treatment. This is due to the lighting, 
use of a regular portrait-lens and intelligent manage- 
ment from the start to the finished print. Data : 
11 a.m. ; good light; Dallmeyer lens, F/ 8 ; 3 seconds 
exposure ; Imperial plate ; pyro-soda developer ; albu- 
men print. 

A typical rainy day in the metropolis, by a well- 
known worker, serves as the frontispiece of this issue. 
How large, ugly-looking buildings may be utilized in 
pictorial composition is shown convincingly by A. E. 
Boultenhouse. Tlie misty atmosphere is a valuable 
factor in this picture and emphasizes the perspective so 
well rendered. Data: Camera, No. 3 F. P. K. ; Goerz 
Celor lens; F/4.8; 4%-inch focus; April, 12.30 P.M. ; 
Eastman film ; Vso second ; pyro tank development ; 
8 x 10 Eastman Standard “ B ” Bromide enlargement. 

Julian A. Dimock is a realist with the camera and 
frankly disclaims any intent to pose as an exponent of 
the new school of photography. Yet he does not be- 
lieve in microscopic detail when picturing his scenes, 
and uses his lens with admirable judgment. This is 
exemplified in the pictures which accompany his article. 
In “ The First Drive,” page 58, gradations and tonal 
values of a rare winter-day are preserved — not wan- 
tonly extinguished, as is advocated by some of the 
ultra-moderns. One does not usually admire the 
beauties of nature through a cheese-cloth screen or 
through dusty glasses. Data: 8.30 a.m. February 22; 
light, very bright; F/6.3; %o second; 6 % x 8 % 
Cramer Iso Medium double-coated plate; pyro-acetone 
tank-development; direct solio print. The camera used 
for all Mr. 1 iimoek’s illustrations was a 6 % x 8 V 2 Ke- 
flex fitted with a Collinear lens, Ser. II., 11%", F/6.3. 

“ A Northern Hamlet,” page 59, pictures a smiling 
winter-landscape. The interpretation of true winter- 
feeling, and the camerist’s fine technical skill are highly 
to be commended. Data : 3 p.m. March 13 ; bright 
light; V 12 second; Ideal Filter, etc. 

The tendency of certain workers to exaggerate color- 
values by the use of too deep a ray-filter is illustrated 
on page 60. Mr. Dimock made this picture expressly to 
show the abuse of so valuable an adjunct as the color- 
screen. Under more propitious conditions he doubtless 
would have made another exposure — with a ray-filter 
of the right depth of color for comparison with the other 
experiment, which gives an entirely wrong impression of 
the scene. Our object-lesson should prove of benefit to 
those who have little or no experience with the ray- 
filter and also to those who use one of abnormal depth. 
Data: Northern Quebec; 10.30 a.m.; light, very bright; 
sky, blue; %o second, etc. 

“ Silhouettes,” page 62, is obviously underexposed in 
order to obtain the effect desired. Data the same as 
preceding, except time of day and length of exposure. 
The former we assume to have been late afternoon and 
the latter, with a color-screen, presumably a fraction of 
a second. 

In “ Log-Driving,” page 63, Mr. Dimock has achieved 
a notably artistic success, mainly because of the felicitous 
and eminently natural grouping of the figures. The 
sense of unity and balance of composition are pleasingly 
conspicuous. Data : Time, 3 p.m. June 7 ; bright light; 
Vies second ; Sigma plate. 

From the frigid North to the “ Sunny South ” is some- 
what of a jump, but Mr. Dimock’s camera is equal to 
the task. Page 65 exemplifies a gorgeous day in our 
peninsula state. The spacing is admirable and the 
artist’s fine sense of proportion has produced an harmoni- 
ous adjustment of parts. Data : 10 a.m., August 26 ; 
very bright light ; % 4 second ; Ideal Filter ; Standard 
Orthonon plate. 

The delightful picture by F. .7. Sipprell, page 67, 
vividly recalls to the mind V an Dyck’s popular painting, 
in the Pinacoteea, Turin, in which Charles I’s little son 
is represented clasping an apple. Mr. Sipprell’s photo- 
graph is a delicate piece of artistry with correct tone- 
values and a thoroughly natural pose. Data : Original 
negative on half of a 5 x 7 Seed 27 plate ; pyro devel- 
oper; Ser. A, No. 3 B. & L. Universal Portrait-Lens; 
9-inch focus ; 1 second with full aperture ; enlarged 
negative on an 8 x 10 Seed 23 plate ; Platinotype 

The interpretive ability of Will Cadby extends be- 
yond the portrayal of child-life, as his winter-work in 
this issue clearly demonstrates. His refined individuality 
is a valuable asset. It is no wonder that his creations 
have attained universal popularity. As a photographic 
specialist Mr. Cadby finds it difficult to execute the 
many calls made upon his productive skill. No data 
accompanied the pictures, pages 68 , 69, 70, and 72, but 
interested readers are referred to our November 1910 
number, which contained an appreciation by A. H. Blake. 

The Eastman Kodak Competition pictures, pages 74 to 
80, came to us without any data. Probably none accom- 
panied the initial prints. Editorial comment on these 
prize-photographs may be of interest to readers who 
wish to excel in technical methods and to impart to their 
pictures a marked advertising-value. 

The successful prints in the October contest include 
well-known examples of American scenic beauty. Be- 
ing' taken from uncommon view-points, they yield the 
added charm of originality. Unfortunately, curtailment 
of space in this department this month prevents individ- 
ual consideration, although the most captious critic 
will admit the beauty of subject, and skilful, sympa- 
thetic treatment of the entire series. The original of 
the first-prize picture was the only print from a negative 
which has since been lost, so that a better print for re- 
production could not be furnished. 

Page 88 presents a decided novelty. Any animal 
which appreciates the advantages of a hygienic drinking- 
fountain deserves to be photographed. Mr. Murray 
deserves much praise for having so skilfully managed 
his subject. There is adequate modeling in the white, 
furry coat, and the surroundings, discreetly subdued, 
form an attractive setting. This picture was omitted 
from the January issue because the first halftone-block 
was too contrasty. Data: July 2, 1910, 9 a.m.; good 
light; lens, B. & L. Rapid Universal; F/16 ; 1 i 0 
second ; Cramer’s Medium Iso, 4x5; Amidol developer ; 
8 x 10 enlargement on Wellington Bromide. 



Hooks reviewed in this magazine , or any others 
our readers may desire, will be furnished by us at 
the lowest market-prices. 

The Lands of the Tamed Turk ; or. The Balkan 
States of To-day. By Blair Jaekel. Octavo. 295 pp. 
With illustrations from original photographs. Price 
82. 50. Boston : L. C. Page iS: Company. 

Every wise person who contemplates a journey to 
some foreign country familiarizes himself beforehand 
with its history, people and general character. Not all 
hooks which supply this information are commendable. 
While many are quite trustworthy the contents is not 
always attractively presented. The admirable travel- 
books of the Pages furnish both, hence they enjoy wide- 
spread popularity. Some travelers regard them as actually 
indispensable, while others prefer them even to the 
standard guide-books. Moreover, these attractively- 
published volumes delight permanent stay-at-homes as 
much as they do prospective tourists ; even confirmed 
globe-trotters derive pleasure from their instructive 
pages and well-selected illustrations. Yet the publish- 
ers modestly insist that these books do not supplant the 
ordinary guides, but supplement them. 

One of the most important additions to this series of 
books is "The Lands of the Tamed Turk — that sec- 
tion of southern Europe, which, on account of its anom- 
alous geographical situation, its tempting adaptation to 
colonization, its vast undeveloped mineral wealth and 
other cogent reasons, needs but a spark to kindle it to 
raging flames. Only recently these strange, turbulent 
countries, their histories teeming with war and romance, 
and replete with wonderful scenery, have begun to lie 
disclosed to the traveling' world. Bulgaria, Servia, 
Bosnia. Herzegovina and Montenegro have had the atten- 
tion of the world fixed upon them during the last forty 
years. All this forms a volume of surpassing interest 
as presented by the author. 

Brazil and Her People of To-day. By Nevin O. 
Winter. Octavo ; 388 pages. Copious illustrations. 
Cloth, gilt top. §3.00. Boston: L. C. Page Company, 

The excellences which characterize other travel-books 
issued by this enterprising publishing-house manifest 
themselves in Mr. Winter’s notable volume. It is 
presented as a study of a gTeat and rapidly-growing 
country* and people from the most reliable authorities, as 
well as a record of impressions. Through this admirable 
treatise one becomes acquainted with the customs, char- 
acteristics, amusements, history and advancement of the 
Brazilians, and the development and resources of their 
country, the author s view-point being always straight- 
forward and broad. That great Southern republic — in 
shape almost the counterpart of the African continent — 
with its mighty rivers, vast forests and enormous natural 
resources, and an intelligent, progressive people, is des- 
tined soon to become a world-power. 

The wide-awake and energetic American in quest of 
new fields to conquer will be looking wistfully toward 
the land of the Orinoco, after he shall have perused this 
enticing volume. The numerous and excellent illustra- 
tions. from photographs taken by the author, reveal a 
state of advancement in civic improvement, for instance, 
comparable only to the most up-to-date cities of the 
world. It is the duty of every live American to read 
Mr. Winter’s instructive and fascinating narrative. 

The Whistler Book. A Monograph of the Life and 
Position in Art of James McNeill Whistler, together 
with a Careful Study of his more Important Works. 
By Sadakichi Hartmann. Octavo; 272 pages. Copi- 
ously illustrated. Cloth, $2.50. Boston : L. C. Page 
& Company, 1910. 

Eminently a book for the professional photographer 
who possesses genuine artistic feeling. He will profit 
by reading how Mr. Whistler studied and worked and 
upheld his ideals. His brilliant originality ; views on 
the work of other artists — trenchant, illuminating and 
true ; his ready, peerless wit and withering sarcasm ; his 
eccentric, forceful personality and undisputed genius — 
all form exceedingly interesting entertainment and in- 
struction for every thoughtful worker, be he profes- 
sional nr amateur. The practitioner in quest of publicity 
will discover valuable suggestions in Mr. Whistler’s 
resourceful and effective methods of gaining and hold- 
ing the public’s attention. The book is written in Mr. 
Hartmann’s best vein : surpassing, indeed, anything we 
have read from his pen. The fifty-odd illustrations, 
while a help to the reader, are of indifferent workman- 
ship — due, perhaps, to poor originals. 

Francisco. Our Little Argentine Cousin. By Eva 
Cannon Brooks. Illustrated by John Goss. Cloth, 
12mo, with decorated cover. GO cents. Boston : L. C. 
Page & Co. 

This book is one of the many in the popular Little 
Cousin Series. It will entertain the little people, who 
cannot fail to enjoy reading of the travels and adventures 
of Francisco, the young Argentine hoy. who travels with 
his uncle in Argentina, and with an Indian guide has 
many thrilling experiences. This interesting book is 
written in a pleasing, conversational manner and is in- 
tended for children who are fond of adventure. 

The Dolomites. By S. II. Hamer. With sixteen full- 
page illustrations in colors by Harry Rountree, and 
map showing railways and chief roads. Octavo, 305 
pages. Cloth, $3 00, net; postage 20 cents. New 
York: John Lane Company, 1910. 

To the average person the name “ Dolomites ” con- 
veys no definite idea of anything. To he direct and 
brief, they are a series of fantastic and strangely-colored 
rock -formations in the southern part of the Austrian 
province of Tyrol, though stretching in places over the 
border into Italy. As these odd-shaped peaks lie some- 
what out of the beaten path, they are not so familiar to 
the traveler as they should he. But now that this lovely 
region enjoys excellent railway and hotel accommoda- 
tions, tourists are beginning to invade it in large num- 
bers, and it may soon be overcrowded like Switzerland. 

The remarkable and alluring beauty of the Dolomites 
is well set forth by Mr. Hamer, and the tourist in quest 
of “unfrequented valleys offering homely hospitality 
and courtesy, combined with moderate charges and 
scrupulous cleanliness,” will do well to consider the 
Dolomites of Tyrol as an objective point next summer. 
Mr. Rountree’s numerous illustrations may seem a bit 
too highly colored, but it may be stated that, according 
to Mr. Hamer, much of the scenery is so unusual and 
unexpected, that one feels disposed to regard it as wild 
exaggeration when faithfully reproduced on paper or 
canvas, while the rapid changes effected by the play of 
light and shade on the diversely-colored rocks make it 
almost impossible for even the quickest artist to get 
more than an impression of the scene set before him. 
The region is a mine of pictorial wealth, and appeals 
strongly to the painter and to the photographer. The 
volume is superbly printed on Bible paper and is ex- 
tremely light. 


With Apologie s to the R. P. S. 

Without wishing- to show the least disrespect to that 
august body of photographic workers known as the 
Royal Photographic Society, we cannot resist the tempta- 
tion to print an account of an interesting episode. 

A certain photographer in the West recently had 
occasion to write to an eminent pictorialist, a member of 
the leading photographic society in England. Though not 
being- familiar with the character of European photo- 
graphic societies, and not having had the benefit of a 
liberal education, he holds a prominent position in 
society. He may, therefore, be pardoned for address- 
ing the honorable gentleman as follows : — Mr. Guy R. 
Wimbledon, R.S.V.P. 

Wanted — Photographic Salesmen 

We have several times referred to the difficulty which 
photographic dealers experience in trying to get honest, 
capable salesmen. The complaints which reach us on 
this subject make it evident that the trouble is increas- 
ing. Personal research among the dealers shows that 
there is widespread dissatisfaction, for the modern young- 
man seems infinitely to prefer talking hall and burlesque 
to strict attention to business. These faults, however, 
would he less annoying if their knowledge of photo- 
graphy were sufficient to compensate for them ; hut the 
superficial smattering of misinformation possessed by 
most clerks is a real hindrance. Intelligent young men, 
with good, practical knowledge of photography and of 
the articles they are to sell, should have no difficulty to 
enter this field and command better salaries than the 
average. The dealers are willing to pay adequate sums 
to the light sort of men ; but the present clerks can 
hardly complain of their salaries, because they are get- 
ting all they are worth. 

It is food for thought that almost all the Englishmen 
we have met in the photographic business in this coun- 
try are far superior to the average American clerk. 
Since the domestic supply of first-class salesmen is so far 
behind the demand, it should be easy for thoroughly 
well-trained photographic experts to oust the inefficients. 
We recommend this field to our English exchanges and 

A Successful Receptionist 

A Boston paper recently printed a short biographical 
sketch of the receptionist in one of Boston’s most suc- 
cessful studios, the subject being Miss Bessie Berlow. 
The young woman in question, however, prefers to he 
called “ manager,” which, indeed, she is, having full 
charge of the Boston branch of a well-known New York 
studio with branches in various parts of the country, 
all being successful. Miss Berlow entered the Boston 
studio five years ago as an assistant clerk. By energetic 
activity, consistent and faithful discharge of her duties, 
and a rare gift of salesmanship, she advanced rapidly, 
until to-day she occupies the responsible position of 
manager. Miss Berlow is described as a modest young- 
woman, when speaking of her accomplishments. She 
ascribes her success to hard work, for she says: “My 
happiest moments are my busiest ones. 1 have always 
believed in hard work. and. what is more, I contend that 
the essential feature of one’s success is to work as hard 
for his employer as he would for himself. Of course my 

duties are very different from those of most other girls, 
and to me it is very fascinating. I am enthusiastically 
absorbed in my work.” 

Miss Berlow speaks from experience when she says 
that women are the more eager posers, while the sterner 
sex must be handled with tact, and that it is easier to 
lead a man up to the mouth of a cannon than up to a 
camera. This successful young manager was born in 
New York and educated in the schools of that city. She 
came to Boston with her parents ten years ago and fin- 
ished a course of study in the evening-class of the Eng- 
lish High School. She is at present taking a course in 
philosophy, economics and psychology. 

Two Kinds of Business 

“ What business are you engaged in at present, 
Smith ? ” 

“ Moving pictures.” 

“ Does that pay better than moving furniture and 
pianos ? ” 

“ Much. Only it requires care not to break the 
glass or injure the frames. And what is yours, pray ? ” 

“ Motion-pictures. It is a gold-mine. You’d better 
stop moving pictures and tackle motion-pictures.” 

“ Guess I will. Strange ; most newspapers make no 
difference between moving pictures and furniture, and 

“ Ignorance ; that is all.” 

Albert Le Breton 

Among the numerous visitors at our offices during 
the last month was Mr. Albert Le Breton of San Fran- 
cisco. Mr. Le Breton has for many years been promi- 
nently identified with photography, but purely as an 
amateur. He has served three terms as chief executive 
of the California Camera Club. Having retired from 
active business, he finds more time to interest himself in 
photographic matters, including the publication of a vol- 
ume on the Potomac from the source to its mouth, to be 
illustrated by pictures of his own. After Christmas he 
returned to San Francisco with the intention to come 
back to Boston, where his family resides. In all prob- 
ability he may make his residence in some large eastern 
city, and we hope it may be Boston. 

The Future of the American Salon 

Reports are being circulated to the effect that the 
American Federation of Photographic Societies is near- 
ing the end of its existence and, consequently, there will 
not be another American Photographic Salon, at least 
for some time to come. We are authorized to state 
that nothing is farther from the truth than such a state- 
ment. In fact, just so long as the pictorial photo- 
graphers continue to show the activity and interest that 
they have last year, just so long will the Salon be con- 
tinued. Certain other busybodies have added to the 
scandal -mongers’ photographic records the ditty that the 
financial condition of the Federation was unsound, when 
just the opposite is the case. During the past two 
years the Federation has made a better financial showing 
than it has at any other time during its existence. If 
the various cliques will only agree to forget all differ- 
ences and unite to send their best work, the next Salon 
should be a resplendent success. 



Announcements and Reports of Club and Association Meetings, Exhibitions and Conventions 

are solicited for publication 

Motion-Pictures in Color 

We had the pleasure to witness the first demonstration 
in Boston of the Kinemacolor pictures, the invention of 
Urban and Smith of London, notices of which have sev- 
eral times appeared in Photo-Era. The process has 
been much improved since its introduction, and, how- 
ever much the results might he criticized on purely 
technical grounds, we must admit that the rendering 
was. in the main, satisfactory. Room for improvement 
still remains, for with under-exposure the darker colors 
have too much black in them, and with great under- 
timing- the red and the green of the projection-filters 
showed in all their vividness. Probably faster lenses (if 
Such can be obtained with adequate depth of focus) and 
faster emulsions will help to more correct color-repro- 
duction. The best films, to our mind, were those taken 
on the water, because in them there had been sufficient 
exposure to get full color in all the deeper tones. One 
in particular — a series of views on one of the Italian 
lakes, showed a marvelous range. The blues, formerly 
badly rendered, were reproduced with startling fidelity 
and extended from the palest cobalt tints to the most in- 
tense deep tones, such as are seen only in the Mediter- 
ranean region. Reds of all possible shades were perfectly 
shown, from the bright scarlet of a girl's gown to the 
deep mahogany of a motor-boat. 

As the lecturer. Mr. Gilbert II. Aymar, remarked to 
the audience of 1,200 which packed Huntington Hall 
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the process 
may be still in its swaddling-clothes, but the results are 
so beautiful and natural that it has a wonderful future. 
It is certainly a tremendous improvement over the ordi- 
nary motion-picture. 

The New Postal Photographic Club 

A new pictorial Photographic Album Club has just 
been started. It has not yet been christened, but a vote 
is now being taken to determine its title. 

The album is making its first round and the prints 
contained therein show most painstaking efforts to put it 
on a parity with any similar club of the country, and 
when we take into consideration the active and pictorial 
workers of this club, we feel justified in predicting its 

A club of this character is of immeasurable benefit to 
its members, who must of necessity profit by criticism 
of their plants ; and in a spirit of emulation and in an 
effort to outdo one another, must necessarily constantly 
improve the standard of their work. 

The organizers of this new club comprise such workers 
as Mrs. Margaret E. Menus. Malden. Massachusetts ; 
Sylvan B. Phillips. Portland. Maine; Miss Katherine 
Bingham. St. Johnsbury, Vermont ; H. W. Schonenwolf, 
Buffalo. New York; Lewis J. Fitler, Sayre, Pennsyl- 
vania ; Harry I). \\ illiar, Harry A. Harvey and Chas. 
H. Renish, Baltimore. Maryland; C. I!. Tucker. New 
Dorp. V m. H. Zerbe, Richmond Hill, New York ; 
Dr. T. \\ . Kilmer. New York City; F. Clark, 
Springfield, and Roy C. Burckes, Winter Hill, 

Several of these are well-known workei-s in photo- 
graphic art. and have obtained a reputation as exhibitors 

and prize-winners. More than half of the members are 
represented this year in the Seventh American Salon, 
which at this writing is showing at Baltimore. 

As it is the purpose of this club to increase its mem- 
bership (not to exceed twenty, however, for the present) 
those desirous of joining may file an application with the 
Director, Mr. Roy C. Burckes of Winter Hill. Massa- 
chusetts ; but an application must be accompanied by at 
least three prints showing the average quality of the 
applicant’s work, and these prints are to be submitted to 
the members, who will vote on the admission of the 
applicant if his work is up to the standard of the club, 
or the rejection of the applicant if his work is not worthy 
of admission. 

The membership is to be confined exclusively to the 
Middle and Eastern States north of Washington, and east 
of the ( )hio River. 

The Art-Side of Photography 

Papers on photography and geology, discussed by 
Wilfred A. French. Ph.D., editor of Photo-Era, and 
George C. Curtis, the well-known geologist, occupied the 
attention of the members of the Boston Scientific So- 
ciety last evening. 

Speaking on ‘'The Art-Side of Photography,” Mr. 
French outlined the origin of portraiture by light, noting- 
that the original process, that of Daguerre, was exceed- 
ingly artistic; sketched tin- development of the lens and 
artistic influences which have crept in. largely in this 
country through the influence of a group of amateurs in 
New York, till prints of some subjects are rated at from 
fifty to one hundred dollars each. Suppression of detail, 
breadth of treatment and illumination are among the 
features of art photography, the camera being made to 
do more than merely reproduce what the eye can see. 

Mr. Curtis, who has attained reputation by his artistic 
reproduction of models of portions of the earth’s surface, 
took as a subject ‘‘Shore-Line Movements id’ the Gulf 
of Maine,” but the field covered included many distant 
places. He declared that there is hardly a place where 
the shore-line is at rest. Greenland has been subsiding 
for about four hundred years ; South America in some 
places has risen quite as much as three or four hundred 
feet. England, France, the West Indies, are rising, 
while New Zealand is tilting, one side going up while 
the other is being depressed. The coral islands of the 
Pacific are going up as well as down. Generally speak- 
ing the coast of Maine and the country to the northeast, 
of it to Cape Race is going down. — The Boston Trans- 
cript, Dec. 28, 1910. 


December 27, 1910. 

Photo-Era, Boston, Mass. 

Gentlemen : 

I enclose 81.50 to renew my subscription. I find the 
magazine invaluable, stimulating and helpful. The 
feature of criticizing and describing the illustrations is to 
me of great value. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Alfred N. Cutting. 

A Special Contest — “The Seven Ages” 

Some time ago a subscriber suggested to us a new 
field for photographic illustration. This is nothing' less 
than to produce by photography a series of pictures il- 
lustrating- the famous passage in Shakespeare, “ The 
Seven Ages.” The idea has been under consideration, 
and we have finally decided to hold a contest, intended 
mainly for professionals, though advanced workers of 
the semi-professional and amateur classes will not be 
barred. Fascinating in itself, the thought of really good 
photographs on this popular passage is doubly alluring. 
We believe that there are artists of the lens who are 
quite competent to represent in seven prints the best 
interpretation which could be given of the stages of life 
as described by the bard. 


1. The entry must be entirely the work of the con- 
testant. from the posing of the model to the making and 
finishing - of the print. 

2. Each entry must consist of seven prints not smaller 
than 5x7. 

3. Prints must be mounted, with about one inch or 
more margin, on thick card mounts. 

4. Prints must be on smooth paper, suitable for half- 
tone reproduction, and any on rough paper will not be 
considered eligible 

5. Each contestant must make two sets of prints and 
secure copyright thereon [copyright-fee, 50 cents] before 
making any other prints from the negatives. The title to 
the negatives as well as to the copyright must be trans- 
ferred to Wilfred A. French, publisher of Photo-Era, 
by the successful contestant. 

(i. The winner must also furnish the written consent 
of the subject or subjects (or the consent of parent or 
guardian in the case of a minor) for the use of their 
picture or pictures by Wilfred A. French. 

7. Each set of prints must lie accompanied by a 
coupon cut from the advertising-pages of a copy of 

8. Each set of prints must bear some design for iden- 
tification, but no name or address. See Hound Robin 
Guild Department for general instructions about sending 
prints safely. A sealed envelope containing both this 
design and the name and address of the contestant must 
be sent separately, enclosed in a letter advising us of the 
sending of the prints, and containing return-postage. 

9. The jury will consist of a prominent actor, a 
dramatic critic, a professional photographer and an 
amateur photographer. The names will be announced 

10. First prize, $50.00, and second prize, $35.00, will 
be paid on receipt of the successful negatives in perfect 
condition and transfer of the copyright. 

11. The contest will close May 31. 1911. at (i P.M. 
Prints must be delivered at 383 Boylston Street. Boston, 
U. S. A , before that time in order to be considered. 

12. Full details will be published in Photo-Era. 

An Exhibition by Stark and Bell 

Stark and Bell, whose advertisement appears else- 
where, will have on exhibition during the month of 
January at the stole of Messrs. Herbert & Huesgen, 
311 Madison Ave.. New York, N. Y., a collection of 
photographs showing the special line of high-grade work 
the firm is now doing for the amateur trade. 

The collection contains Carbon, Gum and Bromide 
enlargements from small originals, showing the great 
possibilities of the small camera. 

The public is invited to view this exhibition. 

Nancy Ford Cones’ Prize Lens 

As mentioned in another column, Mrs. Nancy Ford 
Cones, who won the second prize in class B of the East- 
man advertising-competition for 1910, has often won 
prizes in the Photo-Eka contests. In 1907 she received 
as grand prize a Series II Cooke lens of 8-inch focus 
and F/4.5 speed. It was this identical lens which she 
used to make her prize-winning picture, reproduced on 
page 78. 

The Number O Kodak 

We have compiled a list of people who can furnish 
No. O Folding Pocket Kodaks to those who wish to 
alter them as described by Mr. Wilfred II. Schoff in 
Photo-Era for April, 1910. Our correspondents may 
bave these names on receipt of a request accompanied 
by a stamp. 

Harold A. Taylor 

A New Year's greeting from the noted Californian 
pictorialist, Harold A. Taylor, came to our desk It 
was in the form of a beautiful sepia print of San Juan 
Capistrano Mission, mounted and framed as a calendar. 

H. Snowden Ward’s Boston Lectures 

Secretaries of camera clubs in and near Boston are 
requested to note that the management of Tremont 
Temple has arranged special terms for clubs. Special 
blocks of seats will be reserved on request and a reduced 
price made to societies taking not less than fifty seats. 
For full particulars address The Superintendent, 
Tremont Temple, Boston, U. S. A. 

Los Angeles Camera Club 

The December exhibition of the Los Angeles Club 
was' a decided success. Much enthusiasm was aroused, 
and over a dozen new members joined. At the present 
rate of growth it will not be long before the club will 
have to secure larger quarters. 

Grand Opera in Boston 

Boston musical and social circles are decidedly gay 
this season owing to the growing popularity of the per- 
formances at the Boston Opera House. The present 
season, though but half over, has shown a wonderful in- 
crease in attendance over the same period last season. 
The two holiday weeks are usually looked forward to 
with fear and trembling in the theatrical world, but 
those fears have been dispelled from the mind of Direc- 
tor Russell, as he asserts that they were the two best 
weeks of the current season. Last season the patronage 
was more or less local, whereas the interest is now 
spreading with astonishing results to the cities surround- 
ing Boston, and theater-parties are becoming the popular 
fad. There are many features to be presented during 
the remaining weeks; the first of these was the perform- 
ance of " The Girl of the Golden West,” which was a 
non-subscription performance, and the support given by 
the general public was most gratifying to the Directors, 
proving as it did the interest in Boston’s musical monu- 
mental institution. 

Rare Business Chance 

Among the amateur practitioners of marked ability 
and high ideals, who take up the business professionally, 
are many who have so little experience as managers that 
they fail dismally. 

Elsewhere in this issue will be found an advertise- 
ment for a photographer, preferably a professional of 
high standing, to take an active and pecuniary interest 
in a successful photographic business. 



The eleventh branch office of the Defender I’hoto-Sup- 
ply Company has recently been established in Minneapo- 
lis. All of the northwest will he supplied from this depot, 
which is stocked with a complete line of Defender 
papers, plates and chemicals. The new office is located 
at “ Reid Corner,” Ninth Street and Nicollet Avenue, in 
the heart of the business district. Mr. R. I). Seely, the 
manager, has been for several years in charge of the 
photographic department of the New England Furniture 
Company's store in Minneapolis. He is well known 

among photographers in the northwest, and is thoroughly 
conversant with all branches of the business. 

Since its foundation the Defender Company has had a 
reputation for prompt deliveries of all orders, and the 
new branch will facilitate shipments in a rapidly-grow- 
ing part of the country. 

Milton Bradley : A Successful Man 

Milton Bradley’s career is well set forth in the beau- 
tiful little book which lias come to our desk with the 
compliments of the House of Milton Bradley. It is a 
story worth reading because it proves again that perse- 
verance and honesty are not without their reward in this 
world. Photographers are familiar with the high-class 
Bradley print-trimmers, but few of them know the wide 
field covered by the activities of the company in litho- 
graphs, games and kindergarten-supplies. Everything 
produced under the Bradley name is of the highest 

The Agfa Flashlight Book 

Mr. Barrows has compiled an interesting and in- 
structive booklet on the use of the Agfa Blitzlicht 
powder and the special lamp devised for its utilization. 
Combustible envelopes witli tape fuses are also described. 
Short directions are given for making all classes of flash- 
light exposures, including still-life, cut glass and metal 
objects and outdoor flashes. Readers who intend to 
enter prints in the December Round Robin Guild Com- 
petition which closes January 31 should send for this 
book. It is mailed on receipt of ten cents and the label 
from a package of the Agfa powder. Address Berlin 
Aniline Works, 213-215 Water St., N. Y. 

The Editor’s Tabloid Case 

We acknowledge receipt of a handsome case of 
photographic Tabloid products from Burroughs Well- 
come and Co., New York. It contains materials for 
developing, fixing' and toning plates and papers, as well 
as intensifying and redeveloping, and a 1911 Exposure 
Record. The neat metal casket measures only 8 : ii by 
4 Vi by 2 inches, and will prove a great convenience for 

T he Cooke-Telar Lens 

We hear that the Cooke-Telar lens is succeeding 
admirably, so much so in fact, that the demand is likely 
for a time to tax the supply. New models are now fur- 
nished for use with Graflex cameras, the lens-mounts 
having been made as compact as they can possibly be. 
It is indeed a convenient thing to he able to use a high- 
speed lens of nearly fourteen inches’ focus on a camera 
like the No. 3A Graflex, or a fast lens of twenty-two 
inches’ focus on a camera with only a thirteen-inch 
bellows-draw. Until the introduction of this remarkable 
Cooke-Telar lens, snapshot telephotography was almost 
an impossibility. It is now an assured success, and 
pictorial workers will find that the new lens is an ad- 
mirable tool for their work. 


One of our advertisers, the Michigan Photo-Supply 
Co. of Kalamazoo, Mich., in remitting, voluntarily 
makes this statement: "We have had a great many 
inquiries for our pictorial calendar cards, which is evi- 
dence that your journal is widely read." 


The Photo-Crafts Shops 

From H. Oliver Bodine, the keeper of the Photo- 
Crafts Shops at Racine, Wisconsin, we received for the 
new year a remarkably tasteful calendar bearing- a 
photographic print of Mr. Rodino's Salon-picture, “ The 
Birches,” which was reproduced in the December issue. 
This picture was taken with the new Bodine lens for 
pictorial workers, and the quality of the definition leaves 
little to be desired. There is no double image, as is the 
case when using some other makes of partly-corrected 
lenses. Full particulars will appear in a future number. 

Professional Photographers of New York 

A convention of the Professional Photographers’ 
Society of New York is to be held in Terrace Garden, 
New York City, February 15-17. Many interesting 
features have been arranged, not the least of which will 
be an exhibit of prints from the best two negatives 
made by each member during the past year. The most 
widely-heralded event, however, is to be a great exhibi- 
tion of work by German professionals. Mr. Eduard 
Blum, an American citizen resident in Berlin and the 
proprietor of the most widely-known enlarging estab- 
lishment in Germany, has been for many months ar- 
ranging this show. It will include the best work of all 
the most noted practitioners, including such men as 
Rudolph Duehrkoop, Nicola Perscheid, Hugo Erfurtli 
and G. II. Emmerich. The January number of The Sec- 
tion News , the official organ of the society, contains 
excellent reproductions of these and other prominent 

workers whose pictures will be in the show. We com- 
pliment the members on their excellent and interesting- 
little journal and trust that a very large attendance will 
take advantage of the many good things provided for 
them by the committee of arrangements, Messrs. B. J. 
Falk (chairman), Pirie MacDonald, Dudley Hoyt, A. F. 
Bradley, I. Buxbaum and Charles Hallen. 

High-Class Photo-Engraving 

From time to time we receive letters praising the 
superior quality of the halftone reproductions which 
appear in Photo-Era. Of late several business-firms 
have requested us to recommend an engraver capable of 
doing for them the same grade of work as we demand. 
It is a pleasure, in such cases, to refer them to the 
Essex Engraving- Company, which is now doing- all out- 

Effective Advertising 

From the R. W. Johnston Studios, of Pittsburgh, 
comes a very good piece of advertising, which was used 
by them in the local newspapers for the Christmas 
trade. There is an attractive photograph of a lady en- 
gaged in making out her list of gifts. An arrow, leading 
from the book which she holds, points to an enlarged 
reproduction of the list, headed by the legend, “ Por- 
traits from The Johnston Studios.” Below are cards 
calling attention to the departments of at-home por- 
traiture, under the charge of W. 0. Breekon, and studio- 
portraiture. presided over by W. A. Guliek. Between 
these cards appears a suggestion about copying daguerre- 
otypes or old photographs. 


Information for publication under this heading is solicited 

Society or Title 


Entries Close 

Part culars of 

Seventh American Photographic Salon 

International Photographic Exhibition 
Moscow, Russia 

International Circulating Exhibition 

International Industrial Exposition 
Turin, Italy, 1911 

Round Robin Guild Pictures for 1909 
Chicago Camera Club 

Round Robin Guild Pictures for 1908 

23d Street Y.M.C.A. Camera Club 





March 1 

May 1, 1911 

March 18 

May 15, 1911 

April to 
Oct., 191 1 

Until Feb. 1 

Until Feb. 1 

On exhibition at 

Detroit Museum of Art 
Chicago Institute of Art 
Toledo Museum of Art 
St. Louis Museum of Art 

Dr. A. Prochoroff 

Moscow, Russia 

Mr M. Riesling, Dept, of 
Photographic Apparatus 
8 Kaiserplatz, 

Wilmersdorf, Berlin 

Prof. Emmerich, Dept. Photo- 
graphy and Reproduction 
2 Martin Greif Str. 

Munich, Germany 

II. A. Langston, Sec’y. 

87 East Lake Street 
Chicago, 111. 

J. O. Sprague, Sec’y. 

215 West 23d Street 
New York City 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI MARCH, 1911 No. 3 

Published Monthly by WILFRED A. FRENCH, 383 Boylston Street, Boston, U.S.A. Entered as Second-Class Matter, 
June 30, 1908, at the Post-Office, Boston, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


United States and Mexico, §1.50. Canadian postage, 35 cents I Foreign postage, 75 cents extra. Single copies, 20 cents each, 
extra. Single copies, 15 cents each | Always payable, in advance 




Contributions relating to photography in any and all of its branches are solicited and will receive our most careful consideration. 
While not accepting responsibility for unrequested manuscripts, we will endeavor to return them if not available, provided return- 
postage is enclosed. 



A Windy Day 

A January Thaw 

A Gaslight-Paper Print . 

An Oil-Print 

A Gaslight-Paper Print 

An Oil-Print . 

A Defective Oil-Print 

A Winter Night 



Morning Sunlight 

The Round-Up 


Second Prize — Landscapes. Union Camera Club 

First Prize — General. Union Camera Club. 

First Prize — Portraits. Union Camera Club 

First Prize — Landscapes. Union Camera Club 

A Dutch Maiden 

First Prize — Landscapes. Newton Civic Federation 

Third Prize — Architectural. Newton Civic Federation . 

First Prize — Group-Portraits 

Second Prize — Group-Portraits 

Third Prize — Group-Portraits 

A Portrait-Group 

Honorable Mention — Group-Portraits 

Honorable Mention — Group-Portraits 

The Officers of the P. A. of A. 


The Oil-Process 

Art in Photography 

Coloring Photographs with Transparent Water-Colors 

Photography at Night 

Color-Photography vs. Painting 

Some Observations on Ozobrome 


A Post-Card Frame 

Materials for the Tropics 

A New Gelatine Pigment-Process for Pictorial Workers 

M. IF. Engel Front Cover 

Louis Fleckenstein Frontispiece 

. William II. Kunz 108 

. William H. Kunz 100 

William H. Kunz 112 

William H. Kunz 113 

William IT. Kunz 114 

Arthur W. Walburn 115 

Frank Sayles Dart _ 117 

James Arthur 118 

Charles Vandervelde 120 

II. M. Wiltbank 122 

Theodore Eitel ..... 124 

M. L. Vincent 128 

G. IF. Lord 128 

F. IF. llill 120 

F. IF. Hill 120 

Sol Young 131 

. Ellis Moore 132 

.W. H. Partridge __ 132 

. Paul Lewis Anderson 135 

C. E. Kelsey 130 

Frank J. Ulmschneider 137 

Rudolph Diihrkoop 138 

Charles II. Flood 130 

Leon Jeanne 140 

Lee Brothers 152 

William II. Kunz 107 

Studio Light 110 

B. I. Barrett 111 

Frank Sayles Dart 110 

Frederick II. Keans 110 

William Findlay 121 

II Crowell Pepper ... 120. 

. William S. Davis 125 

Dr. Tempest Anderson 120 

Malcolm Arbuthnot 127 


Editoria l 

1 33 

The Crucible 


The Round Robin Guild. 


Berlin Letter 




Our Illustrations 


Beginners* Column 




Answers to Correspondents 




On the Ground-Glass... 
Notes and New s 


. 153 


Exposure-Guide for M vrch 


With the Trade _ 

.. 157 

Photo-Era , The .1 mm' run ./oat not of Photography, Copyright, lull , by Wilfred A . Ereneh. 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI MARCH, 1911 No. 3 

The Oil-Process 


T HE oil-process lias been extensively 
adopted abroad for the printing of ex- 
hibition pictures. Its principal claims 
to superiority are that prints which are soft or 
contrasty, full of detail, or very broad and 
sketchy in effect, can be produced at will from 
the same negative. Very great control can be 
secured in these modifications, as one part of 
a print can be made one way and another of a 
different value or texture as may be needed to 
secure the best pictorial effect. To my mind, 
the greatest advantage of the process for the 
pictorialist is the great control the operator has 
over the tone-values, as they can be darkened or 
lightened as much as may be necessary. If on 
altering a value the result is not satisfactory, it 
can be changed back again as often as desired. 
This gives a person a chance to get exactly the 
effect he has in mind. 

The process is cheap and the prints are per- 
manent. The materials needed for experimenting 
are a fitch brush of medium size, say three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, some lithographic 
ink. some carbon double-transfer paper final- 
support, bichromate sensitizer, blotters for ink- 
ing-pad, and a little boiled linseed oil. 

It is best to buy a good brush, as it lasts for 
a very long time and causes much less trouble 
from shedding hair or having the hairs break off 
in short pieces. It is well for the beginner to 
use a specially prepared ink at first. One that 
always works perfectly is “ Encre Machine” 
black, made by Sinclair of London and sold in 
America at fifty-five cents per jar. The Sinclair 
colors in pots all work satisfactorily, hut the 
tube-colors do not work so well. The carbon 
transfer-paper is to be a smooth surface double- 
transfer final-support, such as Autotype numbers 
< 6, 86, 87 or 1160. These are all smooth 
matte white papers. A full line of oil-printing 
supplies is carried by Ralph Harris & Co., 
Boston. Mass., and by George Murphy, Inc., 
New York City. 

Sensitizing can be done by immersing your 
paper in a three per cent solution of bichromate 
of potash and drying in the dark, or by brushing 
over the surface a spirit-sensitizer composed of 
equal parts of five per cent solution of bichro- 
mate of ammonia and wood- or grain-alcohol. 
Do not use denatured alcohol, as it does not work 
well. The sensitized paper must be bone-dry 
before printing. Select a fairly plucky negative to 
start on and print as long as it would take to make 
a very light proof on Solio. The exposure from an 
average negative is from thirty to sixty seconds in 
the sun. The paper gives a visible image some- 
what like platinum. After one or two trials you 
can tell by the appearance of the print itself when 
it is fully printed. The detail should be just visi- 
ble in the highlights, which should be slightly 
tinted. It is best to allow an inch margin all 
around the negative and to cover part of the 
margin with black paper. This will give an un- 
exposed portion of the paper which will he a 
guide in telling when the highlights are tinted. 
The large margin is also to protect the brush 
from getting wet from the damp inking-pad. 

After tbe paper is printed, it must be soaked 
for at least- fifteen minutes in water, temperature 
seventy-five degrees, changing the water each 
five minutes. Some papers require soaking up 
to one hour, depending on the hardness of the 

Cut four or five blotters as large as or larger 
than your paper and thoroughly soak them in 
water at seventy-five degrees. These form your 
inking-pad. on which the print is laid to be 
inked, for it must be moist. 

While the print is soaking, the ink should be 
prepared for use. On a clean piece of glass 
place a lump of ink about the size of a large 
pea and with a kitchen-knife or spatula mix with 
it a few drops of turpentine, finally spreading 
the ink out as thinly as possible. This forms a 
stiff ink. which should always be used to start 
inking. The reason for starting to ink up with 


a stiff ink is that the s titter the ink the more 
contrast your picture lias. You can always ink 
over with a softer ink to reduce the contrasts, 
hut it is very difficult to increase them if the ink 
lias been used too thin. Also, if the print has 
been over-exposed it will ink all right with a 
stiff ink but he too flat with a softer ink. The 
ink being ready and the print fully soaked, lay 
the print face up on the pile of wet blotters and 
blot off the surplus water with a piece of cheese- 
cloth. lie sure that the drops of water are all 
removed from the surface and that no lint re- 
mains. At this stage the image can he seen in 
relief, the shadows also being matte and the 
highlights glossy. A print which has this ap- 
pearance is almost certain to take ink properly. 

To start inking, dab the brush lightly in the 
ink once or twice and then dab it several times 
on a clean part of the glass. This is to secure 
an even distribution of ink on the brush. The 
secret of smooth inking is to keep the ink on 
only the surface of the brush and use as little 
ml: as possible. 

By going over a part several times any depth 
of color desired can he secured, without any 
grain’s being visible. It is just at this point 

that most of the failures are made. Most be- 
ginners either apply the ink with too heavy a 
stroke or get too much ink on the brush, and it 
deposits in little lumps on the print. If this 
happens, clean the brush by wiping it on a piece 
of cheesecloth or leather and start dabbing the 
print as in inking up. The cleaned brush will 
pick up the particles of ink and smooth them all 
out. Start inking in an upper corner, working 
down and towards the center. The various 
strokes used in inking are a matter of practice. 
A slow, heavy stroke will deposit ink anywhere 
on the print and a light tapping stroke will lift 
it. A satisfactory stroke for inking up is 
obtained by holding the brush vertically and 
giving a series of light, quick blows somewhat 
like making a dotted line quickly with a pencil. 
A slight pull to the brush as it hits the paper 
gives a smoother grain. After the print lias 
been fully inked with the stiff ink. we go over 
it again, this time adding one drop of boiled 
linseed oil to our ink and mixing it well. The 
thinner ink will take more readily when you 
use the same stroke as before. The shadows 
take more ink but the higher tones still lack 
gradation. From this point on the ink can be 



thinned by adding one or two drops of oil at a 
time, until it just takes slightly on the higher 
tones and leaves the whites quite clean, always 
of course using the regular light stroke. Right 
here a word of caution may he in order. Do 
not use a heavy, pressing stroke in an effort to 
make the ink take on the higher tones. By so 
doing you lose all the gradation in the highlights 
and also get a granular print. You will see by 
trial that by adding one drop of oil at a time 
you will get the ink so it will hold all the high- 
light tones but not dirty up the highest lights. 
This is the ideal condition and varies with 
different prints. When it is reached, no more 
oil should be added. Any darkening of tones 
can be secured by charging the brush well with 
ink and using a slightly heavier stroke. 

In order to lift the ink from a place that is 
too dark, use the “ hopping-stroke,” first clean- 
ing the brush by dabbing it half a dozen times 
or so on a piece of smooth leather. I use a 
piece of chamois myself and clean the leather 
w ith gasolene when I have finished. The reason 
for not using a blotter or cloth to clean the brush 
is on account of the lint which would stick to it 
and be deposited on the print. The lifting 


stroke, or “ hopping,” is done by lifting the 
brush about an inch from the paper and letting 
it fall, catching it on the rebound. This will 
pick up the ink as much as may he desired. 

In case it is desired to make prints from neg- 
atives which are too soft to make good prints in 
the regular way, considerable contrast can he 
secured by soaking the print for five minutes 
in a three per cent solution of sulphuric acid be- 
fore inking it up. 

Any hairs or dirt can he removed from the 
wet print by wetting a fine spotting-brush and 
picking them up with that. They can be re- 
moved from the dry print by soaking it for 
about half an hour face down in cold water. Any 
lint which remains can be removed with a pin 
from the dry print. 

After the print is fully inked it should lie 
pinned up by the four corners to dry. Other- 
Mdse it will curl very badly. Drying takes from 
twenty-four to forty-eight hours. The prints 
can he mounted in the usual ways. 

The prints accompanying this article were 
made on Autotype double-transfer paper number 
76 and inked Math a lithographic ink which is 
used for collotype-work. 

1 09 

Art in Photography 

very different from portrait-photography 
as practiced twenty years ago. Not only 
different but better. The portrait-photographer 
of to-day has higher aims than merely making a 
good likeness of his sitter — he has studied com- 
position and knows the good in composition from 
the had. The foundation for better future con- 
ditions is laid by the high-class portraits being 
made to-day, and to illustrate this fact we will 
cite a case recently coming to our attention. 

A man having a little daughter four years 
old — a pretty little girl — was requested by a 
photographer-friend to let him make a portrait 
of the little girl. The father was not particu- 
larly interested in having a picture made, and 
the photographer explained that he was getting 
up a convention-exhibit and would lie pleased to 
furnish an enlarged picture of the little girl free 
of charge if the father would consent to the ar- 
rangement. Of course we know and you know 
that in most cases such a course is unnecessary, 
hut in this case the photographer was a friend 
and further than that he wanted a child-study 
to complete his exhibit and this particular child 
was a model to his liking. 

“ Well. I have no real objection to offer,” 
said the father, “but we have several pictures 
and they are pretty good and probably all we’ll 
need for a few years to come.” 

“ But I believe I can make just what I want 
for my purpose and possibly something which 
will please you better than anything you have,” 
argued the photographer. “ Bring her down 
this week and let me try.” 

The sitting was made, and the mother, who 
accompanied the child, was not entirely pleased 
when the photographer insisted on photograph- 
ing the child with new coat and bonnet removed. 
Mother wanted a picture of that coat and bonnet, 
but could not insist as the picture was to he 
made without charge. 

The result was a natural child-picture in sim- 
ple dress — artistically lighted and posed. The 
composition was good, and both father and 
mother were greatly pleased at the lifelike por- 
trait of the little one. 

The enlargement was framed and hung in the 
living-room — not upstairs in the back bedroom 
where an enlarged picture of father hung — a 
picture made when father was a four-year-old. 

Why was the child-picture of the father hung 
in a back bedroom, practically in disgrace ? 
M’hy was the little girl’s picture hung in the 
living-room ? The natural answer would be, 

because one picture was old and the other new, 
and perhaps that answer would hold good for a 
few years ; but there is no reason why the boy- 
picture should ever have been relegated to a 
back bedroom. Age has never caused a picture 
of merit to depreciate in value, and in fact it is 
quite the reverse. Old paintings by the masters 
of the brush are more valuable to-day than at 
the time they were created and the trouble with 
the back-bedroom picture was that it was never 
more than a photograph of the hoy dressed in 
the then new clothes — not a picture of the boy, 
hut a maj) of his clothes, surrounding an unin- 
teresting map of the boy’s face. 

The picture of the little girl is a picture of 
merit. The dress is so simple that it is of 
secondary importance, as it should he, and the 
pose is a natural one — a childlike pose. It is 
really a picture of merit and a picture which 
will be as good twenty years from now as it is 
to-day — a picture that will not lose its charm 
with age. 

It is safe to say that when this little girl 
grows up she will cherish that picture and give- 
it a choice place in her home. It will never be 
out of style. It is more than a photograph — 
it is a portrait by photography. 

As a mother this little girl will seek a photo- 
grapher to picture her children. Instead of the 
indifference to photographs in general displayed 
by her parents she will be interested in securing 
really good portraits of her little ones, and this 
applies to every recipient of a really good por- 
trait, for “ a thing of beauty is a joy forever ” 
and the joy thus distributed will create a desire 
for more joy of the same brand. 

When good pictures prevail the desire to be 
photographed will also lie prevalent, and that is 
why the progress of to-day will be felt in the 
business of to-morrow. 

We, as you, are working toward this end — 
the making of artistic portraits. We, as you. 
realize that in many cases the patron insists on 
a photograph of a new hat instead of a portrait. 
This condition cannot he changed in a day, a 
week or a year, as a photographer must please 
his patrons, hut every photographer should im- 
prove every opportunity to study the artistic, 
and whenever a patron is found who will appre- 
ciate the really good in portraiture he or she 
should he supplied. Every artistic portrait 
which leaves your studio will carry on the edu- 
cational work among the people of your com- 
munity toward more and better business. 

Studio Light. 


Coloring Photographs with Transparent Water-Colors 


T HE aniline colors — sometimes called 
transparent water-colors to distinguish 
them from the standard water-colors — 
have deservedly become very popular for color- 
ing photographs, particularly on the smooth- 
surfaced papers. Although there has always 
heen some question as to their permanence, 
their advocates can truthfully claim that many 
of them stand the test of long exposure to the 
light as well as the standard colors, so that it 
may he only a question of the careful selection 
of the most permanent shades to obtain a service- 
able list of colors. The ease with which they 
can be applied — barring accidents — the rapid- 
ity with which the work may he done and their 
perfect transparency, which preserves every de- 
tail of the photograph without altering or ob- 
scuring it in any way. make them very nearly 
ideal in these respects ; and with care quite 
artistic effects can be obtained, as may he seen 
in the best of the foreign colored photographs. 

The pamphlets of instructions which accom- 
pany the boxes of colors should be carefully 
read, as they give many valuable points. They 
make it appear very easy indeed to color photo- 
graphs ; but when the object is something more 
than to make a market for the colors, it is a 
little different. It is the purpose of this article 
to give instruction as nearly as possible appli- 
cable to the many different makes of colors, and 
to warn the beginner of and assist him in extric- 
ating himself or his picture from the various 
pitfalls in his path, so that as it deals chiefly 
with the difficulties it may not present quite so 
roseate a view of the case as do the instruction- 
booklets. These colors are prepared in several 
different forms of which it is necessary to speak. 
One of their chief and most annoying character- 
istics is that they become indelible immediately 
upon application. This causes a great deal of 
trouble to the colorist who is not sure of every 
touch ; and occasionally they deposit very un- 
pleasant stains upon clothing and hands. The 
least objectionable upon this score and perhaps 
the best to recommend to the beginner are 
Revoli’s Photo-Tints which are in the form of a 
paste, which makes them much more agreeable 
and convenient to handle and reduces their 
strength somewhat, so that there is less danger 
of spoiling prints at first. The “ Japanese 
ater-Colors,” on sheets of paper, and '‘Dunne's 
Transparent Pastel Colors,” in a liquid form, 
present magnificent lists of color with which 

an experienced artist should he able to produce 
any desired effect ; but too long a list of colors is 
both expensive and • confusing for the amateur, 
who should work carefully with a few well- 
selected primary colors, mixing them as little 
as possible ; but by being obliged to mix his 
own colors making much more genuine and 
satisfactory progress. 

Personally, I have always used the powdered 
colors, both for economy and convenience in 
handling. I find that they give a very satis- 
factory variety of tones which are as permanent 
as possible, and the quantity of color in that 
form is, of course, much greater as well as 
easier to use and keep in good condition. 

Before beginning to work it will be well to 
assemble within convenient reach the following 
articles. One will have need of them one and 
all as one proceeds. An old, somewhat stubby 
brush; plenty of clean cloths and blotting-paper; 
a bottle of glycerine diluted with about an equal 
quantity of alcohol, and a bottle of ammonia 
water of medium strength ; two pointed sable 
brushes — one small for details, the other about 
number six ; and two Hat fitch brushes, one large 
for washes, will he sufficient. If liquid or pow- 
dered colors are used, a covered porcelain slab 
with a large number of wells for the colors or 
two sets of the saucers sold for the purpose will 
be necessary, besides a porcelain palette or a piece 
of opal glass to mix the colors on and two glasses 
of water, as the brushes must he washed very 

If your print is an old one liable to have 
finger-marks upon it be sure to cleanse i( thor- 
oughly with alcohol or soap and cold water, as 
no color will take upon those spots. During the 
first washes the print should lie quite wet. 
Soak it well in water and place a wet blotter 
behind it to retain the moisture when you tack 
it on the board. Some prints on very thin 
paper have to be mounted to prevent rumpling 
and curling and can he dampened only with the 
brush This must be done thoroughly before any 
color is applied. These colors work so well that 
the whole process of coloring a photograph may 
he given in one paragraph of moderate length. 
The sky. the distance and all the broad spaces 
of the foreground are washed on very thinly 
and delicately at first, as the colors dry out 
much stronger than they appear when wet. and 
they can lie strengthened whenever it is neces- 
sary by repeated washes. For this reason only 



a few grains of color should he placed in each 
saucer or well and the tip of the brush barely 
touched in the saucer, then spread out upon the 
palette until the right tint is obtained, which 
should be first tried upon a paper lief ore touch- 
ing the photograph. This process is absolutely 
necessary at first and will save many mishaps. 
As the photograph gradually becomes dry, the 
details of the foreground can he strengthened 
with stronger tints and a few details accented 
with bright bits of color to give the picture life. 
A good knowledge of or unusual taste in the 
selection of colors will count for more than any- 
thing else in this work. An agreeable harmony 
or a pleasing contrast of color is the cardinal 
point, as no more skill in handling is required 
than is necessary to keep within the boundaries 
of the various objects with the brush. 

Having described the ease with which photo- 
graphs may he colored — barring accidents as 
was stated before — it now remains to point out 
some of the difficulties which may alter the case 
very decidedly. 

In every instance, no matter what make of 
colors is used, they will he found to he a great 
deal too strong to use until they have been very 


much diluted, and until a thorough knowledge 
of their peculiarities has been acquired one should 
absolutely never put a bit of color upon any 
light-toned portion of the photograph without 
first testing it upon paper to make sure it is not 
too strong. For this reason it is not only un- 
safe but practically impossible to use the colors 
directly from the saucers or wells, hut an inter- 
mediate palette is absolutely necessary on which 
to mix and try them before applying to the 
print. A piece of glass laid upon a white paper 
or cardboard will make a very fair substitute for 
a porcelain palette. 

The greatest preventive of spots, streaks and 
uneven dauby-looking work is the wet print. 
Color which will not take at all upon a dry print 
flows quite smoothly over a wet surface, and 
color which would make very dark streaks upon 
a dry print spreads out and blends evenly upon 
the wet one. 

As these colors “ set ” at once and become 
almost indelible, the trouble caused by these 
occasional unavoidable accidents is very great. 
In consequence of this fact, it can truthfully be 
said that the chief skill required for the use of 
transparent water-colors is not in putting them 



on but in getting them off. If a print seems 
(piite beyond repair, just try washing the color 
off by a copious application of clear water If 
this does not remove enough of the color, soak 
the whole print in weak ammonia water and 
wash again with clear water. If only a small 
spot is too strong or otherwise unsatisfactory, 
place a piece of wet blotting-paper over it. This 
will remove quite a dark spot if allowed to 
remain in contact with it a long time. A wet 
blotter will also weaken and blend all the colors 
in a vivid sky, thus improving the work very 
much. Care must be taken that it does not at 
the same time come in contact with the green of 
the trees as it will, if it remains long upon the 
print, draw the green up into the sky. If all 
these methods fail, the application of stronger 
ammonia water directly to the spots, rubbing 
gently with a stubby brush and washing off with 
clear water, will usually remove nearly all of the 
color. Then the print can be colored again, 
furnishing more practice as well as valuable 
experience. Always test your prints with clear 
water after they have been handled. The water 
"nil reveal any finger-marks or other greasy 
spots by crawling away from them. These 


spots cause a great deal of trouble. Sometimes 
moistening the brush in the mouth and rubbing 
over them is the only way to get them into a 
condition to take the color properly. 

Aristo Platino and some other papers do not 
take these colors readily. The application of 
glycerine and alcohol or alcohol alone will usually 
remedy the trouble. " Dunne’s Medium" is 
very good for this purpose and will also remove 
color. It is easier to remove color from a 
print that has first been treated with a medium. 
In any case, whatever medium is used, it should 
be copiously applied to the entire surface of the 
print. If it does not dry well it can be rubbed 
down with a soft (doth. When it is quite dry, 
paint upon the dry print instead of moistening it. 

As nearly all of the boxes of colors give a 
good selection of tints and it is always best with 
these colors to avoid mixing them, only a few 
good combinations will be given. It wdl be 
necessary to be very careful in using some of 
the colors, particularly the dark reds, as they 
are very apt to become bronzed when applied 
heavily. The blues have a tendency to dry out 
with a greenish tone, which defect can be reme- 
died by washing over with violet or rose-color. 





The brightest gamboge or lemon yellow and 
Prussian I due make a brilliant green, and the 
more subdued yellows and blues proportionately 
less vivid greens. 

Lemon yellow and pink give a good flesh-tint. 
Use vermilion and pink for eheeks and lips. 
Every conceivable shade of brown can he made 
from red. yellow and blue. If golden brown is 
desired the yellow should predominate. For 
reddish brown use more red and for olive or 
greenish brown use more blue. For an ordinary 
brown tone take about equal parts of red and 
yellow with only a touch of blue. Use the un- 
mixed primary colors as far as possible, as all 
colors have the tendency to become less perma- 
nent when mixed. It is surprising what good 
work can he done in this way as the photograph 
tones them down in the shadows. 

I have found Reeves’s Photo-Colors much the 
most satisfactory in many ways. They furnish 
a more than sufficient number of shades which 
mix well, are as permanent as any of the kind 
and, besides furnishing a large quantity of color, 
are convenient and economical to manipulate. 

For those quite unaccustomed to coloring, the 

following very elementarv suggestions are given. 
For a first attempt upon a portrait try a light 
wash of as nearly salmon-pink as you can get 
from lemon yellow and pink. Strengthen it 
with the same if necessary or with a red brown 
in the shadows. Tint the cheeks very lightly 
indeed with rose-color and the lips with a brighter 
red, being also very careful not to get them too 
strong at first. For a landscape, try light blue 
for the sky, carrying it only about half way 
down and blending carefully with water, on a 
very wet print. Then, without waiting for it to 
dry, you can put in a very faint tint of yellow 
toward the horizon and a little rose-color on the 
shaded parts of the clouds. The distance can 
he washed with faint purple or rose-color, the 
light portions of the foreground with yellow and 
the darker portions with green shaded a little 
with brown. You will find that a very pale 
wash of orange yellow is softer for the sky or a 
sandy road than the brighter yellows, and that 
purple is effective in almost all of the shadows 
throughout many photographs. The reds, yel- 
lows and greens should never be used very 
strong except in the immediate foreground. 



Photography at Night 


W HILE night-photography is not a 
new subject, it is one of even more 
interest than many topics which in- 
volve daylight, for the simple reason that it is a 
less common one. We all make use of sunlight 
more or less diffused in photography, but when 
we attempt night-work we enter an entirely 
different field, with widely differing conditions 
and an illuminant that is very deceptive hut 
nevertheless competent to produce wonderful 
results if carefully handled. 

In the summer-time, night-photography is 
more or less unsatisfactory, with the exception 
of a few good studies which may be obtained on 
rainy nights, hut in the winter-time, when the 
ground is white and the little light remaining in 
the sky is reflected hack on the objects in view, 
there is plenty of good material without going 
far from the warmth of one’s fireside. 

When the accompanying photographs were 
made the writer had little leisure to devote to 
the artistic side of the profession till after mid- 
night, and perhaps this was the cause of my 
enthusiasm, for I could not hut notice the possi- 
bilities as I wended my weary way homeward 
after a hard day’s work. I finally decided to 
carry my camera home with me each night and 
make such views as appealed to me as worthy 
my trouble. 

A word about the outfit most suited to this 
work. Almost any one will do just as well, al- 
though it may he less agreeable on a bitterly 
cold night. In the first place, tripod-screws are 
something to he avoided if possible, unless one 
has a method of keeping the fingers warm. If 
the weight of the camera will allow, use a metal 
tripod which will fold up and repose in the hip- 
pocket. Any camera which has a focusing scale 
is suitable, and a direct-view finder is necessary, 
for a ground-glass is useless and a focusing-cloth 
worse. Any lens which works reasonably fast 
is eligible, and a cemented lens is to be preferred 
to the uncemented kind, as the arc-lights will in- 
scribe circles all over the plate when the latter 
is used. As to exposure, one has to use his own 
judgment. No two subjects are ever lighted the 
same, nor are they the same any two nights, hut 
there is so much latitude that one is in little 
danger of making a mistake. At the time I was 
taking these scenes, I used exposures varying all 
the way from five minutes to twenty, and the 
plates developed up about the same, showing that 
the various exposures were about right under 

their vastly different conditions of light and 
subject. One thing I did notice, however, and 
that was that my exposures depended a good deal 
on the condition of my feet, for with some of 
them I stood it just as long as I possibly could, 
and then “ they had had sufficient exposure ” • — - 
that is, my feet. 

Now about the illustrations. The Obelisk 
was taken at three o’clock, and the lamps on 
Fifth Avenue lighted the sky to a pleasing- 
degree. “ Reflections,” which was taken at two 
o’clock, was the coldest job of the lot, and con- 
sequently had the shortest exposure. “ Grant’s 
Tomb from the Path ” was viewed at two-thirty, 
and the result was surprising, for to the eye the 
tomb was scarcely visible, probably on account 
of the arc-lights in close proximity to the cam- 
era. The upright picture of Grant’s Tomb is 
perhaps the most interesting of all. In order 
to assure brother-photographers that this was 
not “faked,” I had to make a print in their 
presence and let them compare the two. The 
amount of detail shown in this negative is sur- 
prising, because when making the exposure I 
could see a dark outline against the sky and 
that was all. One thing I learned was to disre- 
gard any wind which might he blowing. An- 
other was to expose as long as I could. I think 
“ Grant’s Tomb ” had about twenty minutes. 
Some of the work may be a little strenuous at 
the time, hut it is more than worth the momen- 
tary discomfort one has to endure in order to 
secure the best, results. 



Eugene Fromentin, regarded as the best com- 
mentator on the Dutch master, says, “ Rem- 
brandt created a light all his own, in its 
concentration and its radiation of luminosity to 
the deepest shades. The juxtaposition of light 
and shade, or chiaroscuro, did not lie, as with 
Caravaggio, in the brutal opposing of livid 
whites to opaque blacks, but rather in the blend- 
ing by imperceptible gradations of the most 
brilliant light with the deepest shadow, bathed 
in an ever-luininous atmosphere. And in this 
the master grew from first to last until Rem- 
brandt’s light, at which many imitators and 
followers have essayed to light their own 
torches, has become the supreme, unmatched 
product of this incomparable genius.” 


Copyright , 1010, James Arthur 



Color-Photography vs. Painting 


A T the opening of the lecture-season at the 
newly re-established Camera Club of Lon- 
don an exceedingly interesting collection 
of Autochromes by members of the Vienna Pho- 
tographic Club was shown, and they proved to 
be by far the best landscape-work as yet seen in 
London. The illusion of reality, as of a window 
opened directly on to the scene, was curiously 
complete and convincing. The realism was in- 
deed so intense that one felt that it was certainly 
Nature we were enjoying, but. was it art ? One 
seemed to feel no sense of personality, no indi- 
viduality, in the renderings ; the composition 
and selection were in almost all cases beyond 
reproach ; but so close to Nature were the colors, 
so real was the vividness, the actuality, that one 
felt no artistry, but only the enjoyment that 
comes with a perfect walk out of doors. The 
rendering of sunlight was nothing less than ex- 
citing ; the superb blacks of shadowed door- 
ways or windows into rooms, with never a sense 
of opacity, only the blackness of depth, was 
most satisfying, and something cpiite beyond 
what is possible on paper. The perfection of 
all-over equality of exposure, including perfect 
skies with no trace of movement in clouds, though 
combined with rich detail in massed shadows, 
was altogether remarkable. One felt that here 
was good ground indeed for exploiting color- 
photography, though one had hitherto felt that 
the results so far seen were not pure enough to 
tempt one to the expense in time and money 
this luxurious side of photography demands. 

But is tile absence of art in this landscape 
work an inescapable condition ? Pictorial pho- 
tography in monochrome cannot but have indi- 
viduality (be it bad or good), because it is a 
translation, an expression of a personality in tbe 
rendering : it is not the actual, the realistic, but 
a translation, and therefore differenced by tbe 
personality that renders it. But the success, 
the only worth indeed, of an Autochrome, is in 
its actuality of transcription ; it cannot be a 
translation, for its colors must be vitally true, or 
they are misleading and valueless ; it must ex- 
actly mirror the scene depicted or it is false 
in color (not merely different in color), and 
therefore worthless. One, therefore, no more 
feels art in an Autochrome than one feels art in 
looking at Nature ; the art is in what the painter 
or the etcher or the monochrome photographer 
makes of it. One never felt all through tbe 
hundred-and-odd slides tbe sense of creative 

effort, the sense of being in contact with another 
mind, that here was something uniquely achieved. 
Given similar sunny weather and the thing must 
happen to any Autochrome, if equally perfect in 
its exposure and development. 

A landscape painter who was present evi- 
dently felt the same, for he said in the discussion 
that while he had fully enjoyed the marvelous 
truth of the slides, it was not the way lie saw tbe 
colors of Nature. And the reason for that one 
supposes would lie that a painter does not seek 
to do what is possible only to the Autochrome, 
give a mirror-like rendering of the scene before 
him ; he has to look at Nature’s color in the 
terms of pigment; how he can best render the 
sentiment, the meaning of the scene, in his browns 
and greens, his blues and reds, etc. It is all a 
question of translation : no colors of a painting 
affect one as do the colors of Nature ; but in the 
Autochrome it is a case of literal fidelity or noth- 
ing ; the closer the actuality the better, indeed the 
only tolerance of, the Autochrome. The painter 
need (and does) not care a scrap as to whether 
he is absolutely true in color or not : so long as 
his finished picture gives him anew the senti- 
ment, the mood of his original, he is content, 
but the Autochrome can only be good and en- 
joyable by being really true. 

There can thus be no possibility of rivalry be- 
tween color-photography and painting; whereas 
there may lie an art-rivalry between painting 
and monochrome photography, for the latter is 
not a faithful rendering, but a translation ; and 
if the translation, though only into black and 
white, is able to convey anew the original impres- 
sion, it is good art, and better than the painting 
if in its translation it does not so fully convey 
anew the mood and impression of the original. 

Does not this perfection of color-transcription, 
proved by these marvelous Viennese slides, point 
to a use which so far does not seem to have been 
worked at? I mean that of making Auto- 
c.hromes from the masterpieces of painting. 
Just think of the joy of being able to see on a 
4 ft. screen a faithful copy, an exact replica, 
of a Velasquez, a Rembrandt, etc. The vivid 
actuality the transparence gives would convey a 
sense of originality to the rendering that would 
be immeasurably beyond any paper or other 
opaque translation or copy. Here, surely, is a 
field for Autochrome workers that is invaluable. 
One could then look forward to being able to 
sit in one’s arm-chair and, by means of a perfect 



lantern and screen and the Antochrome-slides, 
take a leisurely walk through the Prado, the 
Louvre, and other great treasure-houses of 
painting's, studying and realizing in a manner 
not to he dreamed of in any other way. 

And though Autochromes in original work 
can perhaps never give the sense of creative art 
that a draftsman or painter or monochrome 
photographer can, their truth to Nature being 


so curiously exact as to crowd out all other en- 
joyment or meaning, yet this field of perfect 
Nature-transcription has its own joys ; and in 
the field of picture-copying, unless I am greatly 
in error, Autochrome work has a quite magnifi- 
cent future, alone repaying all that has gone to 
bring it to its present position of approximate 

British Journal of Photography. 


Some Observations on Ozobrome 


T HE amateur who adopts the carbon-proc- 
ess, may — though he carefully follows 
the directions of the text-hook chosen — 
have many failures. The chief causes of these 
will he under- and over-exposure, mostly the 
former. A text-book I have beside me tells me 
to take a negative of the same density as the one I 
am using for carbon work. In the frame con- 
taining this lias to he placed a piece of printing- 
out. paper and in the other a piece of sensitized 
carbon-tissue. Both have to be exposed simul- 
taneously. When the printing-out paper proof 
is of the same depth as one would wish it to ap- 
pear in the finished print the carbon-tissue is 
ready for removal from the frame to undergo 
the further treatment necessary. This is good 
advice so far as it goes, but there are other fac- 
tors which have to be taken into consideration, 
and, if slavishly followed, the counsel may often 
lead one very far astray. Light has not the 
same penetrative influence on all colors, the 
various shades of blue requiring the least expo- 
sure. brown and sepias a little more, and black, 
green and red most of all. The modification 
one is enabled to make in the sensitizing bath 
in order to secure varying degrees of contrast is 
another factor which has to be taken into con- 
sideration, so that helpful though text-books lie 
in giving one a grounding in the principles of 
the process, one may find one’s own judgment, 
based on experience, the best guide to follow, in 
this respect at least. 

A hat applies to the regular carbon-process in 
this connection applies also to Ozobrome, which 
is “ evening carbon ” — that is to say, the re- 
sultant print is not dependent on the action of 
light. It is a purely chemical process. I have 
had the opportunity at various times in these 
pages to give details of the process, and others 
have written about it also, so that it is scarcely 
necessary to enter into them again. A piece of 
carbon tissue, or pigment-plaster, to use an Ozo- 
brome term, is steeped until quite limp in a 
diluted portion of the Ozobrome pigmenting 
solution, which is a proprietary article, and may 
be purchased from photographic dealers. Under 
water it is placed in contact with a bromide or 
gaslight print. Both are removed therefrom, 
squeezed into closer affinity, and left for a cer- 
tain period. The tissue is then stripped off and 
resqueezed to a carbon final-support, and, after al- 
lowing it to remain for a few minutes under pres- 
sure, it is developed with warm water. The 

resulting picture is to all intents and purposes a 
carbon print unreversed. The gaslight or bromide 
print is left in running water for a short time, 
then redeveloped with any clean-working de- 
veloper such as rodinal, amidol or metol-hydro- 
quinine, and after a few minutes’ washing it is 
ready to produce another Ozobrome print. 

Recently 1 had to prepare some lantern-slides 
and decided to produce them by the Ozobrome- 
process. The chief difficulty encountered was 
the duration of contact. 

Marine Blue was found quite satisfactory with 
ten minutes in contact with the bromide print. 
Engraving Black was given the same time, but 
was hopelessly “ under-exposed,” if the term is 
applicable. Purple and Violet, both luminous 
colors, were found to be correct with this time, 
but other colors such as Photo. Brown, Gray 
and the greens required a good deal longer, with 
the result that, for my own use, I had to com- 
pile a “ table of duration.” It has been found 
very useful and may here lie given : 

Marine Blue 10 minutes 

Purple 10 minutes 

Violet 10 minutes 

Gray 20 minutes 

Photo. Brown 20 minutes 

Standard Brown 20 minutes 

Blue Black 20 minutes 

Engraving Black 30 minutes 

Red Chalk 35 minutes 

Italian Green 40 minutes 

Sea Green 40 minutes 

The working-solution is one part of Ozobrome 
Pigmenting Solution to four parts of water. 
These periods of contact refer to it in a 
fresh condition. When used for a day or two 
it begins to lose power somewhat, and a little 
longer should be allowed for this. 1 have also 
found that three drops of a ten per cent solu- 
tion of citric acid added to a working-solution 
of five ounces which has been in use for a time 
restores a lack of contrast which becomes 
apparent and gives warning that a new solution 
had better be prepared. This prolongs its life 
for some time. The table also refers to lantern- 
slide making by this process. For ordinary 
transfer-work, where less density is required, 
the time given would be appreciably shorter — 
say for Marine Blue eight minutes. Photo. 
Brown fifteen. Sea Green thirty, and the other 
colors in proportion. 


The colors given in the table are those I have 
been using in lantern-slide work, and are not 
nearly all that will he found on a carbon-tissue 
maker’s list, and be it understood that different 
makes are of different quality and superior 
and inferior luminosity. For seascapes nothing, 
for example, can compare in the latter quality 
with the Marine Blue manufactured by Elliot 
and Sons, Barnet, England. Other makes are 
of a different shade and of less or more density, 
while the violet tissue manufactured by the 
Rotary Photographic Company makes an ex- 
ceedingly luminous slide, though it is difficult to 
find a suitable subject. Greens have been found 
very unsatisfactory. Besides requiring the long- 
est time in contact the pigment seems to be 
much rougher and to lose a great deal of depth 
in the process of development. The best result 
lias been got from a hopelessly over-developed 
gaslight print. Barnet Gray is a color which 
can he recommended. Looking at a slide one 
would not think it would make a satisfactory 
picture on the screen. It looks hazy — fogged 
if you will — hut of all my slides one in this 
color of a mighty wave is the most effective, 
and wherever it has been shown it has been 
favorably commented on. This gray also gives 
a most realistic rendering of snow-scenes, and 
if some of the contributors to your pages of these 
excellent studies to which I referred in a pre- 
vious article were to try this medium both for 
prints and slides I feel sure they would be de- 
lighted with the results. Its chief characteristic 
is the fine sense of atmosphere which the tissue 
seems to impart. 

Warm Sepia is also a luminous color, and 
Photo. Brown and Standard Brown likewise 
make satisfactory slides. Red Chalk is the color 
par excellence for sunset effects. One might 
think it too bright, but by the light of the lan- 
tern it appears on the screen a rich sepia. 

These are a few random notes jotted down 
while in the midst of slide-making. The process 
is most interesting and the results obtained have 
added a fresh interest to matters photographic. 
They are written in the hope that they may 
prove helpful to other workers in this field or be 
an incentive to some readers to take up this 
branch of photographic work. I can assure 
them they will find it most interesting. 


[Other articles on Ozobrome are as follows : 
Ozobrome for Pottery Decoration, Photo-Era, 
February, 1907 ; Ozobrome in Pictorial Photo- 
graphy, Photo-Era, July, 1907 ; Ozobrome 
from P. O. P. Prints, Photo-Era, October 
1907 ; Ozobrome in Lantern-Slide Making, 
Photo-Era, February, 1908; Ozobrome Prints 
from P. O. P. Possible, Photo-Era, May, 
1908 ; Various Articles, Photo-Era, August, 
1908. — Editor. ] 

To make our work mean something more 
than a fat pocket-book ; to express an idea, 
beautiful or strengthening or practically help- 
ful ; to put something into the world through 
our work which will have permanent value — 
this is real success. — Mon y Cornell. 






T HE great progress that has been made of 
late years in the production of pictures 
by means of the camera lias opened 
the eyes of the public to the possibilities of 
photography. The criticisms of artists and art- 
critics are now less severe, and the reason lies 
in the fact that the principles underlying the 
creation of pictures are the same irrespective of 
the means employed. 

The same rule holds true in photography as 
in other departments of art that the man with 
the picture-sense succeeds where the one lacking 
it fails. While the photographer is not compelled 
to spend years in the study of drawing and color, 
his knowledge of composition and an ability to 
make a proper selection of view-point must be 
equal to if not greater than that of the painter. 
The painter begins with an empty canvas and 
after selecting his point of view proceeds to cre- 
ate his picture by means of bis brushes and 
pigment. To him the question of importance is 
how much to include. To the photographer it 
is a question of how much to leave out or get 
rid of. The photographer makes bis picture by 
a process of elimination. 

To know how much to eliminate and how much 
to retain requires a careful study not only of the 
subject but of the principles underlying picture- 
making. Not only must the photographer un- 
derstand the principles of composition but he 
needs must go beyond this and study the aes- 
thetics of composition. Unlike the painter, he 
must reduce bis view of nature to monochrome. 
Color as color does not interest him, but color 
as tone becomes all important. When the 
color of his subject lias been reduced to tones, 
be is ready for the study of the relative impor- 
tance of these tones to each other — the study 
of values. 

The word •• values ” is of recent origin and 
has replaced the old word chiaroscuro. The two 
words should not be confounded by the reader. 
Chiaroscuro, meaning light and dark, was a 
term used to denote the arbitrary arrangement 
of light and dark which entered into the scheme 
of composition of the picture. The word values, 
on the contrary, expresses the relation between 
degrees of strength of light and dark and of color- 
considered as light and dark. The relative impor- 
tance, strength, force, power of a light or dark 
to make itself felt in the whole — that is its value. 

How often have we viewed a picture or a 
photographic print in the presence of one who 

knows and have heard him remark that it was 
full of false values or that a certain value was 
weak or that another was strong? Now, what 
was really meant was that the values which 
were false were not in proper relation to the 
other spots or masses ; that the value which was 
weak did not make itself felt. The question of 
false values we will consider more fully later. 

Values are also said to be absolute and rela- 
tive. Values are called absolute when the artist 
attempts to give the just note — or in other 
words to paint up to outdoor light and down to 
indoor light. 1 le tries to give the exact equi- 
valent in value that he finds in nature. When- 
ever the picture is made in a key higher or 
lower than nature and the values hold the same 
relation to each other as the values of nature do 
to each other, the values are known as relative. 
This may seem difficult to the reader, but after 
a careful study he will readily grasp its meaning. 

The subjects of relative values, absolute val- 
ues, the key. and, in fact, the whole subject of 
values, can be more readily understood if, con- 
sidering nature as being monochromatic, we 
divide arbitrarily the scale of tones from absolute 
white to absolute black into one hundred divisions. 
We can of course readily see that our picture 
cannot retain the entire one hundred divisions 
because it would lie crude, without atmosphere 
and charm. In other words we must carry out 
the golden rule, reserve. We must be able, if 
necessary, to raise our highest light or lower our 
deepest dark. Now, in this range of one to one 
hundred there are several keys, depending en- 
tirely upon our subject and the result desired, in 
which we may create our pictures. For example, 
let us consider the child-studies of Will Cadby. 
They are all in a high key. Dainty subjects are 
generally placed in a high key, whereas somber 
subjects require a low key. Upon the proper 
selection of the key depend quite often the 
values of the picture. As a ride the upper 
middle-range is the most useful for average sub- 
jects. Let us suppose that we decide to create 
our picture in values ranging from ten to sev- 
enty. After our picture is finished we examine 
it and find that we have a very dee]) note, one 
between 80 and 90, we immediately feel that 
this note is false and we speak of it as a false 
value. Suppose the picture be one of a stream 
with reflections from the sky. We know that a 
reflected image is deeper in tone than the object 
reflected. We see that the stream is much 

1 2 >; 


higher or rather lighter in tone in places than 
the sky. These notes are out of value, are 
false in relation to others. 

When we have decided upon the key of our 
picture we must consider the number of values 
we expect to use. Upon the proper selection of 
the number of values depends the effect pro- 
duced. If we use a large scale or rather a 
great number of values we secure a picture full 
of tender and poetic charm. When such a pic- 
ture is made, we are compelled to make a tine 
distinction of tones — the utmost subtlety of 
perception of values, that is, the values must he 
( lose. It requires considerable study to take 
cognizance of the slightest possible distinction, 
and to express it justly. By use of close values 
we are able to produce that quality in art called 
“ lost edge.” The lines of the subject depend 
upon the contrast of values ; in other words if we 
place equal values side by side there will be no 
line showing where both meet. If. however, we 
place different values side by side a line is 
formed where the two values meet. Line in 
composition is very important, not only as 
delineating the subject, hut in an aesthetic 


sense denoting repose, speed, motion, solemnity, 
beauty. Sometimes we require the line to he 
sharp and distinct ; at other times we desire the 
beauty, charm and mystery obtained by losing 
the line. This is secured by means of values, 
and a careful study of close values is necessary 
for a proper understanding of it. Close values 
mean a substitution of the study of relations for 
the study of contrast. 

If we decide that a brilliant, dramatic effect 
is best suited to the mood, we use fewer tones 
of tlie key. In other words, we contrast our 
tones, still keeping within our key. 

You will see at once the great importance of 
the study of values. In fact, the whole ques- 
tion of picture-making by photography depends 
upon the photographer’s knowledge of values. 
Whether he creates in a low key or a high key, 
false values (creeping in through a lack of 
knowledge of values) will ruin his picture. 
Upon his knowledge of values will depend his 
ability to produce either the just note or the 
mood best suited to his picture. It is the solid 
rock upon which all pictures must be built to 
stand the test of discerning criticism. 


A Post-Card Frame 


I N THESE clays everyone, but especially 
the amateur photographer, possesses nu- 
merous post-cards and small photographs of 
personal interest or pictorial value which would 
he pleasant to have around, yet which hardly 
warrant the trouble and expense of regular fra- 
ming. With this in mind, I thought some read- 
ers of this magazine might find of value the idea 
here offered, as the frame or holder can he made 
to present an artistic appearance and to allow 
prints or cards to be removed and others substi- 
tuted in a moment. 

The materials needed are few in number and 
inexpensive, the list being : plain glass of the 
same size as the outside measurement of the 
frame, card mounts or wood veneer-boards, three- 
ply bristol-boards, and passe-partout binding. 
The veneer-boards are obtainable at all the larger 
art- and photographic-supply-stores in sheets of 
various colors. 

The first thing is to decide upon the outside 
measurement of the frame and obtain glass of 
that size. For post-cards of the usual size (three 
and a half by five and a half inches) five by 
seven inches will provide a fair margin, and old 
glass negatives will furnish a superior quality of 

glass after the film has been removed. This 
can he accomplished with some brands of plates 
by simply soaking in very hot water, but proba- 
bly the best way to clean off the film is to im- 
merse the old negatives in a strong solution of 
sodium carbonate (common •* washing soda will 
answer as well as the chemically-pure article) 
for a few minutes, then remove and place irit/i- 
ovt washing in a mixture of one part sulphuric 
acid in ten or fifteen parts of water. (In pre- 
paring this always pour the acid slowly into the 
water — never vice versa.) The action of the 
acid upon the alkali- in the gelatine produces 
effervescence of carbonic acid gas which sepa- 
rates the film from the glass, after which it is 
only necessary to rinse the plate in (deal 1 water. 

Having obtained the glass, the next thing is 
to make the back, which should be of bristol- 
board or very heavy mounting-paper of the same 
size as the glass. The center is cut out as shown 
in the accompanying sketch, the opening being 
about one-sixteenth of an inch larger each way 
than the card to he inserted. The straps A A 
which hold the card in place are a part of the 
hack, so as to allow sufficient "give ’ for a card 
to be inserted under them. The knife-cuts each 

side of the straps should extend into the sides 
as indicated by the dotted lines BB. 

Give the hack a thin coat of paste or glue, 
taking care to leave the straps clear, lay in posi- 
tion on the glass and allow to dry under light 

Having fixed the hack in position one must 
consider the mat which forms the surface of the 
frame, and here a wide choice is offered by 
using plain mounting- or veneer-hoards of vari- 
ous tints, as previously suggested. Black or 
gray is best for prints in black and white, or if 
the wooden hoards are used a silvery gray-green 
is excellent. Sepia-toned pictures will look well 
in mahogany, oak or dark green. White may 
he used with prints of any tone, but is particu- 
larly suitable for colored cards, although these 
will also show effectively in a gold mat. 

Cut the mat the same size as the glass, then 
mark off in light pencil-lines the size opening 
desired, which will, for standard-size cards, he 
about three and a quarter by five and a quarter 
inches. Place the mat on a piece of glass or 
zinc and cut along the lines with a sharp knife. 
The edges of the opening can he beveled by 
using as a straight-edge a strip of hard wood 
half or three-quarters of an inch thick, which 
lias been planed to the desired angle, and keep- 
ing the knife-blade flat against the edge while 
cutting. For this work the knife should have 
a wide, thin blade, like a shoemaker’s knife. 

The mat is attached tcf the face of the glass 
in the same manner as the back was glued, and 
the edges of the frame covered with passe-par- 
tout binding of suitable color. The binding is 
furnished in gold, silver and a number of differ- 
ent colors, so it is easy to secure a harmonious 
and pleasing effect. 

The illustration shows a mat of Scotch gray 
edged with black binding. 

If desired a cardboard “strut” or a gummed 
hanger can he attached to the hack without in- 
terfering with the insertion or removal of pic- 
tures, although a pretty way of using the frames 
is to place them on a plate-rail. 


Many volcanoes are in tropical regions, and 
as I have now had the experience of three pho- 
tographic journeys to such districts it has oc- 
curred to me that an account of a few of the 
precautions and appliances I have found advan- 
tageous may he of some interest. To begin 
with, it is notorious that plates do not keep well 
in the tropics, and different brands appear to 
vary very much in resisting power. I can give 
any one privately information as to makes to be 
avoided, and I hope eventually I may he able to 
do so as to those to he recommended, but this is 
not yet. Isochromatic plates are indispensable 
for volcanic explosions and geysers ; ordinary 
plates will not, as a rule, show either of these 
against the sky. A yellow screen is occasion- 
ally an advantage, and by far the best I have 
tried is the bichromate screen ; hut it has the 
disadvantage of containing corrosive liquid and 
being liable to leak, and increases the exposure 
enormously, say thirty times. It will, however, 
often secure a view of distant hills through air 
laden with moisture or even through a certain 
amount of blue mist. 

All forms of celluloid films are to he avoided 
for use in the tropics ; they may work perfectly 
before starting, hut a few months in the tropics 
renders them unreliable ; the image on develop- 
ment is buried in fog, and they seem particularly 
liable to go had after exposure and before de- 
velopment. Films are certainly convenient in 
changing, hut this is practically their only ad- 
vantage. The extra weight of glass is, of 
course, a disadvantage, hut less than it at first 
sight appears, as it all goes into the heavy bag- 
gage which no traveler carries himself, and a 
dozen glass quarter-plates weigh only a pound. 
It is very rare indeed that more than two dozen 
are required for one day’s work, and this makes 
no difference to the native who carries your 
camera. If. in cooler districts like South Africa, 
Canada, or New Zealand, it is difficult or impos- 
sible to get any one to carry the impedimenta, 
the best remedy is a camera taking lantern-size 
plates, which, with a modern anastigmat lens 
and fine-grain plates, will give results that will 
bear enlargement to practically any size. 

The main cause of failure of plates is the 
combination of heat and moisture which makes 
the gelatine of the plates susceptible to the 
attacks of colonies of mould which appear as 
black specks (sometimes in hundreds) in the 
finished negative. The only remedy is to make 
an enlargement, in which the spots appear white 
and can lie touched out. — Dr. Tempest Ander- 
son in the J." 


A New Gelatine Pigment-Process 
for Pictorial Workers 


I T is very interesting to watch the various 
phases of pictorial photography and to note 
from time to time how different printing- 
processes become the fashion of the moment, 
each one attracting a little hand of supporters, 
who enthusiastically declare that it is the last 
word in photographic printing. 

After a long spell of gum-bichromate, gum- 
platinum, etc,., we have passed through a perfect 
orgie of oil-printing, and now the tendency 
seems to be rather in the direction of a return 
to “straight” photographic methods, and recent 
experiments with optically-imperfect lenses, such 
as the Pulligny, Smith, Dalbrieyer soft-focus, 
etc., have enabled us to obtain pictorial quali- 
ties unsurpassed by any amount of gum or oil. 
Nevertheless, it sometimes happens that a sub- 
ject is found that no degree of experience or 
spherical aberration can make into a satisfactory 
picture. It must therefore he abandoned unless 
we resort to a more flexible method of printing. 

For years I longed for a printing-process 
which would allow of a large amount of control, 
and yet retain something of the unique “ quality ” 
which is distinctive of photography. 

I did not want the grainy qualities of gum. or 
the soapy, greasy effect which so often obtains 
with oil ; in fact, I took as my ideal a good 
platinum print on rough paper, which, to some 
extent, was realized, as prints made by the 
process about to be described have often been 
mistaken for platinum. 

Although this process is allied to gum-bichro- 
mate, it is quite different, and gum arabic does 
not enter into its composition. As a matter of 
fact, the result of a great many experiments 
proves that gum is the least suitable of all the 
available colloids. 

The first operation when preparing paper for 
this process is to see that it is well and properly 
sized : and if spirit-sensitizing be adopted, it is 
essential that the paper be heavily sized, other- 
wise the sensitizer will penetrate the paper in 

It will be found advisable to purchase a paper 
ready-sized : what is known as a tub-sized 
variety being the best, a good sample of which 
is the Landseer cartridge, made by Messrs. 
Spicer Bros.. Ltd., of New Bridge Street, E. C. 
This can be procured through a stationer. 

If it is desired to adapt other papers, they 

must be sized with arrowroot resin, or preferably 
chrome alum and gelatine, as used for making 
single transfer paper for the carbon process. 

It is important that the size be applied from 
the back of the paper, so that it can soak well 
in. but does not choke up the pores on the side 
to be coated. If this be too hard, there is 
nothing for the coating to hold to. 

The coating-mixture is composed of 

Nelson’s No. 1 gelatine 15 grains 

Lump sugar 15 grains 

Water 1 ounce 

After a preliminary soaking, the gelatine and 
sugar are melted by gentle heat, taking care not 
to exceed 1 ‘JO 0 Fahr. 

It must then be cooled to about 80° Fahr., at 
which temperature it must remain until all the 
paper is coated. 

The paper is cut to convenient size, and 
pinned flat upon a clean drawing-board, which 
can he scrubbed after use. 

A camel-hair mop, previously well soaked to 
prevent the shedding of hairs, is used to apply 
the gelatine solution, which should be used 
plentifully, and worked into the paper until it 

Now take a large piece of cheesecloth, pre- 
viously well washed, and remove the superfluous 
gelatine with alight polishing motion, until there 
is a thin, even film over the paper, then hang 
up to dry, and proceed with the next piece. 

When several sheets of paper have been 
coated, or after the expiration of half an hour, 
the first one must be recoated. As a rule, two 
coatings will be sufficient, but three, or even 
four, can be used. 

A good test for the coating is to lick the 
paper when dry. It should feel quite smooth 
and slimy, and should taste quite sweet. An 
appreciable time should elapse before the coat- 
ing is licked off and the tongue reaches the 
rough paper beneath. 

After the paper is thoroughly dry, which will 
take several hours, it can be coated with the 
pigment, or it can be kept and pigmented at 

The pigment is plain water-color paint, in 
tubes. The “ Student’s ” quality, made by 
Messrs. Reeves, of Moorgate Street, is excellent 
and cheap, so long as only blacks and browns 
are desired. 





Copyright , 1910 , F. IT. ///// 


Copyright. 1910 , F. If'. Ilill 




Fancy colors should he of better quality, or 
there may he trouble from the color’s bleaching 
under the action of the bichromate. Messrs. 
Roberson, of Long Acre, supply colors which 
are guaranteed. 

Squeeze out two or three inches of pigment, 
and slightly thin with water until it is quite 
liquid, hut absolutely opaque when spread upon 
white paper. 

The pigment is now spread upon the gelatine 
coating by means of the camel-hair mop, and 
after being well worked upon the surface of the 
paper, the surplus is taken up by the applica- 
tion of a badger-hair softener. 

The proper use of this tool will come only 
with practice, hut it is not sufficient to pass it 
once or twice over the surface, as in gum- 
bichromate, but the brushing must he kept up 
until the paper is surface-dry, extra pressure 
being applied to the brush where any excess of 
pigment forms upon the paper. 

When dry, the paper presents a perfectly 
matt, opaque appearance by reflected light, hut 
by transmitted light the grain of the paper 
should be visible through the coating, which 
should be quite even, although alight inequality 
will not give serious trouble. 

After the paper is again dry, the pigment 
should be easily licked off, leaving the paper 
quite white, and with still a trace of gelatine 
and slight sweetness to the taste. 

It can then be kept indefinitely or sensitized 
for use, which must be within twenty-four 
hours ; otherwise, owing to the thin film of 
colloid, insolubility will set in. Sensitizing can 
be performed by immersing the paper in a 
1 per cent solution of ammonium bichromate 
for one minute, and drying spontaneously in the 
dark, or, preferably, by the alcohol method, 
using the following formula : Ammonium bi- 
chromate, soda carbonate, and water. For use, 
take one part of above and three parts alcohol. 
Methylated spirit of good quality can be used, 
but is not recommended. 

This solution is brushed upon the coated sur- 
face, taking care that the brush-marks overlap 
each other. When the surface is covered, it 
may be gently evened with a badger brush. 

It will be dry in about ten minutes, and must 
be carefully protected from the light, as it will 
he about twice the rapidity of R. O. P. The 
negative must be a good strong one, such as 
would be suitable for carbon, and not at all like 
those used for gum-printing. 

Exposure must he timed with an actinometer, 
and printing he done in the shade, on account of 
the rapidity of the paper. 

The print is now immersed in warm water, 
face downwards, special care being taken that 
the back of the print does not rise from the 
water, in which case a dark mark will be found 
on the print. Small pieces of flat wood will he 
found useful to float on the top of the print to 
prevent this happening. After ten minutes’ 
soaking, development can he proceeded with. 

The most suitable method of developing is to 
place the print on a piece of glass supported on 
an easel, and develop by means of a spraying- 
bottle (as used by hairdressers) filled with hot 
water. If much work is to he done, it will he 
advisable to purchase a foot-pump to which the 
spraying-bottle can be attached. 

Developing these prints is a most delightful 
operation, and, except in the case of great under- 
exposure, the pigment is perfectly firm, and will 
stand quite rough usage. There is no flaking 
off, as in gum, and development proceeds evenly 
and accurately every time ; and, unlike other 
pigment processes, there is quite an appreciable 
latitude in exposure. 

If under-exposure is suspected, development 
can be commenced in cooler water, raising the 
temperature as may be necessary ; while for 
over-exposure very hot water may be used, and 
prints very often saved by the addition of a 
little washing-soda to the soaking-water. 

There is no need for any clearing- or harden- 
ing-bath, and the prints can be dried at once 
before a fire. 

This process can he used in combination with 
a platinum print if desired, and it will he found 
a great improvement over the experiments pre- 
viously described when gum arabic was used as 
a colloid. 

The somewhat objectionable gloss is entirely 
obviated, and unless an exceedingly strong effect 
is required one coating is quite sufficient. Should 
such a case arise, it will be found advisable to 
make the platinum base a little stronger and 
to apply plenty of color when pigmenting. 

This will have no ill-effect on the quality of 
the resulting picture, as the exposure is not 
carried far enough for the highlights to become 
affected, and it is these portions which always 
suffer most when there is any tendency to granu- 
larity caused by an excess of pigment. 

When using a platinum print as a base, the 
previous remarks in connection with the sizing 
of the paper must not lie lost sight of, and, com- 
pared with the tub-sized paper mentioned, the 
paper support of a platinum print will be found 
very soft. Unless a preliminary sizing be given, 
it will be necessary to sensitize the paper by 


There is yet one other way of applying the 
sensitizer, which is very convenient if the paper 
is to he printed almost at once ; but unless this 
be done, insolubility will take place very soon. 
It consists in mixing a small quantity of am- 
monium bichromate with the pigment. It will 
he found advisable to make up the bichromate 
in a strong solution — say. about 1** per cent — 
and just before using dilute it with three parts 
of water, and in this the pigment must be dis- 
solved and applied in the usual way. 

Theoretically, the negatives for this process, 
when combined with a platinum print, should be 
kept thin, as in the case of gum and platinum, 
so that a somewhat flat platinum image is formed, 
with full gradation in the lighter portions, the 
shadows being afterwards brought up to proper 
density by the superimposition of pigment. How- 
ever. this is not so important in practice, owing 
to the much greater latitude obtainable with a 
gelatine as a colloid. When mixing two colors. 

such as lampblack and brown — which is usually 
an earth-color • — care must be taken that they 
are thoroughly incorporated and stirred fre- 
quently while in use, otherwise there will be 
great danger of the brown’s, which is naturally 
heavy, sinking to the bottom of the vessel, while 
the light and feathery lampblack remains in 
suspension, and consequently no two pieces of 
paper are coated of exactly the same color. 
This is sometimes noticeable in gum work, but 
not to such an extent, as the thick gum solution 
keeps all the pigment in better suspension. 

If necessary, a great deal of retouching can 
be done upon the print, and for this purpose it 
will be well to keep a small piece of the pig- 
mented paper before it is sensitized. This will 
provide a supply of pigment exactly the same 
color as the print, and, carefully done, a con- 
siderable amount of painting can be done with- 
out being visible, as it matches exactly. 

The Amateur Photographer. 







Opaque Projectors 

A N outgrowth of the magic lantern, or stere- 
opticon, is the opaque lantern — an ap- 
paratus for the projection of pictures in color 
and monochrome and flat opaque objects. If 
the projection-lens have sufficient depth of focus, 
this popular instrument is aide to project satis- 
factorily objects having relief or thickness, such 
as watches, rings, embossed articles, plaques 
and other work in low-relief. These opaque 
projectors are made at juices ranging from 
S3. 50 to $300 according to the efficiency of 
construction and range of adjustments. 

Like other articles in great demand, opaque 
lanterns are also manufactured in varying de- 
grees of inefficiency and poor workmanship. 
Without being too specific, we do not hesitate to 
state that this publication has steadfastly refused 
to advertise or endorse opaque lanterns of in- 
ferior construction. Because a simple type of 
this device is low-priced, it does not follow that 
it is either honestly made or lacking in merit. 
A cheap opaque lantern was put on the market 
several years ago. but it was so badly con- 
structed. and gave so little satisfaction, that 
honest dealers returned what stock they had 
and declined to be in any way identified with it. 
Not discouraged by this attitude of careful 
dealers, the manufacturers of the meretricious 
article referred to above acted upon the well- 
known principle that extensive advertising in 
periodicals of good standing would bring busi- 
ness ; and this has proved to be the case. This 
is unfortunate for those who have been induced 
to invest stuns from $3.50 to $10.00 in this 
class of merchandise. Those who are intelli- 
gent. realizing that they had purchased an in- 
ferior article, succeeded in having their money 
refunded. Others, again — as is the way with 
human nature — have failed to register a com- 
plaint. and in this way they have benefited the 
manufacturer of this particular style of opaque 

In view of the foregoing it is gratifying to 
record the fact that another firm issued, about, a 
year ago, another form of medium-priced pro- 
jector. but of such superior workmanship and 
efficiency, that it attained a degree of popularity 
far beyond the expectations of the makers. The 
results are also much superior in sharpness and 
brilliancy to those of the aforesaid rival make. 

We have not the pleasure to advertise this firm, 
and we publish this statement of our own ac- 
cord after having made a number of compara- 
tive tests. The superior instrument is known 
as the Radioptican. 

Of course, the most satisfactory form of 
opaque projecting-lantern is one which is 
equipped with the latest improvements, includ- 
ing. above all. a high-grade projection-lens, and 
an optically-plane mirror which ensures a cor- 
rect, unreversed image of the object projected 
upon the screen. These instruments, naturally, 
are more expensive, selling for $200 and up- 
wards. Before acquiring one of these elabo- 
rate machines, the purchaser should carefully 
investigate the references which accompany the 
circular sent out by the manufacturer, and deal 
only with a thoroughly reliable agent. 


T HE time has come — indeed, it arrived a 
long time ago — when the photographers 
in good standing of this country should organize 
to protect their interests, which are constantly 
being jeopardized. Bands of photographic im- 
posters are operating successfully in every large 
city, and their methods undoubtedly have im- 
paired the cause of honest professional photo- 

Boston is just now infested with a class of 
flashlight-operators who have proved to be 
nothing less than common swindlers. To be 
sure, they make a pretence to photograph a 
group of persons at dinner by setting up a 
camera, igniting a quantity of flash-powder and 
returning a few hours afterward with a wretched 
proof. The photographer explains that “ it is 
only a rough proof and the finished print will 
be entirely satisfactory.” Yielding to the blan- 
dishments of the alleged photographer, the 
guests — at least those who are easily per- 
suaded — pay in advance the required sum, 
which is $1.00 and upwards per print. The 
victimized member of the group waits in vain 
for the promised photograph. When he takes 
the trouble to investigate, he finds that the 
operator has just moved away — leaving bills 
unpaid — or the name and address given are 
fictitious. Thus the guests are cheated out of 
the expected souvenir in the form of a pleasing 


An Association of Amateur Photographers 

This association, conducted under the auspices of PHOTO-ERA, and of which PHOTO-ERA is the offi- 
cial organ, is intended primarily for the benefit of beginners in photography, although advanced camerists 
are just as welcome and many are numbered among its members. The aim of the association is to assist 
photographers by giving them information, advice and criticism in the Guild pages of PHOTO-ERA and by 
personal correspondence. Membership is free and may be obtained by sending name and address to 
PHOTO-ERA, The Round Robin Guild, 383 Boylston Street, Boston. Send a stamp for complete prospectus. 

Pictures for the Competitions 

The unsuccessful competitor in a contest often wonders 
why his picture was rejected and another which to him 
seemed not equal in merit was awarded a prize. 

If the amateur could see the quantity of prints sub- 
mitted in any one contest he would readily see that the 
judges have a very difficult task. When three pictures 
are to he selected for prizes out of as many hundreds it 
goes without saying' that much work that is excellent 
must necessarily be discarded. The work of the judges 
is conducted as fairly as possible and the name of the 
amateur is not considered, only the quality of the work. 
The first act is to put aside all pictures which do not 
stand any chance of taking' a prize. Those which re- 
main are regarded as “ possible ” and these in turn are 
carefully examined and one by one laid aside as the 
marking proves that they do not come up to the re- 
quired standard. The hardest part of the judging comes 
when the number has been narrowed down to a dozen, 
perhaps. Then the composition, the artistic treatment 
of the subject, the technique, and the manner in which 
the picture is mounted are all taken into consideration 
and the ones which rank the highest or average the 
highest are the three selected. 

Another time an amateur sends a print to one contest 
and it is rejected. He later sends the same print to an- 
other contest and it is awarded a prize. It seems very 
strange to him, that in one case it is rejected and in the 
other is found worthy a prize. Why should one jury 
condemn and the other approve ? The reason is this. 
In the first, contest where the print was rejected it was 
outranked by others of greater merit. In the contest 
where it was accepted it in turn exceeded in excellence 
the work of other contestants. One contest had a higher 
class of pictures submitted than the other — a thing 
which often happens. 

One must take his chances when striving for a prize of 
any kind. He must do his best to win, but must re- 
member that others are also doing their best to win, and 
in a race only one reaches the goal. The failure to win 
a prize ought to be an incentive to do better work. One’s 
failures ought to be stepping-stones to success. A nota- 
ble instance of this has been observed in oitr Guild con- 
tests. ( hie member sent to contest after contest without 
winning even honorable mention, but by and by the 
quality of his work began to change and now he has 
taken several prizes. Perseverance wins if good work is 
put with it. 

In the contests conducted by Photo-Era the range of 
subjects is very wide, because the management is anxious 
that all members of the Guild shall have an equal chance. 
The diversity of subjects gives the member the opportu- 
nity to select the one which most appeals to him, and 
with which he has become something of an expert. The 

subject of our March competition is “ Artistic Interi- 
ors.” This subject would not have much interest for 
the amateur who likes out-door work, but the April 
subject would be one which would directly interest him, 
and in “ Spring-Pictures ” he would find an expression 
for his special taste. One who is fond of making pic- 
tures of still-life will find the next subject, “ Decorative 
Flower-Studies,” exactly in his line, and the one who de- 
lights in the sea and its phases will select “ Water- 
Craft.” In printing the list for the year we give the 
amateur an opportunity to plan ahead and watch for the 
chance to make a picture of the subject in which he is 
most interested. 

In making a picture particularly for a contest it is a good 
plan to make three or four negatives of the same sub- 
ject, taking it from different points of view, with more 
or less definition and with different kinds of lighting, 
and then select the one which in your judgment best ex- 
presses your idea of the subject. 

When the negative is made, the next question to de- 
cide is whether the print is to be made by contact or 
enlargement. If a contact-print, the paper must be 
chosen — a rough paper if the picture has broad masses 
of light and shade and a smooth paper if the negative is 
full of detail and of delicate halftones. One should use 
a matt-surface paper, the glossy papers being suitable only 
for commercial work. The question of a proper mount 
is not one to be decided lightly. It should be of a tone 
to harmonize or contrast agreeably with the tone of the 
print, and with generous margins. Do not allow less 
than two inches all the way round and in some cases a 
much wider margin. Do not mount the picture in the 
middle of the mount. Have it nearer the top than the 
bottom. The rule for mounting a print is to have 
the width of the top and sides equal, and the bottom from 
one to two inches wider. On no account use the com- 
mercial mounts and paste the print flat to the card. 
This is the most inartistic way one can finish his print. 
For artistic work which is to be placed with others one 
should select the mount which will show off the best points 
of his picture, and give it the most attractive setting. 

If one makes an enlargement instead of a contact- 
print, then it is not wise to make it too large. An 8 x 10 
or a 10 x 12 is far more attractive than a 16 x 20 for in- 
stance. Tlie one subject which does not seem to deteri- 
orate or lose in the enlarging is the seascape. It is 
largely a matter of wide masses of light and shade and 
the enlargement deepens this effect and makes a very in- 
teresting picture. Size does not count with the judges, 
but quality does, and with a large print there is often so 
much diffusion that detail is practically lost. A slight 
diffusion is desirable, but not a blur or a smudge. 

A word again about the sending of prints. Mark each 
print with full name and address. Use corrugated board 
a little larger than the print, lay the picture face down 



on the board and wrap with smooth, but not too heavy 
paper. On the outside mark the address to which the 
package is to be returned in case it fails to reach its des- 
tination. In sending return-postage, enclose it in your 
data-letter, but do not stick the stamps to the letter- 
paper. A young writer sent, one after the other, manu- 
scripts to a magazine and each time took special pains to 
stick the stamps to the letter by a corner. At last the 
editor of the magazine rebelled, and when the next one 
came he wrote across the first page, 

“ Do not stick the stamps. They won’t get away.” 

So don’t stick the stamps for they will not get away. 
The sticking of the stamp takes off some of the muci- 
lage and the receiver must resort to paste in order to use 
the stamp, and this is a nuisance. Again, if they are 
stuck too firmly, a piece of the stamp adheres to the 
paper and renders the stamp valueless. 

In sending stamps in a letter, if one hesitates to put 
them loose in the envelope use one of the “ clinch 
clips, put edge of stamp even with edge of paper and 
slip the clip over it. A “ clinch ” clip is the simplest 
form of paper-clip, being a piece of wire bent in the form 
of a letter X joined at the top. If one has no clip, then 
pin the stamp to the letter with a small pin. 

Amateurs get very impatient for the return of their 


prints. Sometimes they are sent at the very beginning of 
the contest and the contest extends two months. Then 
after it is closed the pictures must be judged, and those 
which do not win prizes are consigned to the care of the 
editor of the Guild who looks them over carefully, criti- 
cizes them, and returns them to their owners. All of this 
takes more or less time and if one sends in prints for 
the March contest, for instance, at the beginning of 
the month, they are kept till the end of April, then 
judged, and finally returned to their owners. It is 
therefore sometimes three months from the time of send- 
ing prints before they are finally returned. 

If one is curious about the quantity of prints sub- 
mitted one should look at a back -number of Photo-Era, 
where the prints submitted are shown piled on top of each 
other till their height exceeded that of a tall man who 
was posed by the side of them and photographed to give 
some idea of the size of the contests. To handle these 
hundreds of prints takes much time and labor. We are 
very anxious that all of our members should compete in 
our contests and the editors try not only to judge the 
pictures fairly, but to take the best of care of them. 

There is nothing that helps one more in any work 
than to enter a prize-competition, and that is the main 
reason why Photo-Era goes to the expense of the 
monthly contests, to which it has now added a quarterly 
competition, that of the “ beginners.” 






Developing P.O.P. 

The advantage of developing P.O.P. is that the work 
of finishing a print may be done in about the time one 
takes for making a gaslight-print, while instead of being 
confined to the black and white of the gaslight-print one 
may on the developed P.O.P. vary the tone to suit the 
subject of the picture. 

The developer used may he either an alkaline or an acid 
developer. If the former is chosen, the prints must be 
toned after developing, as the alkaline developer gives a 
very undesirable yellow or pale orange, which, however, 
will tone to attractive browns and sepias. 

With the acid developer there need he no after-ton- 
ing; the developer used determines the tone of the 
print. One may use metol, hydrochinone, pyro, and 
others, if desired. 

In making the prints the paper should not be exposed 
to direct light except through the negative. The paper 
is put into the printing-frame in a subdued light, then 
exposed to direct light and printed until a faint image is 
visible. The print is removed from the frame and either 
placed in a box or slipped between the leaves of a large 
book. The former is preferable, for sometimes the words' 
of the printing make an impression on the sensitive 
paper, a thing which happens if the print is left any 

length of time in the book. The reason for keeping the 
print away from the light before and after printing is 
because by this process the whites are likely to be tinged 
by strong light and detract from the appearance of the 
finished print. 

If one wishes rich brown tones ranging to sepias, the 
developing agent should be either metol or pyro, the 
former being preferred. A developer in which metol is 
the agent and which will produce brilliant prints is made 
as follows; Metol, 5 grains; citric acid, 100 grains; 
water. 10 oz. Dissolve the ingredients in the order 
given, then add chrome alum 25 grains. Place the print 
without previous washing in the developer, taking care 
that the solution covers the surface completely and at 
once. If air-bubbles form on the surface, touch them 
with the tip of the finger. Develop until the image 
shows up well, then rinse in three or four changes of 
water and transfer to a fixing-bath made of the strength 
of hypo, 1 oz. ; water, 12 oz. Leave the print in this 
bath five minutes, then wash well and dry. If pyro is 
chosen in place of metol, use : Pyro, 20 grains ; tartaric 
acid, 20 grains ; potassium bichromate, 1 grain ; water, 
20 oz. If the tone of the print should be too yellowish 
a brown, add to the hypo-bath eight grains of lead ace- 
tate to each ounce of the hypo. This will change the 
yellowish tone to a warm, clear brown. 






Hydrochinone gives the greatest latitude of tone. A 
rich brown of a golden color is obtained by making a 
solution of the following proportions : Hydrochinone, 40 
grains ; water. 8 oz. To each ounce of the solution add 
12 drops of a 2% solution of potassium bichromate. A 
tone which runs almost to a carmine is produced by 
adding to the hydrochinone and water twice the amount 
of potassium bichromate and to each ounce of this mix- 
ture adding 20 grains of citric acid. By varying the 
amount of the potassium bichromate and the citric acid 
one can get a wide range of browns and reds. 

Sometimes certain pictures look best when the tone is 
an olive. To produce this tone on the developed P.O.P., 
make up a solution of : Copper sulphate, 20 grains ; 
potassium citrate, 100 grains ; water, 4 oz. Add from 
150 to 200 minims of this to the hydrochinone developer 
and the tone of the print will be a very rich olive. 

One may even produce green tones, though this color 
is not commended except for decorative effects. The 
developer is : Metol, 10 grains; water. 10 oz. Dissolve 
the metol. then add to each ounce of the solution 10 
minims of a very dilute solution of phosphoric acid ; 

and 2 grains of chrome alum. This is a good developer 
to use with a print from a hard negative. 

By experimenting with the different developers one 
may get some particularly fine tones. Half the pleasure 
of photography is the chemical side of the work, for with 
a little knowledge of the chemistry of photography one 
may vary his solutions to obtain the results he desires. 

Our March Competition 

The subject for our March competition is rather a 
difficult one. It is not very easy to make a good pic- 
ture of an interior, and to make a picture which is at 
the same time an artistic one requires an experimental 
knowledge of the length of exposure necessary to secure 
a good-printing negative, but it also requires the ama- 
teur to have some artistic training in the composition of 
the lines of arches and columns. 

The lens used should he rectilinear and the plate one 
which is as rapid as the amateur can handle. The fac- 
tors to be considered are the subject, its lighting, the 
stop, and the plate. The exposure in dimly-lighted in- 
teriors may be much prolonged without over-exposing 



the ]>late, even though it be a rapid one. Unless one is 
very expert in judging the proper length of time to give 
a plate by observing the illumination on the ground- 
glass, it is a wise plan to use an exposure-meter, such as 
the Watkins or the Wynne. 

In regard to the subject, if the colors of the walls and 
ceilings are in dull tones it will be necessary to make a 
much longer exposure even though the furnishings are 
in lighter tones. If the interior is, for instance, a 
church, then one must consider the carvings, for the 
deeper the carvings the heavier the shadows which they 
cast. Then if there are pieces of sculpture they stand 
out in bold relief against the dark background and de- 
tract from the general effect, for it is not the sculpture 
which is to be brought into prominence but the whole 
of the interior must have its proper gradation of lights 
and shadows so as to have unity. Interiors of Gothic 
churches and cathedrals make very artistic studies, ex- 
amples of which appear from time to time in the I’hoto- 
Eka. Our members are therefore advised to look over 
their files of the magazine and study carefully the treat- 
ment which the expert has given this subject. 

In the photographing of rooms in houses one is very 
much inclined to gather together every piece of bric-k- 
brac and attractive furniture which the room contains 
and bring them within the field of the lens. Such an 
arrangement is very often seen, and the result is a 
jumble of stuff which suggests a second-hand shop or 
an auction-sale rather than an artistic living-room. It 

is far better to remove some of the furniture and group 
a few pieces of brie-k-brac tastefully, eliminating- all 
which are not artistic in color or shape. The pictures, 
too, should be given careful consideration, and none in- 
cluded on the plate which will detract from the appear- 
ance of the photograph. The custom of putting small 
pictures on the wall, such as photographs and little 
scenes which might be called “ picturettes ” rather than 
pictures, gives a spotted appearance to the background 
of the photograph when they are left on the walls dur- 
ing the exposure. The chairs and tables are not easy to 
pose, so one should keep them as much in the shadow 
as possible, being careful that they are not placed too 
near the camera. 

The effect of sunlight shining in through a window 
may be very effectually portrayed and makes a very 
attractive picture. Painters, particularly those of the 
Dutch school, are very fond of painting sunlight in a 
room. The photographer has not control of color, so 
he must portray it in black and white. Of course if 
one makes an exposure for bright sunlight coming 
through a window and shining on the floor the rest of 
the room is very much under-exposed. If he exposes 
for the room itself the sunlight is a white square with 
no detail and not suggesting sunlight in the slightest 
degree. To get the effect in black and white which the 
painter obtains with his colors, the sunlight must first 
be shut out of the room by using a white curtain or a 
piece of white muslin stretched across the window. The 






plate is then exposed long enough to get good detail in 
the shadows, the lens capped, the muslin removed from 
the window and the plate exposed again just long 
enough to get the sunlight of the proper depth. In 
such a plate the details on the floor and the walls are 
seen the same as in a painting. 

Artists’ studios, workshops of handcrafters, children’s 
playrooms, quaint kitchens, and similar interiors, all 
lend themselves to the producing of an artistic picture. 

Silver Nitrate Intensifier 

One of the best intensifies for a plate which has not 
been developed far enough is found in silver nitrate. 
It brings out the detail, gives good contrasts, and turns 
a negative from which one cannot make a satisfactory 
print into a good printer. The stock solution, which 
keeps indefinitely if tightly corked, is made as follows : 
Ammonium sulphocyanide, 4 .V 2 oz. ; silver nitrate, 90 
grains ; sodium hyposulphite. Vo oz. ; potassium bro- 
mide, 27 grains; water, 9 oz. To use take 8 drams of 
the stock solution, 8 ounces of water anil 2 drams of 
rodinal developer. Place in the developer and rock the 
tray now and then to ensure even action of the solution. 

As soon as the proper density is reached, wash well and 
dry as quickly as possible. If a plate is dried rapidly 
the density is increased. In case the negative to he 
intensified is one which has been made some time, it 
should he soaked in water till the film becomes softened. 
This intensifier will work well with plates or films 
which have been developed by the tank method and 
were not left long enough in the developer to give the 
proper density or to bring out all the detail. 

Soft Prints from Hard Negatives 

When you have a negative which gives chalky whites 
and dense black shadows on the normal grades of 
developing-papers, try Soft Cyko. It is even more 
adapted to delicate results than the papers intended for 
professional portraiture. 


Amidol has the reputation of not staining in solution, 
though the dry powder makes indelible marks on the 
moist skin. If. however, an acid fixing-bath is used, 
pinkish stain appears on the fingers. The plain hypo 
bath should always be used with amidol. 


The Round Robin Guild 
Monthly Competitions 

Closing the last day of every month. 

Address all prints for competition to Photo-Era, 
The Bound Bobin Guild Competition , 3S3 Boyl- 
ston St., Boston, U.S.A. 


First Prize : Value $10.00. 

Second Prize : V alue $5.00. 

Third Prize: Value $2.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is deemed 
worthy of reproduction with the prize-winning' picture, 
or in later issues, will be given Honorable Mention. 

Prizes may be chosen by the winner, and will be 
awarded in books, magazines, enlargements, mounts, 
photographic materials, or any article of a photographic 
or art nature which can be bought for the amount of the 
prize won by the successful competitor. 


1. These competitions are free and open to all photo- 
graphers, whether or not subscribers to Photo-Era. 

2. As many prints as desired, in any medium except 
blue-print, may be entered, but they must represent the 
unaided work of the competitor from start to finish, and 
must be artistically mounted. 

3. The right is reserved to withhold from the com- 
petitions all prints not up to the Photo-Era standard. 

4. A package of prints will not be considered eligible un- 
less return-postage at the rate of one cent for each two 
ounces or fraction is sent with the data. 

5. Each print entered must bear the maker's name, ad- 
dress, Guild-number, the title of the picture and the name 
and month of the competition, and should be accompanied 
by a letter sent separately, giving full particulars of 
date, light, plate or film, make , type and focus of lens, stop 
used, exposure, developer and printing-process. Enclose 
return-postage in letter. 

6. Prints receiving prizes or Honorable Mention be- 
come the property of Photo-Era. If suitable, they will 
be reproduced, full credit in each case being given to 
the maker. 

Notice to Prize-Winners 

These contests are open to everybody except those 
wht) have won three or more prizes. 

Subjects for Competition 

February — “Copying Works of Art.” (Paintings and 
statuary.) Closes March 31. 

March — “ Artistic Interiors.” Closes April 30. 

April — “ Spring-Pictures.” Closes May 31. 

May — “Decorative Flower-Studies.” ('loses June 30. 
June — “Water-Craft.” Closes July 31. 

July — “ Gardens.” Closes August 31. 

August, — “ Wood-Interiors.” Closes September 30. 
September — “ Shore-Scenes.” Closes October 31. 
October — “ Rainy Days.” Closes November 30. 
November — “ Christmas Cards.” Closes December 31. 
December — “Home-Scenes.” Closes January 31. 

Awards — Group Portraits 

First Prize : Paul Lewis Anderson. 

Second Prize: E. Kelsey. 

Third Prize : Frank J. Ulmschneider. 

Honorable Mention : George Alexander, Lewis Eagan, 
Charles 11. Flood. Mrs. Alice J. Foster, Anthony Graff, 
Suisai Itow, Leon Jeanne, Charles L. Miller. 


Quarterly Contests for Beginners 

In these contests all Guild members are eligible pro- 
vided they have never received any prizes 
or Honorable Mentions in the past , from any 


All prints submitted, except prize-winners, will be 
returned if postage is sent in a separate letter with the 
data. See rules 4 and 5 in opposite column. 


First Prize: Value $5.00. 

Second Prize: Value $2.50. 

Third Prize : Value $1.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is worthy will 
be given Honorable Mention. 

Awards — Autumn Pictures 

First Prize : E. J. Sturz. 

Second Prize : C>. E. Achuff. 

Third Prize : M. D. Silberstein. 

Honorable Mention : William T. Clements, Garland L. 
Davis, J. W. Newton. Mark A. Richardson, V. Kenward 

Tlie reproductions of the prize-winners in the Autumn 
Pictures Contest will appear in the April number. 

Subjects for Competition 


Pictures of all sorts of winter amusements outdoors, 
skating, sleighing, coasting, snowballing, hunting, or 
any other sport, as well as indoor games, will be con- 
sidered eligible. 


Landscapes of trees in bud, early vegetation, late 
snow in the woods, flowering trees and shrubs, April 
showers and cloudy skies. Landscapes made on ortho- 
chromatic plates with a ray-filter not later than May 20. 

Sending Prints Safely 

It is strange that workers sending us prints persist in 
enclosing them between sheets of cardboard with the 
corrugations running in one direction. Photographs sent 
thus, or placed against one single sheet, very seldom 
reach their destination safely. Prints should first be 
wrapped in soft paper, and then placed between two pieces 
of cellular board — the kind which is covered on both 
sides — with the corrugations running in opposite directions. 

How to Send Stamps 

Readers are requested not to send postage stamps 
loosely placed in the envelope either before or after the 
insertion of the letter. In extracting the letter, the 
stamp remains in the envelope unless the recipient takes 
care to look into the envelope. Some thoughtless per- 
sons take a number of stamps and fold them so that the 
backs shall come together, which is not so bad as to 
have the backs cover the face. If the letter happens to 
be in a warm place during transit, the stamps become 
glued together and must be soaked apart by the recip- 
ient. The proper way is to moisten a small place in the 
center of the stamp and attach it to an upper corner of 
the front page of the letter. Or, if there are a number 
of stamps, they can be safely enclosed in paraffine-paper, 
which prevents them from sticking to each other during 
transit in the mails. 


Answers to Correspondents 

Readers wishing information upon any point in 
connection with their photographic work are invited 
to make use of this department. .Address all in- 
quiries to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 743 East 
27th Street , Paterson. N. J. If a personal reply 
is desired, a self-addressed, stamped envelope must 
be enclosed. 

Ellen Payne. — An excellent Formula for a 
Retouching Varnish is 30 grains of powdered resin 
to 1 oz. of turpentine. See that the resin is thoroughly 
dissolved. To use, tip up some of the solution on to the 
cork, dab it on the negative where the retouching is to 
come and rub it round with the end of the finger. Use 
very little of the varnish or your negative will show 
where the varnish was applied. If there is not much 
retouching to he done on a negative it is better and 
easier to use powdered pumice-stone. Shake a little on 
the negative, rub it round on the surface and brush 
off the superfluous dust. This creates a tooth which 
takes the pencil well, and the advantage of this medium 
is that if the work is not satisfactory it is easily removed 
with a piece of absorbent cotton dipped in alcohol and 
the work done over again. 

Bliss D. F. — To Calculate the Factor of a 
Combined Developer multiply each factor by the 
number of grains of the agent used, add the results to- 
gether and divide by the total number of the grains of 
the two agents. For instance suppose the developer is 
of metol and hydrochinone. The factor of metol is 30 
and the factor of hydrochinone is 5. Suppose 10 grains of 
metol and 15 of hydrochinone were used. 10 X 30 = 300. 
15X5=75. 300 + 75=375. 10 + 15=25. 375 A- 25 
= 15. 15 is therefore the factor of this combined 


F. Morris. — The film which you enclose has been 
very much over-exposed. It is flat and without detail. 
Try reducing it with ammonium persulphate 

after the formula sent you recently. This will give 
contrast perhaps, but if it is possible to make another 
negative of the subject I should advise you to do so. 

Lena M. — The camera about which you make inquiry 
is an excellent one and if you get it adapted for both 
plates and films you will have a very satisfactory in- 
strument. The 4x5 size will he found plenty large 
enough for all practical purposes. If one has a sharp 
negative, very fine enlargements may be made from it. 
The expense of the material for a small camera is very 
much less than for a large one ; besides, the larger cam- 
era is not nearly so convenient to carry about with one. 

Kate D. L. — LTse an Acid Fixing=Bath for your 
gaslight prints and the yellowish tone will disappear and 
the whites come out white and clear. One should take 
pains to move the prints about now and then in the fix- 
ing-bath and not fix too many at a time. By using a 
little care the stains on your prints which come from 
imperfect fixing will be avoided. 

James Fields. — You can buy the Backing=Solu = 
tion for Plates, but I should advise the use of non- 
halation plates, which does away with the bother of 
backing. In order to be successful in backing plates 
one must keep them far away from even the red light, 
and be careful that no light strikes them while they 
are drying. The backing-paste dries quickly, but the 
plates cannot be returned to the box until they are thor- 
oughly d ry. Replace them in the box in the same 
manner in which they rvere packed, film to film. 

B. D. Lawrence. — It would be impossible to esti- 
mate the length of time necessary for the Exposure of 
an Enlargement by Daylight. The best thing to 
do is to get an exposure-meter, which would give the 
approximate time of exposure. Why not make two or 
three trial-prints with small pieces of bromide paper ? 
You could by this method also find out whether your 
focus is correct or not. 

C. M. H. — To get a “ Soft Focus,” as you term it, 
a large stop should be used, a sharp focus made, then 
the lens racked in or out just enough to soften the out- 
lines of the objects without blurring them. You can get 
soft definition in a print from a sharp negative by in- 
serting a piece of celluloid between the paper and the 
negative during the printing. Sheets of celluloid come 
particularly for this purpose or one may make use of a 
spoiled film from which the gelatine has been cleaned. 

D. II. O. — It would be better for you to get a New 
Blind for your focal-plane shutter rather than attempt 
to repair it yourself. In case of a tiny pinhole, you 
might stop it with nonactinic paint, but as for the tear, 
it would be almost impossible to mend it and have it 
work satisfactorily afterward. 

Martha S. D. — For an “easy” Developer for 
Portraits try rodinal of a strength of one part rodinal 
to twenty of water. The negative will be fully devel- 
oped in about four minutes. Development should not he 
carried too far, but just far enough to produce a nega- 
tive full of detail both in shadows and highlights, and 
not of too dense a quality. Rodinal will bring out this 
kind of a negative, which is the best for portraits. 

F. K. II. — A piece of green glass of light tone placed 
over the printing-frame during the printing will retard 
the process and give a Good Print from a Thin 
Negative. If you cannot get the glass, a piece of 
green waxed paper will answer, hut it must be kept 
moving over the plate during the printing or it will 
give the print a mottled appearance. Tissue paper may 
be used, and this also must be kept moving during' the 
printing. Another way is to place the printing-frame at 
the bottom of a wooden box and set the box in the 

Allen Smith. — To Prevent Stains on P. O. P. 

place the prints after toning and before washing in a 
bath made as follows: Salt, 2 oz. ; sodium carbonate, 
1 oz. ; water, 20 oz. Leave them in ibis hath for five 
minutes, then remove to the fixing-bath, wash well and 
dry. Prints should be kept moving during the process 
of toning or they will tone unevenly, and for uneven 
toning such as your prints present there is no remedy 
but to make new ones. 

George T. - To Stain a Printing=Paper a 
Cream Color use either strong tea or coffee. The 
stain works quicker if the print is put dry into the 
solution. One can also use methyl orange or any of 
the aniline yellow dyes, diluting them enough to get 
the right tone. Glossy papers will not take the color. 
Rough paper colors quickly and smooth paper more 
slowly. For some prints the cream-tinted paper is very 

C. D. Hardon. — To Copy Faded Silver Prints 

use a blue filter on the lens. The yellowish tone of the 
image appears black on the plate. The exposure must 
be much prolonged, but one can thus get very excellent 
copies, which cannot be obtained in any other way, of 
faded prints. The print itself may be blackened by 
using potassium bichromate and hydrochloric acid to 
convert the image into silver chloride and the print is 
then developed the same as a plate. This process is not 
always a success, so it is not wise to resort to it unless 
one can obtain a copy in no other way. 



Address all prints for criticism , enclosing return 
postage at the rate of one cent for each two ounces 
or fraction thereof , to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 
743 East 27th St., Paterson, N . J. Prints must 
bear the maker's name and address, and should be 
accompanied by a letter, sent separately , giving full 
particulars of date, light, plate or film, stop, expo- 
sure, developer and printing-process. 

“June Days.” M. D. S. — This is an attractive 
picture and well illustrates its title. In the foreground 
is a patch of meadow starred thick with daisies, while in 
the middle-distance a placid stream flows peacefully 
along’. On the farther hank of the stream one sees a 
house set in a group of trees, while beyond on the far 
horizon is the spire of a church. A graceful birch shows 
at one side of the picture and at the other side the 
farther bank of the stream gives the proper balance. 
The adverse comment on this print is the lack of clouds 
in the sky. Though June has cloudless days, such skies 
portrayed in a photograph detract from its artistic 
merit. The printing of a few very light clouds into the 
sky would make of this picture a charming landscape- 

“The Haymaker.” N. B. H. — The subject of this 
picture is a young girl raking hay, and in some respects 
is a very pleasing study. The pose is well taken and 
the “haymaker” apparently absorbed in what she is 
doing. The fault of the picture is in the composition of 
the landscape itself. The background shows a piece of 
woods which extends across the picture in a straight 
line. The foliage has taken very dark while the hay- 
field is very light, consequently the picture is divided 
horizontally into distinct portions, one half being very 
dark and the other half very light. There seems to be 
no way to remedy this fault by trimming the print. 
The time of day had undoubtedly much to do with this 
effect. The picture should have been made when the 
shadows were long with the setting sun instead of being' 
taken at noonday. This subject is worth trying again. 

“ Sunset on the River.” A. C. F. — The composi- 
tion of this picture is excellent. It shows the bend of 
a river with the wooded banks on one side and a part of 
a tree leaning over the water on the other. In the 
middle-distance is a rowboat, and the horizon is marked 
by distant hills. The halftones and shadows on the 
water are well rendered, but the fault of the picture is in 
the heavy clouds at the top which seem to overbalance 
the picture and make it look toplieavy. A judicious 
trimming of the print would eliminate this defect and 
make a very pleasing picture. 

Plate-Speeds for Exposure-Guide on Opposite Page 

Class 1/3 

Lumifere Sigma 

LumRre Non-Halation Sigma 

Class 1/2 

Barnet Super-Speed Ortho 
Ilford Monarch 

Class 3/4 

Barnet Red Seal 
Ilford Zenith 
Imperial Flashlight 
Eastman Speed-Film 
Wellington Extra Speedy 
Wellington Anti-Screen 

Class 1 


Ansco Film, N. C. and Vidil 
Barnet Extra Rapid 
Barnet Ortho Extra Rapid 
Barnet Studio 
Cramer Crown 
Cramer Crown Non-Halation 
Cramer Instantaneous Iso 
Cramer Inst, Iso Non-Halation 
Cramer Isonon 
Ensign Film 

Hammer Special Extra Fast 
Imperial Special Sensitive 
Imperial Non-Filter 
Imperial Orthochrome Special 

Kodak N. C. Film 
I ,urii lore Film 

Premo Film Pack 
Seed Gilt Edge ’Si 
Standard Imperial Portrait 
Standard Polychrome 
Stanley Regular 
V ulcan 

Wellington Film 

Class 1 1/4 

Cramer Banner X 
Cramer Banner X Non-Halation 
Eastman Extra Rapid 
Hammer Extra Fast 
Hammer Extra Fast Ortho 
Hammer Non-Halation 
Hammer Non-Halation Ortho 
Seed 2Gx 
Seed C. Ortho 
Seed L. Ortho 
Seed Non-Halation 
Seed Non-Halation Ortho 
Stand ard Extra 
Standard Orthonon 
Wellington Speedy 
Wellington Iso Speedy 
Class 1 1/2 
Lumifere Ortho A 
Lumifere Ortho B 

Class 2 

Cramer Medium Iso 

Cramer Medium Iso Non-Halation 

Cramer Trichromatic 

Ilford Rapid Chromatic 

Ilford Special Rapid 

Imperial Special Rapid 

Class 2 1/2 

Barnet Medium 
Barnet Ortho Medium 
Cramer Anchor 
Hammer Fast 
Seed 23 

Lumifere Panchro C 
Class 3 
Wellington Landscape 

Class 4 

Stanley Commercial 
Ilford Chromatic 
Ilford Empress 

Class 5 

Cramer Commercial 
Hammer Slow 
Hammer Slow Ortho 
Wellington Ortho Process 

Class 8 

Cramer Slow Iso 

Cramer Slow Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford Ordinary 

Class 12 

Cramer Contrast 
Ilford Halftone 
Seed Process 

Class 100 

Lumi(';re Autochrome 


Exposure-Guide for March 


Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground; river-scenes; figure- 
studies in the open; light-colored buildings and monuments; wet street- 
scenes. with stop F/8 (U. S. No. 4) on Class 1 plates. 

For other stops multiply hy the 
number in third column. 










10 A.M. to 2 P.M. 






9 a.m. and 3 p.m. 






8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 






7 a.m. and 5 p.m. 




1 1/3 

2 2/3 

The exposures given are intended merely as a basis for trial, and 
will vary with latitude and other conditions, but they should give 
full detail in the shadows, except when iso or ortho plates are used 
without a screen, when the exposure should be doubled, unless the 
light itself is yellow. Color-sensitive plates in such a case are much 
faster than plain plates. 


U. S. 1 

X 1/4 


U. S. 2 

X 1/2 


U. S. 2.4 

X 5/8 


U. S. 3 

X 3/4 


U. S. 8 

X 2 


U. S. 16 

X 4 


U. S. 32 

X 8 


U. S. 64 

X 16 

SUBJECTS. For other subjects, multiply the exposure for average landscape by the 
number given for the class of subject. 

1 8 Studies of sky and white clouds. 

1 4 Open views of sea and sky ; very distant 
landscapes ; studies of rather heavy 
clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. 

12 Open landscapes without foreground ; open 
beach. harbor and shipping-scenes ; 
yachts under sail : very light-colored 
objects ; studies of dark clouds ; snow- 
scenes with no dark objects ; most tele- 
photo subjects outdoors ; wooded hills 
not far distant from lens. 

2 Landscapes with medium foreground ; 
landscapes in fog or mist ; buildings 
showing both sunny and shady sides ; 
well-lighted street-scenes ; persons, ani- 
mals and moving objects at least thirty 
feet away from the camera. 

4 Landscapes with heavy foreground ; build- 
ings or trees occupying most of the 
picture ; brook-scenes with heavy foli- 
age ; shipping about the docks ; red 
brick buildings and other dark objects ; 
groups outdoors in the shade. 

8 Portraits outdoors in the shade ; very dark 
near objects, particularly when the 
image of the object nearly fills the plate 
and full shadow-detail is required. 

16 Badly-lighted river-banks, ravines, glades 
and under the trees. 

32 Wood-interiors not open to sky and with 
dark soil or pine-needles. 

48 Average indoor portraits in well-lighted 
room, lijdit surround in qs, hip- window 
and white reflector. 

PLATES. W hen plates other than those in Class T are used, the exposure indicated above 
must be multiplied by the number given at the head of the class of plates. 



With Reviews of Foreign Progress and Investigation 

Conducted by MALCOLM DEAN MILLER, A.B., M.D. 

Readers are encouraged to contribute their favorite methods for publication in this department 
Address all such communications to The Crucible, PHOTO-ERA, 383 Boylston Street, Boston 

Dr. Mees on Time-Development 

Dr. C. E. Kenneth Mees recently read before the 
Royal Photographic Society a paper on time-develop- 
ment. which was published in The British Journal of 
Photography under date of December 30, 1010. Por- 
tions of this paper follow. 

“As a preliminary to a discussion of the principles of 
time-development it is necessary to consider the process 
of development from three different points of view — 
the chemical, the physical, and the physico-chemical. 

“ In the first place we have the chemical point of 
view : 

“ To understand this we must know, first, what are 
the oxidation-products of the developer; and, secondly, 
what is the course of the reaction — for example, how 
many molecules of silver bromide can be reduced by one 
molecule of the reducing-agent. In spite of the equa- 
tions given in the text-books, we really know these facts 
for very few developers, ami the only developer of which 
we can claim fully to understand the reaction is ferrous 

“But a fairly simple reaction is that between silver 
bromide and alkaline hydioquinone without sulphite, for 
which the following equation may be written : 

O - Na O 

2 AgBr + J^j ^ 2 Ag + 2 NaBr + 

O - Na O 

“ 'I’he benzene ring which forms the nucleus of hydro- 
quinone is shown as a regular octahedron, it being imag- 
ined that a carbon atom is placed at each of the six 
points of this figure. It will be seen that the reaction 
takes place by the sodium atoms removing the bromine 
from the silver, and that the two oxygen atoms attached 
to the benzene nucleus couple up together, forming 

“ It will be noticed that the arrows indicating the 
course of the reaction point in both directions. This is 
to suggest that the reaction is reversible , as is indeed the 
fact, for if we treat a developed plate with a solution of 
sodium bromide and quinone we shall re-form silver 
bromide and hydioquinone. 

“So long as one side of the components in solution is 
in excess the reaction will progress, but should the prod- 
ucts of development not be removed from the solution, 
equilibrium will be attained, and the reaction come to an 

“ in order to understand the physical nature of devel- 
opment we must look into the structure of an emulsion. 
An emulsion consists of a number of particles of silver 
bromide embedded in a jelly. The most generally- 
accepted theory of the structure of jellies has been sug- 
gested by Quincke in what he calls the ‘ foam-theory.’ 
... A jelly consists of a great number of cells, inter- 
sected in all directions by passages. These cells and 

passages contain a weak solution of gelatine, whereas 
their walls consist of a very strong solution of gelatine, 
the whole structure being rather like a sponge full of 
water, and owing its elasticity to the fact that it is a 
bag, or rather a collection of bags, containing water. 
In an emulsion each of these cells may be imagined to 
contain a particle of silver bromide, as we see ” in the 
figure below. 

“ To understand the way in which a developer must 
penetrate to the silver bromide grains in an emulsion let 
us consider ” a magnified portion of the preceding figure. 

“ We now see that, if we imagine a molecule of the 
sodium salt of hydioquinone coming from outside to 
attack two molecules of silver bromide, it must do some- 
thing of the following kind. First it must travel (by 


diffusion) down one of the long passages to the cell to 
be attacked; then it must pass through the cell-wall, 
where the reaction must go on — after which the quinone 
and sodium bromide must diffuse out through the cell- 
wall and back through the passages to the surface. 
Now, owing to the enormous size of the passages com- 
pared with the size of a molecule, the journeys through 
the passages take place very rapidly ; at the same rate, 
in fact, as a journey of the same length through water. 
These journeys through the open passages may be called 
the macro-diffusion. The diffusion through the cell- 
walls. however, is very much slower, and this is known 
as the micro-diffusion. 

It is generally held that a chemical reaction can 
proceed only in solution, so that the reaction inside the 
cell must proceed between the hydroquiuone and some 
of the silver bromide which goes into solution, because, 
although the solubility of silver bromide is very small, 
still it is sufficient to enable some quantity to be dis- 
solved. Not only must the silver bromide be considered 
to be in solution, but the silver formed must also be in 

“This fact explains what is the most difficult thing 
to explain about development, not, why does a plate 
develop, but why an unexposed plate does not develop. 

“ If we are considering a particle of pure silver bro- 
mide in a cell undergoing reaction with hydroquiuone, 
then, clearly, silver will accumulate in solution until the 
solution is saturated with regard to the silver and then 
the reaction must stop unless the silver is removed from 
solution. So that the unexposed silver bromide will not 
develop, because the silver which is formed remains in 
solution and stops further reaction. IIow then is the 
silver removed from solution when development does not 
take place ? . . . What is required to start the removal 
of the silver from its solution in the cell is a nucleus, and 
the production of this nucleus is the business of the 
exposure to light : that is, the latent image furnishes a 
nucleus for the deposition of the silver. . . . 

“ It is obvious that the amount of silver produced will 
depend upon the exposure, i.e , upon the formation of a 
latent-image-nncleus in a certain number of the grains, 
this number increasing as exposure is increased, 

“ In order to measure the amount of this latent image 
all we have to do is to develop the plate until it will 
develop no farther, when the amount of silver produced 
is a measure of the number of grains which contained 
nuclei, i.e.. which had been affected by light. . . . 

“ For a photographic plate the law of increase of con- 
trast is that the 

Rate of increase = constant (maximum con- 
trast attainable minus contrast already at- 

“ AA hat we wish to do in development is always to at- 
tain a given degree of contrast, and it is clear that in order 
to know how long it will take to do so we must know 
what is the constant (generally called the velocity-con- 
stant or K) and what is the maximum contrast which 
the plate will give. 

" If the temperature is raised . . . the velocity-con- 
stant will be greater. This is called the ‘ temperature- 

“ Generally the temperature-coefficient is given as the 
ratio between the velocity-constant at, say, 15° 0. and 
that at 25° C'. Thus if we call K 2 - the velocity-constant 
at 25° C. and K . the velocity-constant at 15° C., the 

temperature-coefficient = , . J • 

" The time for which a plate requires developing 
dependent on the three following factors : 

(1) The maximum contrast attainable. 

(2) The velocity-constant. 

(3) The temperature-coefficient. 

So that the application of any rides found for one batch 
of a particular plate to further batches or to other plates 
must depend on these factors remaining unaltered. As 
a result of some experience in the measurement of these 
factors for different plates and for different batches of 
the same plate I have arrived at the following conclu- 
sions : 

“(1) The maximum contrast given by a plate is rea- 
sonably constant from batch to batch ; it is, of course, 
the object of the emulsion-maker to keep it so. Vary- 
ing circumstances, however, introduce considerable 
variations, amounting in extreme instances to 30 or 

“ The chief of such circumstances are : 

Sudden changes of weather during the mak- 
ing of the emulsion. 

Sudden changes in the water-supply due to 
heavy rains. 

Changes in the gelatine used. 

“ (2) The velocity-constant of development at the 
same temperature and for the same developer varies very 
greatly with different batches of the same plate. This 
is mainly conditioned by the rate at which the plates 
dry, which, even in artificial drying-systems, such as 
those used by plate-makers, is always affected to some 
extent by external weather-conditions. Moreover, any 
change in the gelatine always affects the factor at once. 

“ I think, therefore, that it is quite unsafe to assume 
that because one batch of plates required a certain time 
for development, another batch of the same plates will 
require the same time; a classification of plates into 
quickly or slowly developing can only be extremely 

“ (3) It is usual in systems proposed for the develop- 
ment of plates by time to provide for a correction to be 
applied for other temperatures of the developer than the 
‘ standard one. 

“ These corrections implicitly contain the assumption 
that the temperature-coefficient of a developer is inde- 
pendent of the plate employed. There appears to be no 
justification for this assumption. . . . 

“ My views on the whole subject, therefore, may be 
expressed as follows : 

“(1) That the calculation of the time of development 
of plates by the aid of tables is likely to be misleading 
in consequence of the variation of the governing factors 
with different batches of the same plate. 

“ (2) The correction of the time for varying- tempera- 
tures is likely to be misleading, in consequence of the 
wide variation between the effects upon different kinds 
of plates. Consequently, 

“ Development by time can only be successfully and 
accurately accomplished if the time required is found by 
trial for each batch of plates.” 

A Simple Sky-Shade 

When working against the light, it is often necessary 
to shade the lens more effectively than can be done by 
holding one’s hat over the lens. A good shade can be 
improvised from a piece of the black paper from a roll 
of film, trimmed to a length which will not cut off any 
of the image on the ground-glass and snapped on with 
a heavy rubber band. This is better than one which 
simply shades the upper portion of the lens, as it cuts 
off reflected light from the ground. A brass tube to 
screw into the front lens-cell may be used if a permanent 
device is preferred. 






America as Seen by a German Photographer 

Eduard Blum, the eminent Berlin photographer, 
delivered an address before the Royal Imperial Photo- 
graphic Society at Vienna, November last, and it was 
printed in full in the January issue of the Photographische 
Korrespondenz, published in Vienna. Mr. Blum is evi- 
dently a keen observer, for he has acquired an astound- 
ing familiarity with the commercial, industrial and social 
affairs of the United States, which he visited several 
years ago and lately, being a prominent figure at the 
annual meeting of the Professional Photographers’ So- 
ciety of New York. The aforementioned address, as 
printed in the Vienna Photographic Journal, naturally re- 
fers to the photographic conditions in America. He 
pays his respects to Mrs. Gertrude Kasebier — whom, 
like many others, he regards as of German birth, whereas 
she is thoroughly American — Benjamin J. Falk, Pirie 
McDonald and other master-photographers. He devotes 
considerable space to a visit to the works of the East- 
man Kodak Company at Rochester, N. Y., whose plant 
is the object of iiis unstinted admiration. The paper is 
accompanied by a number of superb illustrations by 
J. C. Strauss, J. E. Mock. E. E. Doty, Benjamin J. 
Falk, E. B. Core, N. II. Lifschey, The Towles Studio, 
Hubert Bros, and F. ( ). Sipprell. Everyone interested 
should try to procure a copy of this number of Photo- 
graphische Korrespondenz. 

Mr. Phillips’ Spanish Views 

There is considerable demand among Camera Clubs 
for the series of framed Spanish views by Mr. William 
II. Phillips, eighteen of which were published in the 
January Photo-Era, 1911. These prints are framed, 
and any Club or Society which will assume the respon- 
sibility of handling and carefully packing these beauti- 
ful pictures, and prepaying the express-charges to the 
next stop, can have them for exhibition-purposes by ap- 
plying to Mr. William II. Phillips, East Liverpool, 
Ohio. Among the Camera Clubs which have recently 
exhibited these pictures are those of Philadelphia and 

A Friendly Letter 

“ Richmondville, N. Y., Dec. 12, 1910. 

“ Mr. Wilfred A. French : 

“ Permit me to congratulate you on the excellent 
make-up of Photo-Era Magazine during the past year. 
It has certainly been superb and I have enjoyed its 
monthly visits very much indeed. I really think that it 
leads all other publications of its class and I shall look 
forward with pleasure to receiving it again during the 
coming year. 

“ Very truly yours, 

" L. M. Reightmyer.” 




I am pleased to inform the American photographic 
public that one of our younger lens-making firms is 
meeting great success. Schultze and Billerbeck, whose 
Euryplan lens is advertised in Photo-Era by an agent 
in Boston, has just moved from Berlin to Goerlitz, in 
Silesia. The change was necessitated by the rapidly- 
growing business of the firm. In Goerlitz the living- 
conditions are better for the workmen ; besides, there is 
more room for enlargement of the factory. The new 
plant is much bigger than the old Beilin factory and 
employs a greater number of men. As Goerlitz is 
already the home of another prominent lens-manufac- 
turer and a leading paper-maker, it may in time come 
to be the Rochester of Germany. 

The league of German photographic dealers held its 
annual meeting this year at Berlin, though formerly 
other cities were chosen. In order to give the numerous 
participants a chance to inspect the manufacture of some 
famous lenses and cameras, a visit was paid to the well- 
known Goerz Works at Friedenau, near Berlin — a fac- 
tory employing no less than 2.400 persons. The directors 
received the large group of visitors, who were led 
through the works in six parties in such a manner that 
one was not in the way of another. The studio, the 
rooms for cutting and polishing lenses, the big halls for 
building cameras, experiment stations, offices, engine- 
house, etc., were inspected with intense interest. After 
a photo, was taken of all participants, the directors in- 
vited them to a restaurant for a good luncheon. While 
I am writing these lines, tire postman just brings me 
their annual report. From this I see that the past year 
was the best in the history of the firm. The total re- 
ceipts were S704.442.40 (against S516.507.00 in 1909). 
Making the necessary allowances for depreciation, etc., 
the net profit is Sll4.707.40 (against 8246,020.60 in 
1909). This permits the company to pay a dividend of 
18'/, (against 15', in the former year). The prospects 
for 1911 are considered good. 

That the products of this firm, like those of many 
other German houses in the photographic line, are excel- 
lent in every respect is known to every photographer. 
We have seen this quite recently by the fact that sev- 
eral German firms having exhibited in the Brussels 
IV orld’s Fair were awarded a prize or a medal. Now 
comes the notice that in another field of photography 
German workmanship has won the appreciation of the 
jury, for the latter has granted the highest award, the 
Grand Prix , to the Berlin “ Society of Art-Lovers ” for 
their wonderfully true reproductions of famous paintings 
in their original colors. Among them were works by mas- 
ters such as Achenbach, Bocklin, Menzel, Lenbach, etc. 
4 his society was founded many years ago for the purpose 
of creating and furthering love for art among all classes 
of society. Anyone may become a member by paying 
the annual fee of -45 and is entitled to receive each year 
one painting about a square yard in size or two each half 
as big. framed or not, with the right to choose the sub- 
ject from a list of several hundred which can be in- 
spected at the two Berlin shops. For people living 
outside Berlin, a catalog is issued containing miniature 
reproductions to choose from. These pictures have more 
than twice the value of the subscription. Besides, a 
member can purchase any additional picture at a far 
lower price than is charged for it elsewhere. The soci- 
ety has several hundred members of all ranks. In the 

shops all kinds of reproductions are exhibited — wood-, 
copper- and zinc-cuts, halftones, straight photographs, 
and photogravures ; also frames suited to any taste or 
purse. This society exhibited in the Brussels’ Fair in 
group 11 (Department of Printing and Graphic Arts) 
and in Class 14 (Photography). 

Although in Germany colored pictures are well repro- 
duced on paper, good results have also recently been 
obtained by projecting color-photographs on a screen. 
Last month the writer attended an illustrated lecture 
given by Herr Goerke, director of the Urania, which 
is a splendid institute, the only scientific theater in 
Germany and probably unique in the whole world. It is 
not a theater in the ordinary meaning of the word, hut a 
big hall, like the lecture-room in the New York Museum 
of Natural History, which the writer visited some years 
ago, the stage being formed by a huge screen. The 
very best lantern-slides are shown here every evening 
accompanied by a lecture dealing in a popular way with 
astronomy and other scientific subjects, nature, industry, 
travel, in fact everything which should interest the edu- 
cated man. For making the slides only the very best 
photographs are used, mostly hand-colored, and noted 
authorities give the lectures. This time the director 
himself (to whom both the editor of Photo-Eka and 
the writer are known) was the speaker, and the subject 
treated was “ Landscape- and Garden-Poetry in the prov- 
ince of Brandenburg,” (where Berlin is situated). For 
the first time pictures in natural colors produced by the 
Lumi&re Autochrome process, chiefly taken by Carl 
Rogge, were shown. Since the early period of photo- 
graphy, all experts aimed to produce by mechanical 
means pictures of our colored visible world as we see it 
on the focusing-screen. If we were able not only to fix 
this pretty picture hut also to reproduce it in large num- 
bers mechanically as we do pictures in black and white, 
this would mean a considerable revolution in popular 
culture. Any poor person could have on the walls of 
his modest rooms real colored copies of the finest paint- 
ings. The Lumiere process gives only a single picture 
on the original plate, which is very sensitive and dense, 
requiring a strong light to throw it on the projection- 
sheet. The glass plate contains a filter-layer through 
which the light passes, the various rays being' filtered 
according to their color. The photographs of this first 
lecture were landscapes and gardens and we noticed 
wonderful color-compositions. There were scenes from 
Berlin suburbs and the whole pretty province of which 
that city is the capital. It was particularly remarkable 
that where on an ordinary photographic print there are 
gTeat contrasts between black and white, as in closed 
rooms and halls, here the numerous colors between the 
brightest light and deepest shadows were well repro- 
duced. Interiors with red brick and colored glass win- 
dows gave superb results. For illustrated lectures the 
Autochrome process will be soon indispensable. 

In Austria, connected as it is with Germany by geo- 
graphical and political ties, a notable event in the 
photographic world has just happened. The Royal 
Photographic Society in Vienna, founded as far hack as 
1861, is celebrating its 50 years’ anniversary. Indeed 
there are few photographic clubs anywhere in the world 
which can look back upon such a long period of exist- 
ence and useful work. This rare event was celebrated 
on February 14 by a large meeting and banquet where 
there was good opportunity to hold a review of the ex- 
traordinary development of our photographic art during 
the last fifty years. This particular club has done good 
work towards the attainment of these great results ; 
nearly all photographers who have influenced photo- 
graphy in Austria belong to that society. 



Ouk cover-illustration, “ A Breezy Day,” by A. W. 
Engel, represents a scene in the Ghetto of Chicago, 
which seems to be a fruitful field of the pictorialist. In 
the old cities of Southern Europe, notably Rome, Naples, 
Seville and Barcelona, these quarters are the outgrowth 
of enforced segregation of Oriental peoples, their forma- 
tion dating back several hundred years. They are 
generally localities to be avoided by the cautious or 
timid tourist, unless he be accompanied by a gendarme. 
In America, certain sections of a large city, like New 
York, Chicago or St. Louis, are inhabited by the lower 
class of our large alien population, but these Ghettos are 
of comparatively recent origin. Because one meets 
there sights of an unusual character, the artist of the 
brush or of the camera in quest of original material is 
tempted to visit the Ghetto, and is generally rewarded 
for his pains, as is true of Mr. Engel's effort. Data: 
No. 1. F. P. K. ; Goerz Celorlens; 3%-inch focus; June, 
11 a. vi. ; dull light; %o second ; Pyro ; Royal Bromide 

Our frontispiece presents one of those phases of winter 
which appeal to every artist of an imaginative mind. 
Mr. Fleckenstein’s picture fascinates by reason of the 
novelty and beauty of composition. The irregular, sinu- 
ous coursing of the thawing-line with its gradual disap- 
pearance in natural perspective is the dominant chord 
in this truly poetic conception. The distance harmonizes 
admirably with the foreground and with the receding 
masses of melting snow. The tonal values throughout 
are admirably preserved. No data. 

The Corot-like suggestiveness of Mr. Kunz’s land- 
scape, page 108, is emphasized by the expert exercise of 
the oil-process, page 109, which, in skilled hands, im- 
parts a feeling of mystery and vagueness to a picture 
which proclaims its beauty in tones ringing, yet true. 
The versatility of the artist as an interpreter and trans- 
former is well shown in the pictures on pp. 112 and 1 13. 
The editor was present when these interesting prints 
were produced, and was pleased with the simplicity and 
ease of manipulation of the method as shown by 
Mr. Kunz. 

Arthur W. Walburn was among the first of English 
workers to present the beauty of the nocturnal landscape 
as revealed by artificial illumination. During the ex- 
posure, clouds of vapor every now and then passed across 
the light, which mist increased the atmospheric effect 
noticeable in the picture. Data: Aldis lens; 11 -inch 
focus; stop, F/7.7 ; January 2 a.m. ; arc-light, no 
moon, hoar-frost; 15 minutes’ exposure; 4 3 4 x Ifii 
Edwards Iso Backed Snapshot plate; Walburn Single 
Solution developer; 8 x 10 Bromide enlargement. 

If stars in the sky, then why not stellar formations in 
the landscape, so long as they are consistent ? W e can- 
not remain blind to the changes wrought by modern 
civilization, the evidences of which greet the eye by day 
and by night. He who discovers their artistic adapta- 
tion to our present surroundings confers a benefit, and 
this Mr. Dart has done. His series of pleasing and well- 
balanced pictures on page 117 is a welcome and convin- 
cing demonstration of the artistic possibilities of the 
artificial illumination of the nocturnal landscape. Data 
in Mr. Dart’s article. 

Among the professional workers who delight in por- 
traying beautiful women, James Arthur, of Detroit, takes 

high rank. Our readers will remember his picture of a 
handsome young woman clasping a mass of roses to her 
bosom, which appeared in the October, 1908, number. 
Mr. Arthur has been equally successful with “ Evanes- 
cence.” Data : 18 x 22 portrait-camera ; Dallmeyer 
Rapid Rectilinear lens ; 10 seconds’ exposure ; Seed 
27 plate ; 16 x 20 Aristo Platino print made directly 
from original negative. 

“ Morning Sunlight,” by Charles Vandervelde, page 
120, is in this well-known pictorialist’s most poetic vein. 
'Fhe effect is one which photography is particularly 
fitted to interpret, and a complete mastery of technique 
has enabled the artist to render the mystery of the dank 
atmosphere, shot with shafts of pale sunlight, in a man- 
ner quite beyond criticism. Data : August 6.30 A.M. ; 
sunlight ; Isostigmar lens ; F /5.8 ; 5-inch focus ; Kodak 
film ; color-screen ; very short bulb-exposure ; Pyro de- 
veloper ; 8 x 10 Royal bromide print, not redeveloped. 

Although R. M. Wiltbank is a versatile worker, ex- 
celling in the various branches of the craft, his work is 
comparatively little known. His “Round-Up,” page 
122, is proof of his pictorial ability. The strong sepia 
tone of the print with the dark masses of the animals 
made it difficult for the engraver to do full justice to the 
picture. No data. 

With glad anticipation of the summer-season the eye 
rests on Mr. Eitel’s picture, page 124, a superb portrayal 
of the beauty of the woods. The reader’s memory at 
once reverts to the artist’s inspiring essay on “ The 
Forest and the Camera,” published, with numerous illus- 
trations, in Photo-Era for September, 1910. The data 
are similar to those printed in that issue. 

The Union Camera Club of Boston, U. S. A., is a small 
but growing institution. One of the factors of its suc- 
cess is the annual competition open to members only. 
The results of this year’s event were unusually satisfac- 
tory, as may be judged by several of the prize-pictures 
published in this issue. So plain and rigid-looking an 
object as a biplane does not permit of artistic interpreta- 
tion, but, under suitable conditions — see page 128 — its 
sharp and ungainly contours blended softly against the 
somber sky, the modern air-craft does not trouble the 
artistic sense. The artist, G. W. Lord, has done more 
than make it acceptable ; he has produced a picture. 
Data : C. Grahame- White in Farman biplane ; 4 x 5 Re- 
flex ; Cooke lens; F/4.5 ; 6.6-inch focus; used open; 
September, 1910; 5.45 p.m. ; hazy and a little foggy; 
Vaoo second ; Sigma plate; Edinol ; Wellington Bromide. 

Mr. Vincent’s panel, also on page 128, was one of the 
most charming landscapes in the collection, and some 
may ask why it did not win first instead of second prize 
in its class. The artist has wisely chosen a view-point — 
unsympathetic critics might say that he was unduly 
favored — which would yield an interesting sky and fore- 
ground. thus eschewing the danger of a broad swath of 
bare, white sky and its corresponding reflection — an 
effect often seen in river-views, and to be avoided, if 
possible. No data supplied. 

“ The Basket-Weaver,” page 129. is by the president 
of the club, and richly deserved the first prize in the 
portrait-class in which it was entered, although more 
correctly a genre. Data : 4 x 5 Cycle Poco Camera ; 
single achromatic lens; 515-inch focus; stop at IT. S. 8; 
August, 2 p.m. ; cloudy ; V 27 , second ; Lumifere Blue Label 


Plate ; M. Q. for plate and print ; S x 10 enlargement on 
Wellington Cream Canvas Bromide, sepia-toned. 

The same artist produced “ The Old Elm Road.” Con- 
ventional in composition though it be, this picture has 
admirable qualities. Note how the lines converge toward 
the center, although this effect would be more in accord- 
ance with truth, if a longer-foeus lens had been used. 
Data : the same as in previous picture ; except stop 
used. U. S. 10; July, 3 P.M. 

All will agree that the little maiden, page 131, is a 
masterpiece of photographic portraiture. The purity 
and beauty of expression merit high praise. Clear and 
plastic, yet dainty and soft, as becomes the portrait of a 
well-bred little girl, the technique is sufficiently modern 
to silence the criticism of the ultra-impressionist. 6 1 /1> x 
8M> Platinotvpe print. No other data available and the 
original negative is lost. 

The city of Newton (Mass.) does not possess as many 
successful photographs of its scenic and architectural 
beauties as was expected from the competition held by 
the Newton Civic Improvement Association last autumn, 
for the entries were few. From the entire collection of 
successful prints — courteously submitted to us by the 
chairman of the jury — we selected only two. See page 
132. Both artists are professional portrait-photographers 
of rare ability. Ellis Moore’s picture presents a view of 
the Charles River which has seldom been photographed, 
and it reveals the beauties of this attractive stream to a 
convincing degree. Data : 8 x 10 Century Grand; B. & 
L. lens; 12-inch focus; stop used. F/32 ; Burke & James 
light-filter; July, 4 P.M. ; bright, with clouds ; Standard 
Ortho plate ; Pyro ; 7 V 2 x 9 Ys print on Artura Buff. 

W. H. Partridge, who is also a painter of no mean 
skill, has produced a print of rich pictorial effect ; sump- 
tuous, indeed, and displaying the wealth of scenic beauty 
which characterizes the Charles River near Weston 
Bridge. The print, entered in the architectural class, 
clearly demonstrates how an architectural subject, per- 
haps not beautiful in itself, may be converted into a 
charming picture, if the artist will utilize the adjacent 
pictorial material, as Mr. Partridge has done. Data : 
5x7 King Camera; Ross lens; 8 Va-incli focus; stop 
used. F/32; August. 11 A. M. ; good light ; 15 second ; Seed 
plate; Metol-Pyro; 5x7 print on developing-paper. 

Our Monthly Competition 

Mr. Anderson’s group, page 135, does not make a 
popular appeal. Nevertheless, the jury considered the 
novelty of invention an important factor in this picture ; 
not mere beauty. Beauty of the subject-matter, in 
itself, does not always make a picture of the enduring 
sort ; neither is it evidence of the artist’s mental or exec- 
utive ability. The true artist often subordinates exter- 
nal beauty to more important, less material things. His 
personality should also be taken into account. This 
group is clearly the handiwork of Paul Lewis Anderson, 
although, perhaps, not in his best vein. The arrange- 
ment of the figures, as a group, and the management of 
the light are, indeed, admirable. Data: Sept. 26, 1910, 
12 M. ; intense sunlight ; figures posed under porch-roof ; 
Darlot portrait-lens; 1 3 J 7-inch focus; full aperture, 
F/4.5 ; Cramer Portrait Isonon plate; second ; Rodinal, 
1-32 ; 8x10 print. Etching-Black Platinum. 

” M hen Three Is No Crowd,” page 136. The title, 
although significant, does not seem sufficiently dignified 
for so admirable a picture. It fulfils all the conditions 
of the competition and is a completely successful por- 
trait-group. It were difficult to imagine a happier com- 
position, for the interest is clearly unanimous, although 
the baby arrogates to itself the attention of its parents. 
Unity of composition is the prevailing note of this de- 

lightful picture. The tone-values leave little to be de- 
sired, and we are convinced that, as single portraits, each 
member of this group is true to life. Data : No. 3 
Kodak fitted with Zeiss lens, F/6.3, and B. <& L. Com- 
pound shutter; June. 1910; bright sunlight, subdued by 
white screens and reflectors; Yjo second ; Eastman film 
tank; Pyro; 6 x 8 enlargement on Eastman Standard B 
bromide with home-made enlarging-lantern fitted with 
50 candle-power Tungsten lamps. 

It is not often that Photo-Era enables its readers 
to be eye-witnesses to the happiness experienced by 
“ two souls with but a single thought.” This ecstatic 
state is shown in Mr. Ulmschneider’s picture, page 137, 
but the data do not shed much light upon his method of 
procuring this interesting exposure. The composition 
is admirable — as it generally is in such cases — and 
the element of unity is also well expressed. Data : 
5x7 Century Camera ; B. & L. Rectilinear Lens ; 
stop, IJ. S. 4 ; December, 3.45 p.m. ; fairly good light ; 
12 seconds; 5x7 Standard Orthonon plate; Hydro- 
Metol ; Angelo Sepia print. 

A picture by the now universally famous German por- 
traitist, R. Diihrkoop, is always welcome. “ Her First 
Music-lesson,” page 138. has been awaiting a suitable 
opportunity to appear in these pages, and the present 
competition seems to fulfil that condition. The picture 
is hors concours. The technique is beyond praise. Ob- 
serve, for instance, how skilfully such difficult accesso- 
ries as the keyboard and the music-score are managed ! 
That the boy is not also interested in the little girl’s 
musical attempts — preferring, seemingly, to watch the 
photographer — is to be regretted. No data. 

The quality absent in the preceding picture is happily 
present in Mr. Flood’s pleasing group, page 139. The 
well-scaled modulations of light and shade in this pic- 
ture, also the attention to such important details as the 
color of the chair and the girl’s hair-ribbon, deserve fa- 
vorable recognition. Data: February morning; good 
light; Seed 27 plate; Goerz Dagor lens; F/6.S; 7 -inch 
focus ; 1 second ; Pyro ; Professional Cyko Matt. 

Technical merit alone gave Mr. Jeanne’s effort, page 
146, honorable mention. It also illustrates an important 
point in portraiture, viz., the direction of the eyes. 
The eyes of each model assume the condition of 
sleep, although they were, doubtless, directed at one 
common object, viz., the newspaper. To simulate this 
performance successfully, the model should fix her gaze 
on a point several inches beyond the one at which she is 
supposed to be looking, i. e., nearer the camera. 
The incongruous objects in this picture are the window- 
casing. the pictures on the wall and the white hair- 
ribbon and white dress of the young girl at the 
left — all strongly emphasized. The best part of the 
picture is the young lady seated in the chair. Data : 
Standard Orthonon plate; 2 seconds’ exposure ; Metol 
Hydro; 4 15 x 6j5 Seltona print. 

The idea of grouping a number of persons one behind 
the other, in a line, is often attempted, but not always 
so successfully as lias been done by Lee Brothers in their 
arrangement shown on page 152. This row of profiles 
is destined to enjoy great popularity, as each member of 
this important committee has a host of friends. They 
are, in order, Geo. W. Harris, Pres’t ; Ben Lorrimer, 
First Vice-Pres’t; C. F. Townsend, Second Vice-Pres’t; 
L. A. Dozier, Treas. ; M. W. Tyree, Sect’y. The half- 
tone-plate was generously lent by Juan C. Abel, editor 
of Abel's Photographic Weekly. Data: 11 x 14 Century 
outfit; portrait-rectilinear lens ; used wide open; Jan. 18, 
1911, 3.30 p.m. ; single slant light; 3 seconds; exposure 
made across the room from the light; 8x 10 plate; 
Pyro ; Artura Iris print. 



Books reviewed in this magazine, or any others 
our readers may desire, will be furnished by us at 
the lowest market-prices. 

What Is Art ? Studies in the Technique and Criti- 
cism of Painting-. By John C. Van Dyke. 12 mo. 
Cloth. $1.00. New York: ('has. Scribner’s Sons, 

It is a pleasure to take up a new work by so authori- 
tative, careful and pleasing a writer as John C. Van 
Dyke, who may aptly be styled the “ Hamerton of 
America.” His most recent book appeals particularly 
to the creative artist as well as to the art-student. For 
this reason it deserves the serious attention of every 
photographic worker, who will derive inspiration and 
help from this delightful little book. The author's 
views and deductions begin with the early Italian 
school, and touch upon the work of eminent painters of 
all countries who have contributed to the world’s great 
store of masterpieces. The book is divided into six 
chapters: What is Art? ; The Use of the Model; Quality 
in Art ; Art-Criticism ; Art-History ; Art- Appreciation. 

We recommend this book with unreserved enthusi- 
asm to everyone who has a sense of the beautiful, and 
who cannot help but be influenced for the better by 
his sympathetic and illuminating discourse. 

One Hundred Masterpieces of Sculpture. By 
G. F. Hill. 210 pp. 100 illustrations. Svo. Price, 
cloth, $4.00 net. Postage 20 cents. New York : 
John Lane Company. 

Amid the numerous books on art constantly being 
published, few fulfil the conditions of accuracy, clear- 
ness and excellence of illustrations, as does the present 
volume. In this age of nervous unrest and multiplicity 
of distractions, the average layman shirks perusing a vo- 
luminous and verbose treatise on art, however authorita- 
tive, unless it is presented in a very attractive form. 
Many persons declare Dickens dry reading, because they 
made an injudicious selection. Others have had a sim- 
ilar experience with history, astronomy and other 
branches of study. Those who have but a meager ac- 
quaintance with ancient and modern art will be delighted 
with Mr. Hill’s presentation of his subject. 

The list begins with the sixth century before Christ 
and ends with Michelangelo. The introduction, a mas- 
terpiece of critical judgment, comprises the text, 110 
pages, but each of the 100 plates is accompanied by a 
brief description and pictorial sketch, enabling the stu- 
dent quickly to grasp the beauty, power and significance 
of the work portrayed. The illustrations deserve spe- 
cial commendation, being excellent halftone plates from 
prints by Europe’s foremost photographic publishing- 
firms — Brogi, Alinari, Anderson, Mansell and others. 

Your Home and its Decoration. A Series of Prac- 
tical Suggestions for the Painting, Decorating and 
Furnishing of the Home. Numerous illustrations in 
monochrome and color. Size, 6% x 9%. 204 pages. 
Price, $2.15 postpaid. Cleveland, O., 1910. The 
Sherwin-Williams Company. Decorative Department. 

This is a work of genuine value to every person who 
would enjoy an artistically furnished home. Hardly 
any occupant of a house or flat knows how to furnish his 

home with suitable furniture, draperies, carpets, rugs, 
etc., and how to arrange them harmoniously and in good 
taste. Magazine articles are published occasionally on 
this topic, but they lack one vital point — practicability. 
The present volume treats this subject in a practical and 
intelligent manner, beginning with the building or selec- 
tion of a suitable home, whether in the city or in the 
country. Proper attention has been paid also to the 
furnishing of the cottage and the bungalow, giving spe- 
cifications for decorations, wherever called for. 

An important feature of this volume is its illustra- 
tions, which are high-class halftone-plates made from 
superb original photographs of various styles of city and 
country dwellings — exterior and interior views ; also 
of handsomely-furnished interiors, furniture, draperies, 
rugs, wood-work and artistic details. 

We were particularly interested in the chapter de- 
voted to the various periods of French decoration, in- 
cluding those of the Louis’ , the Empire Period and the 
Colonial Period. The book represents the highest de- 
gree of artistic book-making, in choice of paper, printing, 
illustrations and binding, and reflects the utmost credit 
upon its publishers. 

It is a pleasure to recommend this valuable work, 
which will be a real assistance to all who are about to 
decorate a new home or to undertake decorating of any 

Photograms of the Year 1910. Edited by H. Snow- 
den Ward, F. R. P. S. Reproducing, with helpful 
criticism, 200 notable photographs, including 12 ex- 
amples of Photography in Natural Colors. Price, 
postpaid, in decorated paper covers, $1.25 ; cloth, 
$1.75. Tennant & Ward, 122 East 25th St., N. Y., 
American agents. 

In several respects, notably the critical review by 
Mr. Ward, the current edition of Photograms surpasses 
its immediate predecessors. The articles on American, 
English and French pictorial work, by B. J. Falk, J. Craig 
Annan and Robert Demachy, respectively, are unusually 
strong and accurate, and are fittingly illustrated. The 
color-plates, showing how successfully Autochromes can 
be reproduced, are varied and interesting, particularly a 
landscape, by J. Richon, which reveals a wonderful 
degree of depth and atmospheric perspective, and is, 
altogether, the best facsimile print of an Autochrome 
which it has been our pleasure to see. It was made 
according to a method evolved by Howard Farmer. A 
reproduction of a three-color carbon print by Henry C. 
Comley of a still-life subject is remarkable for its 
fidelity in portraying natural colors. 

In a broad-gauged, dispassionate manner, under- 
standingly and justly, Mr. Ward reviews the work and 
activity of pictorialists in all parts of the world, during 
the year of 1910. It is hard to conceive how this diffi- 
cult task could have been better performed. It is re- 
freshing also to read Mr. Ward’s well-merited tributes 
to such master-pictorialists as Mr. Mortimer, Mr. Evans 
and Mr. Whitehead — men, too, who bear their honors 
modestly. The large array of plates in monochrome 
worthily represent pictorial achievement of the present 
day and, in making his selection, the editor has shown 
rare discrimination and liberality. The book is worth 
much more than the small investment called for. 


7 shall do all in my power to make this year's New 
England Convention a success. 

J. H. Garo. 


Pexrose's Process Year-Book (Penrose's Picto- 
rial Annual, 1910-11). Edited by William Gamble. 
Price, cloth, §2.50. Text, 200 pp. 276 illustrations in 
photogravure, color and halftone. Tennant & Ward, 
122 East 25th St., New York, American agents. 

Never in previous years has this welcome annual ap- 
peared to better advantage. The current issue is replete 
with practical descriptions of improvements in printing- 
methods in color and monochrome by experts of world- 
wide repute. The illustrations are superbly printed and 
exemplify the high-water mark of the printing-processes 
of Europe and the New World. The importance of the 
service rendered in the field of artistic illustration by 
prominent photographic workers is strongly emphasized 
in this issue. There are numerous reproductions of mas- 
terful interpretations of marine photography by F. J. 
Mortimer. One notes magnificent plates of photographic 
originals by other well-known workers, including E. O. 
I loppA J. II. Powell, R. R. Tyrer, Edwin Neame, 
IV. Gill. A. Murray and J. A. Southwart. 

The illustrations in color include facsimile plates of 
famous paintings by Rembrandt. Constable, LeNain, etc., 
and the frontispiece is a superb photogravure of “ The 
Mill." by Jacob Ruvsdael. 

The portrait-study from three-color plates, photo- 
graphed direct from life, of a handsome female model, 
is a remarkable technical achievement which cannot be 
too highly praised. The several reproductions in color 
of original Autochromes are the finest that we have 
ever seen. The technical articles must prove of im- 
mense value to every process-worker, photo-engraver, 
illustrator and photographer. As all high-class photo- 
mechanical processes rely for their success upon techni- 
cally superior photographic originals, this volume appeals 
strongly to every photographic specialist ambitious to 
supply the process-worker with suitable material. 

Deutscher C a mera-A lm ana ch for the Year 1911. 
A year-book of cotemporary photography. Founded 
by Fritz Loscher. Edited by Otto Ewel. Price, 
paper, -SI. 25 ; cloth, SI. 75. Gustav Schmidt, Berlin. 

This is volume VI of a German annual which is gain- 
ing in popularity. It appeals particularly to our Ger- 
man readers, although its illustrations, which are 
numerous and excellent, speak a universal language. 
The text consists of articles on aesthetic and practical 
subjects by competent writers ; a list of photographic 
books (in German) issued in 1910; a review of photo- 
graphic happenings during 1910 ; a list of camera clubs 
in the German Empire, Austro-Hungary, and other 
German-speaking countries, and a collection of indus- 
trial notes. The plates illustrate advanced activity in 
all countries where photography is practiced, Germany 
in particular. American practitioners may learn much 
of practical value by studying the pictures by foreign 
pictorialists which appear in this year’s Camera- 

Deutscher Photographen-Kalender-Taschenp.uch 
und Almanach fur 1911. Edited and published 
by Karl Schwier. Weimar. Part I. Price, cloth, 
50 cents ; both parts. 75 cents. 

Our German-reading practitioners will welcome the 
first volume of the German Photographen-Kalender, in 
book form, for the current year. Its contents is of the 
same general and reliable technical character as in past 
years, and will make a strong appeal to every German 
worker in any part of the world. Part II. at the same 
price, null appear this coming April. 

Photographic Art During the Year 1910. (Die 
Photographische Kunst Im Jahre 1910.) Illustrated 
in photogravure and halftone. Edited by F. Matthies- 
Masuren. Size of volume, 9 x 11(4 inches. Price, 
paper covers, Reichmarks, 8.00; cloth, 9.00 (82.15). 
Postage extra. Wilhelm Knapp, Halle a. S., Germany. 

This important annual is all the more welcome be- 
cause, better than any other similar publication, it gives 
an excellent idea of the progress made by the most promi- 
nent workers of all Europe. The current volume is de- 
voted largely to a consideration of German pictorial 
work, including, particularly, photographs by such well- 
known artists as Scharf, Kiibeler, Grienwaldt, Ehrhardt, 
Ranft. Leibner, Kirchner and Weimer. 

The editor has shown excellent judgment by giving 
prominence to the work of practitioners who have won 
distinction at the great photographic show at Buda-Pest, 
last year, and American workers will be glad to see 
proofs of the remarkable interpretive ability of such 
masters as Deszo Feledi and Szekely Aladdr. 

Tlie English workers have been given more promi- 
nence than formerly, and there are masterpieces by 
Keighley, Evans, Meyer, Annan, Mortimer and Benning- 
ton. Pile only Americans represented are \\ . H. Porter- 
field and A. L. Coburn. Among the illustrations are 
photogravures, on heavy plate-paper, devoted to the 
work of Eilers, Ehrhardt, Scharf, Keighley, Feledi and 
Weingiirtner. The letter-press contains important arti- 
cles by well-known writers, Matthies-Masuren, Bernhard 
Eilers. Dr. W. Warstat, Ernst Scliur, Karl von Seliint- 
ling and others. 

The Lead of Honor. By Norval Richardson. 
Frontispiece in color, “ Sargent Everett.” from a 
painting by Frank L. Merrill. Price, 81.50 postpaid. 
Boston : L. C. Page & Company. 

This is a charming story of the experiences of a manly 
young Northerner who builds his career in the South 
just prior to the great slave disturbance. It is a novel 
which makes no attempt to teach history, but is simply 
an engrossing, delightful and touching story of the 
steady rise of an earnest young crippled lawyer, whose 
sincerity and eloquence sway all who hear him, and 
make him a power among men. His devoted love for 
the little heroine of the book and his noble self-sacrifice 
in her behalf bring forth all that is best in both men 
and women, and we wish that Sargent Everett were a 
living man that we might know him and cultivate bis 
friendship. To the weary photographer, who subsists 
largely on text-books, formula? and darkroom manipula- 
tions, this book must surely bring welcome relaxation 
and make him long to wander, camera in hand, among 
the beautiful Southern homes and estates so graphically 
described by the author. 

Chats on Photography. An Easy Guide for Begin- 
ners. By W. Wallington, 5(4 x 7 1 ■> x 1 (•> inches. 
182 pp. with 8 illustrations from photographs by the 
author. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Company, 
1910. London : T. Werner Laurie. 81.25 net. 

Mr. Wallington has produced a simple and practical 
guide for the beginner. Although the book is written 
from the English point of view, there are many valuable 
lessons to be gleaned from a perusal of the work. The 
chapter on exposure is particularly full and helpful, as 
is also that on developing ; and the many troubles which 
confront the novice are carefully and clearly explained. 
Much space is devoted to printing on P.O.P. A chapter 
of “ tips” completes the book, which is printed on bible- 
paper and is extremely light. 

the executive board of the 


The Chance of a Lifetime 

To start a career under ideal auspices is left to but 
few men. Just such a chance awaits the right man of 
positive ability and character. A veteran high-class 
photographer in a large New England city, content to 
busy himself with making enlargements for his few 
remaining years, is willing to let the new-comer take 
charge of the portrait end of the business — identified 
for over half a century with his name and prestige — 
using all his high-class apparatus and appliances in the 
studio, darkroom and elsewhere, merely by paying' one- 
half of the moderate rent of the premises, which are in 
the best location in the city. It is most certainly a 
golden opportunity, but only persons of the type men- 
tioned need apply. The editor is wholly disinterested 
in this matter and prints this information solely for the 
benefit of those who seek to start or continue a successful 
business. Inquiries should he addressed to “ Master,” 
care of Photo-Era Magazine. 

Which Is the Source ? 

An article having for its subject the height of the 
camera in the studio has been very largely quoted of 
late by photographic house-journals. The source given 
is the British Journal of Photography , which, as is 
well known, does not make a practice of publishing 
photographic illustrations, except those of a technical 
character. Nevertheless, according to the article quoted, 

photographers who keep their eyes open in studying 
the work of leaders in the profession, as they may do 
from the reproductions in this magazine ^British Journal 
of Photography ]. will readily see the advantage which is 
taken of these differences when dealing with different 
types of sitters.’ - Whether our distinguished English 
cotemporary has been correctly quoted, or whether the 
article originally appeared in some other photographic 
journal, has not been made plain. In any event, an 
error exists which would seem to require correction. 

Abel’s in New Form and Dress 

OrR distinguished cotemporary, Abel's Photographic 
Weekly, has begun the current year with a new size 
(6 % x 10 inches) — a distinct advantage over the 
former large and somewhat inconvenient sheet. Its 
present form is the same as Wilson's Photographic Maga- 
zine. although not quite so fat, and of other American 
cotemporaries, before they saw fit to imitate the present 
size of Photo-Era Magazine (7% x 10Mt inches) to- 
gether with other new and important features. 

A e congratulate Mr. Abel upon the improved appear- 
ance of his weekly, for which we predict increased suc- 
cess. The energetic and enterprising editor will see to 
it that in a short time his publication will increase in 
bulk and be numbered among the strong and influential 
photographic-journals of the present time. 

Our London Letter 

The absence of a London Letter this month, we re- 
gret to state, is due to the illness of Mrs. Hopp<?, which 
required our London correspondent, E. 0. Hopp<?, to 
travel on the Continent for some time. We are glad to 
be able to state that Mrs. Hoppt- is now better, and we 
expect to resume this much-appreciated department in 
the April number. 

Colored Lantern-Slides 

Anyone familiar with the difficulties in coloring lan- 
tern-slides must realize to what extent the colors are 
influenced by the character of the illuminant. If the 
latter be an oil-lamp or an ordinary incandescent electric 
light, the red and yellow rays will change the integrity 
of the colors in the glass positive and produce an image 
somewhat different from what the colorist had intended. 
The colors on the screen lack the purity and correctness 
of those on the lantern-slide. If, however, a white light 
be used, such as acetylene, a Nernst or a Tungsten lamp, 
or a Welsbach burner, the result is more satisfactory. 
The degree to which the colored lantern-slide is enlarged 
also affects the colorist’s efforts, as does also, no doubt, 
the heating to which the colors are frequently subjected 
in the optical lantern. 

Among the foremost colorists of the day is Miss Antonia 
Stolle of Boston. Her stereopticon-views of celebrated 
paintings are extraordinary for the beauty and accuracy 
with which the original coloring has been reproduced. 
Those fortunate enough to attend one of her lectures on 
the art-galleries of Europe have an experience equaled 
only by a personal inspection of the original pictures, in 
whatever picture-gallery they may he located. Miss 
Stolle’s process of coloring is the result of long, careful 
and intelligent experimentation, coupled with a close and 
frequent study of the world’s great paintings, necessitating 
journeys to Europe for that purpose. Her lectures make 
a strong and sympathetic appeal to museums, public 
libraries, art-schools, clubs and societies desirous to ob- 
tain accurate knowledge, attractively and convincingly 
presented, of the great paintings of Europe. 

Miss Stolle is a graduate of the Royal Art Academy 
of Berlin and a clever artist with the brush. Her work 
is highly endorsed by the art-institutions of both 

The Professional “Amateur” Photographer 

Although every practitioner in good standing, 
whether amateur, semi-professional or professional, is 
eligible to participate in our prize-contests, and receive 
a square deal, it is not becoming for a professional 
practitioner, particularly one who issues stationery, cir- 
culars. etc., to that effect, to add the printed state- 
ment. “ Amateur Photographer.” This matter formed 
the subject of an editorial in the issue of March, 1910, 
in which it was stated that a photographer could not 
with propriety advertise himself as both - a profes- 
sional and an amateur. Those who persist in advertis- 
ing themselves in such a dual role are probably not 
conscious of the very ridiculous light in which they 
appear. A look in the dictionary will tell them the 
meaning of an amateur, in any profession or pursuit. 

A Testimonial to G. A. Brandt 

The energetic and faithful secretary of The Postal 
Photographic Club, our old friend Mr. Brandt, had a 
pleasant little surprise last Christmas Eve. President 
Charles E. F airman with Messrs. E. L. Crandall and 
R. D. Milner as a committee in behalf of the members 
called on him and presented him with a Graflex camera 
of the latest model, together with a complete develop- 
ing-outfit. It was a well-merited token of esteem and 
one which reflects great credit upon the donors. 


Announcements and Reports of Club and Association Meetings, Exhibitions and Conventions 

are solicited for publication 

Report of the Executive Committee of the 
Photographers Association of America 

St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 18, 1911. 

At the call of President G. W. Harris, the Board of 
Officers of the Photographers Association of America 
met in Executive Session at the Saint Paul Hotel, 
St. Paul, Minn., on January 12. 

Those present were G. W. Harris, President ; Ben 
Larrimer, 1st Vice-president; C. F. Townsend, 2nd 
Vice-president ; M. W. Tyree, Secretary ; L. A. Dozer, 

The Treasurer handed in his financial report, showing 

Summary of Treasurer’s Account for 1910. 


Cash on hand Jan. 1, 1910 $6,483.22 

Received from memberships and dues 3,284.00 

,, ,, Chicago Day buttons 114.50 

,, per capita tax affiliated societies 296.00 

(1911) 62.00 

„ from sale of ladies’ pins _ 116.50 

„ ,, ,, ,, background, mem- 
bership list, etc. _ 15.00 

,, ,, ,, ,, space in convention 

hall 3,125.00 

,, ,, advertisers in Annual 1,150.00 



Paid out on vouchers Nos. 933 to 1021, 

inclusive $7,613.53 

Cash on hand Jan. 2, 1911 7,032.69 


Messrs. Townsend and Tyree as Auditing Committee 
reported that the books and vouchers were in order, and 
their report was accepted. 

President Harris appointed the following commit- 
tees : — 

Hotels: Mr. Larrimer; Decoration: Mr. Tyree; 
Official Button: Mr. Dozer; Association Annual: Messrs. 
Townsend, Dozer and Harris ; Entertainment : Messrs. 
Dozer. Larrimer and Townsend ; Press : Messrs. Tyree, 
Larrimer and Harris; Transportation: Mr. Townsend; 
Printing and Advertising : Messrs. Tyree, Dozer and 
Harris ; Information : Messrs. Larrimer, Townsend and 
Tyree. A Local Entertainment Committee was also 

The following resolutions were adopted unanimously: — 

First : That the offer by the City of St. Paul of the 
free use of the St. Paul Armory he accepted with the 
hearty thanks of the Board. 

Second : That the week of July 24 be the date of the 
National Convention of the P.A. of A. for 1911. 

Third : That the 1911 Convention open officially on 
Monday afternoon, July' 24, and he held from Monday 
to Saturday morning, inclusive. 

Fourth: That the Association Annual be published as 
usual, and arrangements be made to that end. 

Fifth : That every professional photographer in 

America be invited to send an exhibit of pictures, not 
to exceed three in number. 

Sixth : That a School of Photography, on plans to be 
made public hereafter, shall be held during the term of 
the Convention, in the St. Paul Armory. 

Seventh : That no prizes be offered this year. 

Eighth : That the Third Annual Meeting of the Con- 
gress of Photography be called to meet during the Con- 
vention. and that the proper officer he authorized to 
issue the call for delegates from the State Associations 
affiliated with the P.A. of A. 

Ninth : That the sum of three hundred dollars be set 
aside to cover the expenses of the Federation of Women 
Photographers incurred in preparing their exhibit at the 
P.A. of A. Convention and in increasing the membership 
in the Federation. 

Tenth : That other features for the instruction and 
entertainment of the members of the P.A. of A., such as 
lectures, demonstrations, etc., he duly provided for, 
according to the plans laid down at this meeting. 

Eleventh : That the Saint Paul Hotel, in St. Paul, 
Minn., be made the official headquarters of the Associa- 
tion during the period of the Convention. 

Twelfth : That an official button denoting the grade 
of membership in the Association be issued in the usual 

Thirteenth : That the spaces sold to the manufactur- 
ers and dealers in the Convention Hall he provided 
with booths and decorations, following a uniform plan, 
at the expense of the Association. 

Fourteenth : That a hearty vote of thanks he tendered 
by the members of the Board to the photographers and 
dealers of the Twin Cities, and of the Northwestern 
Photographers’ Association, for their cordial welcome 
and splendid entertainment of the Board during its stay 
in their midst. 

Arrangements were made with the Northern Pacific 
Railway Company to conduct at the close of the Conven- 
tion an excursion to Yellowstone Park for such members 
as desire to participate. 

( Signed ) Manly' W. Tyree. 

Secretary, P.A. of A. 

Newton Civic Federation Contest 

In the August 1910 Photo-Era announcement was 
made of a prize-contest conducted by the Civic Federa- 
tion of Newton, with cash-prizes aggregating $100. 
The competition closed November 15 and the aYvards 
Yvere made public late in January. The list of entries 
Yvas not large, and the entrants failed to contribute ade- 
quate photographic records of the many handsome pub- 
lic buildings and historic spots in which the Newtons 
abound. Another contest, to be held this year, will, 
however, give opportunity to supply this deficiency. 

Phe judges, Charles Copeland, William Howe Downes 
and Paul P. Foster, awarded prizes as follows : — Archi- 
tectural Class: First, $25, Alice L. Clark ; Second, $15, 
F. W. Sprague : Third, $10, W. II. Partridge. Land- 


scape Class: First, §25, Ellis Moore ; Second, $15, Alice 
L. Clark : Third, $10, C. O. Tucker. We reproduce in 
this issue the pictures by Messrs. Moore and Partridge, 
which were the most suitable for halftones. Newton 
amateurs should wake up to the opportunity atforded 
them and make the 1911 contest a still greater success. 
The collection will be on view during the winter and 
spring at the branch libraries, clubs and churches of 

Preliminary Announcement of the Conven- 
tion of the Professional Photographers’ 
Society of Pennsylvania 

March 7. 8 and 9 at the School of Industrial Art, 
Broad and Pine Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Executive Board of the Professional Photo- 
graphers' Society of Pennsylvania has made generous 
preparations for the coming annual convention and 
matters are moving forward for a very satisfactory 
meeting. There will be new and important features 
which the Executive Board has just been able to 
arrange for. 

Through the courtesy of Professor Leslie W. Miller, 
Principal of the School of Industrial Art, we shall be 
favored with the use of the Convention Hall in the 
School of Industrial Art, together with an extra large 
room, in which can be displayed other exhibits than 
those of the members of the Society. 

There will be a private view of pictures on Monday 
night, March 6. and the convention days will be Tues- 
day, Wednesday and Thursday, March 7, 8 and 9. 

The complete program will probably be announced 
soon, but for the present we are glad to say that we have 
the promise of Garo of Boston and Will Towles of 
Washington, as demonstrators in a new studio. There 
will be demonstrations of eleetrie-light-portraiture by 
several of the best operators. There will be talks on 
art and criticisms by Professor Miller, Mr. J. Liberty 
Tadd and Mr. Fritsch. President of the Anthracite Sec- 
tion. There will be a talk on legal photography by 
Thomas W . Barlow, former Assistant District Attorney 
of Philadelphia. Lubin, the great motion-picture man, 
has invited the members to his studio to see motion- 
pictures and to examine all the details of their produc- 
tion. and the members will probably be taken care of at 
his great place on the afternoon of Tuesday, March 7. 

Arrangements will probably be made for headquarters 
at one of the neighboring hotels, so that the photo- 
graphers and their friends can be near the Convention 
and Exhibition Halls. 

We have an exhibit of portraits by William C’rooke of 

Edinburgh, Scotland. These pictures are large carbon 
portraits of prominent men and women of the British 
Empire and are worth a visit to Philadelphia to see. 

We expect to have Mr. H. Snowden Ward give his 
lecture on “ The Marvels of Photography.” This will 
interest not only the professional photographer, but the 
wives, sisters and friends, as well as amateurs, and it is 
hoped we can arrange for a hall of sufficient size in 
which to have everybody who is interested. 

Our Secretary has been very active in forming new 
Sections, and the outlook is so encouraging that we feel 
there is a possibility of adding five new Sections to the 

There is also a prospect of having a fine collection of 
portraits made by Mr. II. Walter Barnett, Hyde Park 
Corner, London, w hose works are of the highest quality 
and will be interesting as studies. 

There will be but one class of pictures this time, and 
each member will be expected to send two pictures, 
further details concerning which will be issued soon. 

As to the annual banquet, there are several excellent 
places, one of which we are hoping to decide on, with 
the possibility of a stage on which there will be given an 
entertainment of a kind that will interest the members. 

The President hopes that there will be a large attend- 
ance, and lias the personal promise of a great many of 
the members in the Western part of the State that they 
will attend, although they have not done so for some 
time. We do not think any of the members will make 
a mistake in coming to the Convention, even if they can 
only stay a day ; but believe that it will be to their best 
interest to be here during the whole three days, get 
thoroughly acquainted and learn the many things that 
will be offered to them. 

Hoping that every member will try to bring in more 
members and will come to the Convention and hoping to 
see them all on the 7th, 8th and 9th. I am, 

Very truly yours, 

William II. Rau, President. 

New England Photographers’ Annual 

The midwinter meeting and dinner of the Photo- 
graphers’ Association of New England took place at 
the Copley Square Hotel, February 2. About seventy 
members were present, with Mr. II. Snowden Ward, 
F. R. P. S., of London, as the guest of honor. Mr. 
Morris Parkinson was toastmaster. President Garo 
created great enthusiasm when he read letters from the 
foremost photographers of the United States and Canada 
stating that they would not only attend the Annual Con- 
vention of the Association at Bridgeport, September 12, 
13 and 14, but would also send exhibits of their best 
work. President Garo confidently predicted that this 
year’s convention would eclipse all its predecessors in 
the number and quality of pictorial exhibits, and also in 
attendance. Mr. Ward spoke on the subject of the 
American Academy of Photography, and the prospect 
of creating an English branch, the two finally merging 
in one institution. Mr. Charles Wesley Hearn spoke on 
the same topic. Mr. Wilfred A. French urged the 
formation of a local organization among the better class 
of practitioners to correct certain existing evils which 
tend to impair the reputation of professional photo- 
graphy in the public mind. The other speakers were 
Vice-president J. P. Haley, Treasurer W. H. Partridge, 
Secretary Geo. H. Hastings, former President Morris 
Burke Parkinson, former National President F. R. Bar- 
rows, F. R. Fraprie of American Photography , Carl 
Ackerman of The Photographic News , II. M. Fell and 
H. A. Pollings of the Eastman Kodak Company. 

Several vocal selections by Mr. Fred Q. Avery of 
Robey-French Co., were greatly enjoyed. Another in- 
teresting feature of the evening was the helpful criti- 
cism by Mr. Champlain, of Champlain & Farrar, Boston, 
of prints brought in for the purpose by members. The 
prize for the most artistic design of this year's Associa- 
tion button was awarded to Mr. Joseph Di Nunzio. 

“The Seven Ages of Man ” 

Much interest is being shown in the special Photo- 
Era contest, “ The Seven Ages of Man,” which was 
announced in the February issue. We hope that our 
leading workers will apply themselves to turn out sets 
of pictures illustrating the famous passage in Shake- 
speare better than it has hitherto been done by their 
brothers of the brush. 

Only one slight change in the conditions is to be noted. 
Instead of including the coupon, printed last month, 
with each set, we shall require each print to be legibly 
marked, “The Seven Ages of Man,” with a serial num- 
ber denoting its order in the set of seven. Contestants 
should be particularly careful not to place any other 
mark on the prints, with the excejetion of the distinguish- 
ing mark or design , as provided in Buie S, as the names 
of the makers must not be known until after the awards 
have been made. Bide 7, as printed in February, is hereby 
ca needed. 


1. The entry must be entirely the work of the con- 
testant, from the posing of the model to the making and 
finishing of the print. 

2. Each entry must consist of seven prints not smaller 
than 5x7. 

3. Prints must be mounted, with about one inch or 
more margin, on thick card mounts. 

4. Prints must be on smooth paper, suitable for half- 
tone reproduction, and any on rough paper will not be 
considered eligible. 

5. Each contestant must make two sets of prints and 
secure copyright thereon [copyright-fee, 50 cents] before 
making any other prints from the negatives. The title 
to the negatives as well as to the copyright must be 
transferred to Wilfred A. French, publisher of Photo- 
Era, by the successful contestant. 

I>. The winner must also furnish the written consent 
of the subject or subjects (or the consent of parent or 
guardian in the case of a minor) for the use of their 
picture or pictures by Wilfred A. French. 

7. Each print must be marked on the back, “The 
Seven Ages of Man,” and must bear a serial number, 
denoting its order in the set. 

8. Each set of prints must bear some design for iden- 
tification, but no name or address. See Round Robin 
Guild Department for general instructions about sending 
prints safely. A sealed envelope containing both this 
design and the name and address of the contestant must 
be sent separately, enclosed in a letter advising us of the 
sending of the prints, and containing' return-postage. 

1). The jury will consist of a prominent actor, a 
dramatic critic, a professional photographer and an 
amateur photographer. The names will be announced 
later in these columns. 

10. First prize, $50.00, and second prize, $35.00, 
will be paid on receipt of the successful negatives in 
perfect condition and transfer of the copyright. 

11. The contest will close May 31, 1911, at 6 p.M. 
Prints must be delivered at 383 Boylston Street, Boston, 
U. S. A., before that time in order to be considered. 

12. Full details will be published in Photo-Era. 

The Turin Exhibition 

Arrangements for the representation of the British 
photographic industries at the Turin International Exhi- 
bition are advancing towards completion, and those who 
are fortunate enough to secure space will have one of 
the finest positions, not only in the British Section, but in 
the whole Exhibition. The Sub-Committee which was 
elected at a meeting of the trade in July last, consists of 
Mr. II. W. Hall (Wellington and Ward), Mr. C. Hough- 
ton (Houghtons Ltd.), and Mr. W. H. Smith (Platino- 
type Co.), with Mr. Child Bayley (member of the Liberal 
Arts Committee), as Chairman. Among the prominent 
firms which up to the present have decided to be repre- 
sented at Turin, are the Autotype Co., Burroughs Well- 
come and Co., Houghtons Ltd., Illingworth and Co., the 
Platinotype Co., and Wellington and Ward, which num- 
ber will doubtless be augmented by other firms in the 
trade. — The “ J>. ./.” 

Report of Third Annual Exhibition of Union 
Camera Club, Boston, Mass. 

Portraits : First Prize, The Basket- Weaver, by F. W. 
Hill ; Second Prize, The New Book, by F. W. Hill. 
Number of Pictures entered, 31. Landscape : First 
Prize, The Old Elm Road, by F. W. Hill ; Second 
Prize, On the Charles, by M. L. Vincent. Number of 
Pictures entered, 20. Marine : First Prize, The Harbor, 
by J. E. Corea ; Second Prize, The Charles River, by 
P. T. Cain. Number of Pictures entered, 6. General : 
First Prize, Farman Biplane in Clouds, by G. W. Lord; 
Second Prize, Fireman Taking Backward Dive, by 
G. W. Lord. Number of Pictures entered, 18. Total 
number of Pictures entered, 75. 

Judges: Mr. Wilfred A. French, editor Photo-Era; 
Mr. Frank Roy Fraprie, editor American Photography; 
Mr. R. W. Ennis, Defender Photo-Supply Co. 

Great Work by Boston Opera 

Boston is fortunate indeed to have local and perma- 
nent opera, inaugurated and maintained by one of its 
public-spirited citizens, Eben Jordan, and materially 
assisted by its many loyal stock-holders and a thoroughly 
enthusiastic musical community. The management 
wisely chose as director Henry Russell, than whom 
there is no more intelligent, energetic and successful 
impresario in existence. The performances are of re- 
markable excellence, and the stage-settings are the won- 
der and admiration of all who have seen them. It is 
not too much to say that such productions as “ Aida,” 
“Carmen,” “ Otello ” and “La Fanciula del West,” in 
particular, have been put on the stage in a manner un- 
equaled by any opera-house in the world. This is the 
opinion of persons who have attended operatic perform- 
ances in all parts of the world and know whereof they 
speak A delightful and instructive feature of the 
mise-en-scene of such an opera as “ Aida,” for instance, 
is the wonderful historical accuracy as regards archi- 
tecture, costumes, armor, weapons and general appoint- 
ments. No expense is spared to make these operatic per- 
formances exemplary in every way ; and foreign visitors 
have been profoundly impressed with the remarkable mu- 
sical excellence, and unusual attention to stage-equipment. 
Everyone whose business or social obligations take him 
to the metropolis or the Hub, should not fail to witness 
at least one performance in the new Boston Opera House, 
which is winning' for the city, together with the magnifi- 
cent performances of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
the reputation of the truly musical mecca of the New 


1911 Kodak Advertising-Contest 

From our standpoint the previous Kodak Advertising- 
Contests have been a distinct and growing success. They 
have supplied us with pictures that told interestingly of 
the charm and simplicity of Kodakery. But there has 
been one drawback. In the professional division (Class 
A), the prizes have gone so often to the same people 
that we fear other photographers are likely to be dis- 
couraged. In order to remove this possible objection to 
our contests, these former winners will be barred from 
participation in Class A in the 1911 competition. 

While the barring of the former Class A winners from 
competition in that class widens the opportunity for 
other professionals — makes success more easily at- 
tainable — we still feel that for two reasons these 
former winners should also be entitled to compete for 
the prize-money. First, because it is only fair to them, 
and second, because they have proved that they can 
make the kind of pictures that we want. The problem 
has been simply but expensively solved. Former Class 
A winners are barred from Class A. but may compete 
among themselves for the $500.00 cash prize in the Grand 
Prize Class. We hope to be repaid for this increase in 
the prize list by securing even better pictures than we 
have had before. 

No change is made in Class B, as the wide distribu- 
tion of the prizes in that class from year to year seems 
to make such change unnecessary. 

First of all, these contests are not for the purpose of 
securing sample prints. They are for the purpose of 
securing illustrations to be used in our magazine adver- 
tising. for street-car cards, for booklet-covers and the 
like. We prefer photographs to paintings, not only 
because they are more real, but also because it seems par- 
ticularly fit that photographs should be used in prefer- 
ence to drawings in advertising the photographic business. 
The successful pictures are those that suggest the pleas- 
ures that are to be derived from the use of the Kodak, 
or the simplicity of the Kodak system of photography — 
pictures around which the advertising-man can write a 
simple and convincing story. Of course the subject is 
an old one — therefore the more value in the picture 
that tells the old story in a new way. Originality, sim- 
plicity, interest, beauty — and with these good tech- 
nique — are all qualities that appeal to the judges. 

In last year's contest ten prizes were awarded. In 
addition to these ten prize-pictures we purchased twenty- 
three of the less successful pictures for future use in our 
advertising. So it will be seen that in reality our prize- 
money is even bigger than we advertise it to be. 

To our mind there is a big future for the camera in 
the illustrative field. There's a growing use of photo- 
graphs in magazine- and book-illustrations, to say noth- 
ing of the rapid advance along the same lines in 
advertising-work. There's a constant demand for pic- 
tures that are full of human interest. Such are the 
pictures that we need, that others need. The Kodak 
Advertising-Contests offer an opportunity for your entry 
into this growing field of photographic work. 


1. Each picture is to contain a figure or figures and is 
to be suitable for use as an illustration in advertising the 
Kodak or Kodak system of amateur photography. 

2. Each print in the Grand Prize Class and Class “ A * 
must be front a negative 5x7 or larger. Each print in 

Class “ B ” must be from a negative 4x5 or x 
or larger. 

3. PKINTS ONLY are to be sent for competition — 
not negatives. 

4. Prints must be mounted but not framed. Mounts 
should show about one inch margin. 

5. No competitor will be awarded more than one 
prize. This does not prevent a competitor from enter- 
ing as many pictures as he may desire. 

6. Due and reasonable care will be taken of all non- 
winning prints and, barring loss or accident, they will be 
returned to their owners at our expense, but yve assume 
no responsibility of loss or damage. 

7. The negatives from which all prize-winning prints 
are made are to become the property of the Eastman 
Kodak Company, and are to he received by it in good 
order before payment of prize-money is made. 

8. Contestants who are awarded prizes must also fur- 
nish to us the written consent of the subject (in case of a 
minor, the written consent of a parent or guardian) to 
the use of the picture in such manner as we may see fit 
in our advertising'. Blank forms will be furnished on 

9. All entries should be addressed to Eastman Kodak 
Company, Advertising Department, Rochester, N. Y. 
Entries from Canada should be sent to Canadian Kodak 
Company, Toronto, Canada. 

10. In sending pictures, mark the package plainly, 
“ Kodak Advertising-Contest,” and in the lower left- 
hand corner write your own name and address. Then 
write us a letter as follows : 

1 am sending you to-day by express or mail, charges 

prepaid, prints. Please enter in your Kodak 

Advertising-Competition. Class . 

Yours truly, 

Name . 

Address . 

11. The name and address of the competitor must be 
legibly written on a paper and enclosed in a sealed 
envelope in the same package in which the prints are 
forwarded. There is to be no writing on prints or 

12. We will promptly acknowledge the receipt of 
pictures, and when awards are made, will send each com- 
petitor a list of prize-winners. 

13. Only recognized professional photographers con- 
ducting a studio will be allowed to compete in ( 'lass A.” 
Class “ B ” is open to all photographers not in above 

14. This contest will close October 1, 1911, at 

Rochester, N. Y., and September 20 at Toronto, Canada. 

Grand Prize Class — Prize, $500.00. Open only to 
professional photographers who have won prizes in pro- 
fessional class in previous Kodak Advertising-Contests. 
Negatives, 5x7 or larger. 

Class A. Professional photographers only. Winners in 
1907 and in Class A, 1908, 1909 and 1910, are not eligible. 
Negatives, 5 x 7 or larger. First Prize, $500.00; Second 
Prize, 8400.00; Third Prize, $250.00; Fourth Prize, 
$150.00; Fifth Prize, $100.00. Total, $1,400.00. 

Class B. Amateurs only. Negatives. 4x5 or 3f; x 
5 j 7 or larger. First Prize, $300.00 ; Second Prize, 
$150.00; Third Prize. $75.00; Fourth Prize, $50.00; 
Fifth Prize, $25.00. Total. s 600.00. 

The jury of award will consist of photographers and 


of advertising-men who are fully competent to pass 
upon the work submitted. Full attention will be paid, 
therefore, to the artistic and technical merit of the work 
as well as to its strength from an advertising-standpoint. 
Announcement of the names of the judges will be made 


Death of Henry C. Phillips 

The death of Mr. Henry C. Phillips, on January 29th, 
will come as a shock to those who only recently saw him 
about his new studio, apparently as hale and hearty as 
ever, taking a keen interest in all that was happening, 
and, through his sons, keeping abreast of modern prog- 
ress. Mr. Phillips was in his seventy-eighth year. He 
started in business in the year 1854, being one of the 
first to make daguerreotypes, at the corner of 10th and 
Market streets. In 1802 he moved to 9th and Chestnut 
streets, the present location of the Philadelphia post- 
office. In 1868 Mr. Phillips joined forces with the late 
Mr. Broadbent under the firm name of Broadbent & 
Phillips. Later the firm became the Phillips Studio, the 
two sons, Howard and Ryland W., being taken into the 
firm. The Phillips Studio has always stood in the front 
ranks and has numbered its clientele from the very best 
people of Philadelphia. — Abel's Photographic Weekly. 

Lantern-Slide Making 

Burroughs Wellcome and Company, 35-39 West 
33rd Street, New York, will send free an interesting 
booklet on lantern-slide making. It is unusually clear 
and has diagrams of simple home-made apparatus. 

Reeves’s Photo-Colors 

In another column will be found an advertisement of 
the economical powdered transparent water-colors for 
coloring photographs, lantern-slides, etc., put up by 
Edward T. Reeves. These colors are most highly 
recommended by all who have tried them. Mr. Reeves 
is himself one of the most expert and artistic colorists in 
the business, and our readers can safely entrust to him 
any print or slide, no matter how great its value, with 
the certainty of obtaining satisfactory work. Our regu- 
lar guaranty of our advertisers is in this case strength- 
ened by personal familiarity with the excellent work 
done, and we unhesitatingly recommend Mr. Reeves to 
all interested in color-work. 

Gennert’s New Catalog 

G. Gennert’s catalog No. 62 contains a complete 
list of all photographic requisites for both amateurs and 
professionals. It is printed on an excellent quality of 
halftone paper, showing all cuts and type-matter ad- 
vantageously. It is profusely illustrated and every 
article is fully and comprehensively described. 

Any reader sending a request for one to G. Gennert, 
24-26 E. 13th St., New York, or 16-20 State St., Chicago, 
and mentioning Photo-Era, will receive a copy free of 

Change of Firm 

The firm of Herbert and Huesgen has incorporated 
its business under the name of Herbert and Huesgen Co. 

Both Messrs. Herbert and Huesgen will continue as 
the active members of the new corporation, and busi- 
ness will continue the same as in the past. The new 
firm consists of : Henry Herbert, President ; Melclioir 
Beltzhoover, Vice-President ; Chas. 11. Huesgen, Secre- 
tary-T reasurer. 



Information for publication under this heading is solicited 

Society or Title 


Entries Close 

Particulars of 

Seventh American Photographic Salon 




On exhibition at 

Chicago Institute of Art 
Toledo Museum of Art 
St. Louis Museum of Art 

International Photographic Exhibition 
Moscow, Russia 

March 1 

May 1, 1911 

Dr. A. Prochoroff 

Moscow, Russia 

International Circulating 1 Exhibition 

March 18 

May 15, 1911 

Mr. M. Kiesling, Dept, of 
Photograph i c Apparatus 
8 Kaiserplatz, 

Wilmersdorf, Berlin 

International Industrial Exposition 
Turin, Italy, 1911 

Round Robin Guild Pictures for 1909 

April to 
Oct.., 1911 

Prof. Emmerich, Dept. Photo- 
graphy and Reproduction 
2 Martin Greif Str. 

Munich, Germany 

Los Angeles Camera Club 

Until Apr. 1 

T. K. Adlard, See’y. 

1 104 W. 42d Street 
Los Angeles, Calif. 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI APRIL, 1911 No. 4 

Published Monthly by WILFRED A. FRENCH, 383 Boylston Street, Boston, U. S. A. Entered as Second-Class Matter, 
June 30, 1908, at the Post-Office, Boston, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


United States and Mexico, $1.50. Canadian postage, 35 cents I Foreign postage, 75 cents extra. Single copies, 20 cents each, 
extra. Single copies, 15 cents each | Always payable in advance 




Contributions relating to photography in any and all of its branches are solicited and will receive our most careful consideration. 
While not accepting responsibility for unrequested manuscripts, we will endeavor to return them if not available, provided return- 
postage is enclosed. 


Easter Lilies 

An April Fog 

Boy with Squirrel 

The Twins 


All About Cats 

The Tea-Table 


Dutch Girls 


Artillery Going into Action 

Easter Lilies 

An der Wornitz 

On Newark Bay Shore 

Mending the Street 

95° in the Shade 

Fourth of July Parade 

Auguste Rodin 

A Chester Street 

Handbridge from the Walls 

In Watergate Row 

The Cloisters, Chester Cathedral 

Derby House 

Chairs to Sell 


Lambs Resting 

A Busy Mother 

The Peddler-Woman 

Toilers of the Field 

At the Edge of the River 

The Appeal to the Great Spirit 

Second Prize — Flashlights 

First Prize — Flashlights 

Third Prize — Flashlights - 

Honorable Mentions — Flashlights 

Flashlight-Study _ _ 

Honorable Mention — Flashlights 

Honorable Mention — Flashlights 

First Prize — Autumn-Pictures 

Second Prize — Autumn-Pictures 

Third Prize — Autumn-Pictures 

Honorable Mention — Autumn-Pictures 
Honorable Mention — Autumn-Pictures. 
Honorable Mention — Autumn-Pictures 


_ -Katherine Bingham Front Cover 

. _ . Louis Fleckenstein Frontispiece 

_ .Katherine B. Stanley 160 

_ -.Katherine B. Stanley 160 

..Katherine B. Stanley 161 

. . Katherine B. Stanley 162 

..Katherine B. Stanley 162 

..Katherine B. Stanley 163 

..Katherine B. Stanley 164 

..Katherine B. Stanley 164 

..G. Berger 166 

. .Katherine Bingham 168 

__ Albert Hochheimer 169 

__ William Armbruster Insert 

..Percy M. Reese 172 

..Percy M. Reese 173 

_ _ Percy M. Reese 174 


. . Ernest M. Astle 177 

. . Ernest M. Astle 178 

_ .Ernest M. Astle 178 

. . Ernest M. Astle 179 

..Ernest M. Astle 181 

..Ernest M. Astle 181 

_R. S. Kauffman 182 

_R. S. Kauffman 183 

_ .R. S. Kuuffman . 183 

_R. S. Kauffman 184 

R. S. Kauffman 185 

. _R. S. Kauffman 186 


.Horace E. Stout 190 

. L. S. White 191 

. Ernest M. Astle 192 


_ Wilfred A. French 194 

_C. M. Whitney 195 

.Louis Schreiber 196 

E. J. St.urz 198 

_C. E. Achuff. 199 

_M. D. Silber stein 201 

.J. W. Newton 202 

. W. Kenward Zucker 202 

. William T. Clements 203 


Some Notes on Home-Portraiture 

Successful Speed-Work 

A New Method of Tank-Development.. 

The Coming Camera 

Bathed Plates for High 4 ipeed Ortho. Work 

The Transformation of Ugliness 

A Photographic Trip to Ancient Chester 

An Appreciation of R. S. Kauffman 

An American Statue 

.Katherine B. Stanley 

_C. H. Cloudy 

Harold Baker 

.Percy M. Reese 

.The Red Lamp 

. The Picture - and Art-Trade 

.Ernest M. Astle 

R. S. Smith 

.Wilfred A. French 


The Round Robin- Guild 


Answers to Correspondents 


188 Print-Criticism _ _ 

189 The Crucible. _ 

197 Our Illustrations.. 
199 On the Ground-Glass 

Photo-Era , The American Journal of Photography , Copyright, 1011, by Wilfred A. French. 














The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI A P R I L , 1 9 1 1 No. 4 

Some Notes on Home-Portraiture 


H O ME- PORTRAITURE has always 
seemed to me to embody the highest 
form of photographic art. It is the 
least artificial. There is no false environment. 
There are no mechanical effects to stimulate an 
idealism which does not exist. There is no in- 
congruity in the setting. The atmosphere is 

To attain its highest possibilities a portrait 
must be more than a perfect delineation of fea- 
tures — it must convey, in a pictorial way, the 
living personality. Success in doing this is 
largely dependent upon the atmosphere. Espe- 
cially is this true of children and of those upon 
whom has fallen the mantle of age. 

And because beyond the portals of the home 
children and old people are out of their natural 
sphere and instinctively feel this, it is in the 
home that the truest photographs of them are 
made. And the reason is simply that the fa- 
miliar home-surroundings create an atmosphere 
which never makes them feel ill at ease. The 
result is that in expression and pose they are 
perfectly natural. 

As day after day I enter new homes, an infi- 
nite variety of background is presented ; and 
this is important. It vastly simplifies the prob- 
lem of posing to avoid repetition in effect. 
Each house presents a new problem, often diffi- 
cult. but I find this thing very stimulating — the 
best possible insurance against getting into a 
rut in my work. 

The home-portrait is less a problem in light- 
ing than of putting the subject at perfect ease 
and timing the exposure to catch the desired 
expression. Especially is this true when work- 
ing with children. A child’s face is so mobile, 
the expressions so fleeting and varied, that suc- 
cess lies largely in the ability to read the face 
and to anticipate accurately the moment when 
the desired expression will appear. To study of 
this element I ascribe much of my success in 
home-portraiture of children. 

In the strange environment of a studio, a 
child is seldom or never wholly at ease, and 
therefore never quite natural. He is always 
conscious of being there for a purpose — to have 
a picture taken. The problem of the operator, 
then, becomes one of producing a natural, 
pleasing expression. 

At home, on the contrary, amid familiar 
surroundings, perhaps in the midst of his toys, 
the child is seldom other than natural, and the 
task of the artist becomes one of selection of 
pose and mood. 

From my own experience, I have found the 
first requisites to be an understanding of the 
heart of a child and a natural sympathy with 
the workings of the child-mind. My first effort 
is to “ get acquainted.” This accomplished, the 
battle is half won. I take an interest in their 
books and toys, play with them, endeavor to 
establish a common ground of intimacy, get 
them to feel that it is all a game — that taking 
pictures is fun in which t hey are having a share. 
Once they catch the spirit of it, the posing is 
not difficult. They feel that they are really 
doing something, are having an important share 
in making the picture. Then often a mere word 
will bring the expression I seek. 

In working with old people the problem is 
not so complex. The face is not so mobile. 
The expressions are not so varied and fleeting. 
But here, too. success is largely dependent upon 
an understanding of and sympathy with old age. 
I believe, however, that one who is successful 
with children will be equally successful with 
old people, for they are but children of a larger 
growth. I always enjoy working with them, 
for pose and expression are easier held by them 
and there is much less need of hurry and 
alertness on the part of the operator. 

My equipment is a 5 x 7 plate-camera with 
an F/fi.3 anastigmat. This, with plenty of 
plates, is all that I ever take with me ; for I 
need no other accessories, save such as may be 




found in every home. 1 never take less than a 
dozen plates with me, and frequently use all. 
The expense is inconsiderable with this size 
plate, and is not worth considering, compared 
with the possible results. 

I employ no artificial aids to secure lighting- 
effects, beyond some sheets, which the lady of 
the house always gladly supplies. These, thrown 
loosely on the floor, or over an article of furni- 
ture. whenever I require reflected light, are all 
that I need to get my lighting-effects. When I 
began, I used sometimes to soften the direct 
light by the use of cheesecloth over the win- 
dows, hut long ago I gave this up as wholly 
needless. If the day is bright and the sun 
pours directly into a room, I simply seek another 
room where the light is more diffused. 

My lens is of medium-short focus, 8 inches. 
Often it is very desirable to show considerable of 

the surroundings, and with too long-focus a lens 
this is impossible. I use the lens wide open, as a 
rule, with an exposure of Vi>r, to 14 second, ac- 
cording to the light and subject. By watching 
the subject and anticipating the next move, one 
can usually get time enough, even with an active 
child. A case in point is one of a year-old boy 
throwing a ball. The negative is perfect, with 
no trace of movement, yet the exposure was 
1/5 second. To those watching there was no ap- 
preciable pause in the movement of the arm from 
the picking up of the ball to the instant it left 
the hand on the completion of the throw ; yet 
actually there was a pause when the hand at- 
tained its highest point and before the forward 
movement began. And that is the point at which 
the exposure was made. 

1 use tank development altogether and seldom 
intensify or reduce a negative. The perfect 





print rather than the perfect negative is the real 
object to he attained. Time is too valuable to 
waste over an imperfect negative when the im- 
perfections can be eliminated in the print. It 
sometimes seems to me that the printing is an 
art in itself and in the finished result is second- 
ary only to the primary essential of artistic com- 

As I have said, I use tank-development alto- 
gether, and in doing this I do not trust wholly 
to the time given with the formula. I leave 
negatives in the tank for the length of time 
given, according to the temperature of the devel- 
oper ; and then examine one or two of them by 
the ruby light. If I find them thin or flat, I 
return them to the developer for ten or fifteen 
minutes longer. I find that the average plate 
exposed in the house will stand more time in 
development than those exposed out doors. 

Highlights are much more quickly and easily 
reduced by the right choice of papers and careful 
tissuing than by laborious work on the negative. 
A thorough knowledge of printing-papers, their 
characteristics, adaptability and limitations ; the 
judgment which enables one instinctively to 
recognize the printing-qualities of a negative ; 
the paper best adapted to it, and complete 
mastery of the simple art of printing through 
tissue, will produce results that will satisfy the 
most critical, though the negative itself he faulty. 

In using tissue-paper, I cover the printing- 
frame with the negative in it, and holding it up 
to the light, cut away the tissue over the strong 
highlights. I then paste another tissue over the 
first, and on this, using crayon-sauce, I stump in 
the dark shadows until, by looking through the 
negative, I see that the lights and shadows pre- 
sent an even tone. 



Successful Speed-Work 


J UST why the use of a fast lens and a focal- 
plane shutter should cause so many people 
so much trouble the present scribe is un- 
able to understand. Why this particular equip- 
ment should be. inherently, any more difficult to 
master than a slower lens and the ordinary 
shutter is a mystery, unless the difficulty comes 
from a previous familiarity with the ordinary 
outfit, and a mental attempt to lit the old stand- 
ards to the new conditions. 

In taking up the fast equipment, whether you 
are to do real speed-work, or simply employ 
speed-tools for the easier and better accom- 
plishment of ordinary photographic work, the 
first thing you have to learn, after the mere 
mechanical handling of 1 1 le instrument — how 
to operate button, slit, tension, etc. — is that the 
question of exposure is ten times as simple as it 
ever was before. With the usual lens, the 
diaphragm-shutter, and all the time you want in 
which to get ready for a picture, your argument 
with yourself on “ what time shall I give ? ” 
usually runs something like this : 

“ Let’s see. This is a landscape, with mod- 
erate contrasts. It is fairly open. Last week 
I made one like this and gave one half of a 
second at F/32. But that was in bright sun- 
light near noon. This is hazy and in the after- 
noon. Allowing double the time for difference 
in the kind of day. and another double for the 
difference in time of day, I should give two 
seconds. But the wind is blowing and the trees 
are moving. I can’t give more than a fourth of 
a second. So I must open up my diaphragm. 
I want to give eight times less exposure. F/32 
is equal to U. S. 64. Eight into sixty-four goes 
eight times — I must open my diaphragm to 
U. S. 8, which is equivalent to F/ll. But I 
mustn’t forget that I’m using a fast plate to-day, 
whereas I was using a non-halation before. This 
plate is very nearly fifty per cent faster. I’ll 
make it a fifth of a second.” 

But with the speed-equipment the argument 
is much simpler. It is merely a question of the 
speed of the object being photographed and the 
distance of that object from the plate. These 
two factors, taken into consideration with the 
focal-length of the lens, determine the exposure, 
regardless of light, plate, size of stop or time of 
day, provided the desired end is some kind of a 
photograph showing all motion stopped. 

The actual motion of an object cannot he 
considered, because the distance of the actual 

motion from the camera makes the motion of 
the image across the plate different. Thus, a 
man walking four miles an hour ten feet from 
the lens and a man running eight miles an hour 
twenty feet from the lens both produce an image 
having the same speed on and across the plate. 
The same exposure which will stop the motion 
of one will stop the motion of the other. In the 
same way, a man running eight miles an hour 
towards the lens at an angle of sixty degrees 
and one walking four miles an hour at right 
angles to the plate — both men being the same 
distance from the lens — throw images moving 
at the same speed across the plate. The same 
exposure will stop motion in each case. 

The focal-length of the objective needs special 
consideration if you are using two — one a long 
and one a short. The exposure which will stop 
motion with a short-focus lens won’t stop the 
same motion using a long-focus lens, the distance 
of camera from object in motion being the 
same. Thus, a six-inch lens makes an image 
half the size of a twelve-inch lens of any object, 
from the same view-point. Not only is the size 
of the object cut in half, but the degree of mo- 
tion is also divided by two. A six-foot man 
running nine miles an hour and photographed 
from a distance of thirty-six feet with a twelve- 
inch lens will appear on the plate two inches 
tall, and his image will travel across the plate at 
a speed of one fourth mile per hour, or twenty- 
two feet per minute. If the lens is a six-inch 
lens, his image will he one inch in height, and 
will travel across the plate at a speed of eleven 
feet per minute. 

Twenty-two feet per minute is four and four 
tenths inches per second. 

To get this moving man sharp, admitting that 
a movement of one one -hundredth of an inch is 
permissible, we require an exposure of one four 
hundred and fortieth of a second to stop the 

With the six-inch lens, under the same condi- 
tions, we require but half as much exposure, or 
one two hundred and twentieth of a second 

As a matter of fact, a much greater allowance 
than the one hundredth part of an inch is per- 
missible in such photographs ; the entire figure 
may move a twentieth of an inch without appar- 
ent blur, so that these exposures, which are here 
diagrammatic only, could he reduced by dividing 
by five, making that necessary for the twelve- 



inch lens one eighty-eighth of a second, and for 
the six-inch lens, one forty-fourth of a second. 

The size of aperture you use must he governed 
by the speed of your exposure and the light. 
Thus, you would not use a lens working at 
F 4.5 in bright sunlight at noon and give an 
exposure of only one fortieth of a second, unless 
you wanted to overtime. The diaphragm 
would have to be cut down. But in speed-work 
it is always desirable to use as small an aper- 
ture as is convenient, because the large apertures 
have so little depth that the moving object, 
sharp because in focus and stopped of all motion, 
is usually silhouetted against a blur of back- 
ground. While such a blur is occasionally 
pictorial, it is seldom of service in record-work. 
The runner crossing the tape against a blurred 
mass is not nearly so impressive as he who is 
shown against a background of cheering specta- 
tors and waving hats. 

The greater the focal-length of lens, the less 
the depth of focus for any given aperture. Con- 
sequently, the more necessary to cut down the 
stop wherever a distinct background is desired. 
It is these two things, the increased speed of 
exposure necessary and the smaller stop required 
for equal distinctness of background, which are 
the greatest arguments in favor of a lens of 
moderate or short focus for speed-work, as 
opposed to a lens of medium or long focus. By 
the same token, the smaller or medium-sized 
speed-camera is more productive than the large, 
and can do work in lights for which the large 
one is unfit. 

Again, the very small or pocket-camera, fitted 
with a focal-plane shutter, can use a much 
slower lens and produce results which require a 
much faster lens in the larger cameras. This 
apparently revolutionary statement is not as con- 
tradictory as it seems at first glance, as a little 
reflection will show. For instance, let us con- 
sider a lens of four-inch focus working at F/6.3, 
and compare it with a twelve-inch lens working 
at F 4.5. The two lenses have speeds which 
bear to each other the relation of 20 to 39, 
approximately. That is, the F/4.5 lens is 
almost twice as fast as the F/6.3 lens. 

But the long-focus lens, making an image 
three times the size of that formed by the short- 
focus lens, requires an exposure one third the 
duration of that which is effective with the small 
lens in stopping the motion. If the long-focus 
lens needs a hundredth of a second to do work 
which the small focus lens can do equally well 
with a thirty-third of a second, then it would 
need to be three times as fast to be as effective. 
But it is only twice as fast. Hence, the smaller 

lens can operate in lights which the larger lens 
could not negotiate ; by the same token, in the 
same light, it could stop motion, with a thou- 
sandth of a second, which the larger lens would 
need a three-thousandth to control, and there is 
no shutter giving a three-thousandth of a second 
exposure, nor any plate that would yield much 
of an image if there were such a shutter. 

This is no argument against the long-focus 
lens. It is merely an attempt to demonstrate 
why, for speed-work and for the stopping of 
fast motion in poor lights, a small camera and a 
short-focus lens are preferable to a large camera 
and a long-focus lens. 

Learning the proper exposure for any given 
speed of motion of any kind of moving object at 
different distances from the camera and with the 
line of motion at different angles with the plate, is 
entirely a matter of experience. There are plenty 
of tables published which inform you that an 
object of such and such speed at such and such 
distance from a camera equipped with a lens of 
such and such focus and held at such and such 
angle to the line of motion, needs such and such 
an exposure. 

They are all very well in their place. Study 
of them will indicate to the beginner at about 
what place on his speed-scale he had better 
make a start. But practically, only experience 
will tell the tale. For instance, you will find 
the trotting-horse at fifty feet catalogued at dif- 
ferent angles with the plate and for different 
speeds and different focal-lengths of lenses. But 
a trotting horse is not one moving body ; it is 
one moving body plus four legs, and the legs are 
sometimes going slower and sometimes faster 
than the whole horse. The flick of a horse’s 
hoof at the end of its stride requires a much 
shorter exposure than the whole horse needs, or 
the horse as a whole may be sharp and clear, 
and its foreleg may be a blur. 

You can “stop” an automobile and yet have 
motion in the wheels ; you can stop the wheels, 
too, but you need faster shutter-speeds to do it. 
The railway train which defies you at one angle 
can be tucked away at another without trouble. 
The small boy with his bat and ball can’t be 
handled as can a small boy running ; and you 
may find the quietly-grazing and slowly-moving 
sheep at close quarters has a most amazing 
capacity for swift motion, when you take it with 
a slow shutter-snap and neglect to figure that it 
is right on top of you and that its relative 
motion, or the speed of its image across the 
plate, is great because its image is so large. 

It is very possible that you may believe that, 
because you can stop swift motion with a fast 

Copyright by Katherine Bingham 




exposure, you need not trouble to hold your 
camera still. But consider a moment. You 
could not stop motion of a mile a second, with 
any apparatus you could devise. If you point 
your camera at something a mile away, and 
move your camera in a quarter circle, taking 
one second for that movement, the object lias 
been flying past your lens at a speed greater 
than a mile a second ! It is just as essential to 
hold the camera still, in making speed-photo- 
graphs, as it is in any other kind. It is care- 
lessness in this respect, and an attempt to 
“ punch the lever through the box,” which 
causes many a blur erroneously laid to too little 
shutter-speed. You don’t have to touch any 
release-lever hard to touch it quickly ; but to 
snap the shutter on the instant that you want 
to, without any exercise of undue muscular 
force, takes practice. 

And there you are ! Speed-work is simple, 
easy to understand. It is in some ways simpler 
than any other kind of photography ; but. be- 
cause it is different from any other kind of 
photography, has its own standards and rules — 

which are, in many cases, contrary to what you 
have learned before — in seeming if not in fact, 
it seems difficult. Yet it is not. The only man 
I ever knew who couldn’t take speed-pictures 
was so deficient in nervous reaction that he 
never tried to cross a street with a horse on the 
same square : he knew he couldn’t think quickly 
enough to get out of the way in time. Of 
course, he never pressed a button in a camera 
until long after the moving object had gone by ! 

But all others I have ever seen start have 
made some kind of a success at it. Some learn 
the simple art quickly, others slowly ; a few 
never get beyond the primer stage. Those who 
try to understand the principles and perfect 
themselves in the practice before trying to do 
difficult speed- work, are those who succeed the 
quickest. To them, and to the others who 
would be like them, this story is offered with 
the full knowledge that it is anything but a com- 
plete revelation, but in the hope that it will at 
least lift some of the mists which occasionally 
befog the traveler in this, to many, new photo- 
graphic land. 

A New Method of Tank-Development 


T ANK-DEVELOPMENT is growing in 
popularity, judging by the number of its 
advocates in the photographic press. 
After reading descriptions of several methods I 
decided to try it. At first I was very much 
pleased with my results with the diluted devel- 
oper, hut further experience considerably modi- 
fied my views, especially when I had under-ex- 
posed plates to deal with. 

Of course, 1 may be told that there ought not 
to he such things as under-exposures in these 
days of exposure-meters, but when photographs 
of babies and fidgety people have to he taken in 
dull weather, under-exposures do unfortunately 
present themselves, and such plates developed 
in a tank with dilute developer are useless. The 
long time of development is a further disadvan- 
tage to the professional photographer, unless he 
develops at the end of the day, when he is not 
likely to he called away, and leave his plates too 
long in the tank. 

For a time therefore, I gave up the tank and 
went hack to “ one-minute development ” as it is 
called. Then it occurred to me that the two 
methods might he combined, and I tried two 
tanks, and used the concentrated developer which 
I recommended for “ one-minute ” in my article 
in Photographic Scraps of August 1909. 

The rack containing the plates was lowered 
into No. I tank, which contained developer made 
up according to the formula recommended for 
Ilford bromide paper, with slight modification : 
Bromide of potassium, 2 drams ; water, 100 ozs. ; 
Metol, 5 drams ; Hydroquinone, 2 drams ; meta- 
bisulphite of potassium, 2 ozs. After about one 
minute the rack was taken o\it of tank No. 1 and 
lowered into tank No. 2, containing potassium 
carbonate, 10 ozs.; water, 100 ozs., and kept 
there for one or two minutes, then withdrawn, 
and carefully drained for half a minute to avoid 
waste of solution. 

The plates were then carefully examined for 
density and so on. Those that had acquired 
sufficient density were fixed, the others being- 
returned to tank No. 2 for further development. 
The variation in density is due to difference in 
exposure ; plates which have received full expo- 
sure gain density more quickly than those slightly 
under-exposed. But this may he compensated 
for by giving longer development to those plates 
that need it. It is well to turn the tanks upside- 
down during development. 

This method of development is of great value 
to the busy man who prefers to develop his own 
exposures, as I, for one, do ; for I believe, in spite 
of the advocates of automatic development, that 
the personal equation counts for much in photo- 
graphy, and a method which enables me to de- 
velop a dozen plates in five minutes appeals to me 
very strongly. Some will perhaps think it ex- 
pensive, as it necessitates the use of concentrated 
solutions of considerable quantity, hut in my 
opinion it is really more economical than either 
the usual method, or the tank with diluted de- 
veloper, because No. 1 solution can be used over 
and over again without any perceptible loss of 
energy ; additional solution must, however, be 
added from time to time to make up for that 
absorbed by the gelatine film of the plates. 

I am now using the same tankful of No. 1 
with which I began some month or two ago, 
occasionally adding fresh solution to keep it full. 
It is advisable to filter through a tuft of cotton- 
wool, to remove sediment, scraps of film, etc., 
which accumulate in time. The No. 2 solution 
must he renewed more often, as it becomes ex- 
hausted, works much more slowly, and inclines 
to produce flat negatives : if used too long it 
gives the same effect as under-exposure. I re- 
cently found in using a fresh tankful of No. 2 
that the plates appeared much over-exposed. 

At this time of year [February] the temper- 
ature of the developer is of great importance, 
and it is advisable to keep the tanks in a warm 
place, when not in use, so that they may be 
somewhere about 50° or 60°. If a number of 
plates are to be developed which are known to 
be under-exposed the temperature may be higher 
with considerable advantage, and they may be 
fixed in an acid fixing-bath, containing alum, 
afterwards. Considerable control over results 
may be obtained by varying the time of the im- 
mersions ; a long time in No. 1, followed by a 
shorter time in No. 2, will give harder and more 
brilliant negatives than the reverse method. 

Merely varying the total time of development 
also gives great control over the quality of the 
negatives. The time required for development 
varies with different brands of plates, but plates 
very rich in silver will need about one minute in 
each tank, at about 55°, if the solutions are 
fresh, to give good density suitable for portraits. 
A longer time is necessary for interiors. 

Photographic Scraps. 




The Coming Camera 


T HE ancient Roman prayed to more than a 
hundred gods. Of these one was a god 
of Neglected Opportunities, of Wasted 
Efforts. Were such a god in vogue today his 
shrine would he buried beneath the votive offer- 
ings of the amateur photographer. When we 
roam, how many more masterpieces we would 
bring back if we had not pushed the Kodak as 
well as the button ; or had not left both at home 
the day the circus came to town, or the big fire 
broke out. There are many other might-have- 
beens in photography, but very early in my 
twenty years’ experience in it I learned that these 
two accounted for more unphotographed photo- 
graphs than all the rest put together ; and when 
the F/4.5 lens in front of the focal-plane shutter 
came out, what a boon the combination was ! No 
more necessity now to hold the camera steady. 
We could follow the winner, with the Graflex, 
right under the wire, and get his feet as sharp 
as nails ; and everything was all right, except 
(and it is a big except) except the backgrounds. 
They were chaos. Our pictorialists said they 
were all right, too — the attention should be 
centered upon the principal object, and so on. 
Rut the unpictorial public objected, evidently 
could not appreciate men and horses with feathers 
on them, and trees which might be trees or 
mountains or clouds. Our cousins across the 
water have a good name for these impossible 
backgrounds. Tliey call them “ blobs.” And 
they have been faithfully pegging away for the 
last six or eight years to get rid of ‘‘blobs” 
without sacrificing the advantages of the fast 
lens. Now at last they have succeeded — more 
than succeeded, for in curing the “ blobs ” they 
have solved the other problem too, that of taking 
photographs by the absent-treatment — taking 
them when the camera has been left at home. 
The solution was simple enough. Why did not 
you or I think of it ? Short-focus lenses, that is 
all. Anastigmats of 80 and even 50 millimeters’ 
(3 to *2 inches) focal-length, producing negatives 
small, it is true, but of such exquisite sharpness 
in all the planes, that enlargements 8 x 10 or 
greater are not only possible but usually indis- 
tinguishable from straight prints from large 
negatives. And this of course involves fine 
cameras which can be always carried in the vest 
or hip pocket, ready when wanted. A dozen or 
more models are now on the European market, 
selling rapidly at from S7 to S100 each, and ex- 

cept the reflecting cameras, which will always be 
needed by reporters and others, seem t(> be dis- 
placing all other sizes. 

As why should they not, when one considers 
their advantages ? Not the least of these is the 
cheapness of supplies. When one’s negatives 
cost only a cent or two each, one can well afford 
to fire away at, everything which looks promising, 
but perhaps not worth a large plate ; and then 
returning from a tour with hundreds of tiny but 
crisp negatives, costing little and weighing less, 
stowed away in a corner of the grip, one makes 
an album of contact prints, small but perfectly 
distinct reminders of otherwise forgotten bits of 
travel, street-scenes, etc. Some which, when we 
took them, we thought would be pictures, are 
not ; and we are glad we did not waste a large 
plate on them. Others unexpectedly turn out to 
be prize-winners, and for two dollars we buy a 
Brownie Enlarger and make exhibition prints — 
just as sharp, if wanted that way, as if taken 
with an 8 x 10. Although I had long noticed 
this tendency toward shorter focus, I was amazed, 
on a very recent trip, to find not only the rank 
and file, but very many of the serious workers, 
including Alvin Langdon Coburn, perhaps the 
world’s foremost photo-pic torialist. had almost 
altogether abandoned their tripods, and were 
making all their Salon pictures with what ap- 
peared to be togs. 

It seemed incredible, but after selecting one, 
about the size of a package of cigarettes, called 
Heag XV, and made by Ernemann of Dresden, 
I realized at once the quality of negatives it pro- 
duced, and have very rarely used my larger 
cameras since. I never go outdoors without it. 
Later I was so fortunate as to win in a competi- 
tion a Number Naught Graflex, the first of these 
miniatures to be put on the American market, 
(but not the last, I prophesy), and found it better 
still in every way, except that it will not go into 
the vest pocket. It has the Graphic focal-plane 
shutter, the best in the world, a Zeiss Kodak 
Anastigmat F /(5.3, of three-inch focus, set rigidly 
at the distance, or a little inside this 
I suspect, and very wisely too, for when one 
does take a very distant view, a range of moun- 
tains for instance, the character of the subject 
requires some stopping down to avoid overex- 
posure, and this automatically corrects any slight 
fuzziness, while allowing the use of the full 
aperture for objects only 4 or 5 feet from the 



lens. This shortening is so slight, however, 
that it is quite negligible, as will he seen in many 
of the little scraps I am sending with this, in 
which all planes from four feet to infinity appear 
microscopically sharp, and if the enlargements 
are carefully focused they too will he quite as 
sharp, particularly for lantern-slides. 

The greater apparent speed of these little 
lenses is a daily astonishment. Light travels 
186,000 miles in a second, so the shortening of 
the six to eight-inch foci we have been using in 
our hand-cameras can cut no figure in it, at 
equal apertures, but the smaller scale and conse- 
quent reduction of objects within the conven- 
tional l/ioo °i an inch circle of confusion does 
not seem sufficient to account for the much more 
fully exposed plates obtainable at the same 
relative openings. The picture, “ 95° in the 
Shade,” for instance, was taken on the north 
side of a building fifteen stories high in an 
(actual) l/ 3 o second. Those I send taken with 
the Heag are all at F/16, as the slower shutter 
at F /6.3 would give greatly overexposed plates 
in a good light. It is marked Vjooi but is 
probably about %o- They will all of course 
lose in the reproduction, hut will serve to record 
my forecast that we shall soon follow the old 
countries in calling for vest-pocket-cameras. 


With the Number 0 and opening F / 6.3, 
but in Yx so second, was taken the Fourth of 
July parade, in which the little girls not four 
feet from the lens and the colonial mansion of 
Charles Carroll of Carrolton, fully half a mile 
away are both reasonably sharp. To secure this 
with any lens of longer focus it would be neces- 
sary to use a very small stop and an impossibly 
long exposure. The street gang was taken with 
the Vest Pocket Camera at the fastest speed of 
the shutter, marked VI 00 second, hut probably 
about VlO- These will all lose much in the repro- 
duction, and might have been much sharper 
than they are had I used (as I might easily have 
done) slower films and plates, in which the 
grains of silver are much smaller than in the 
Eastman Speed-Film and Sigma plates on which 
these were taken. This is another lesson we 
have to learn from our cousins abroad, and if 
we are wise we shall soon be following them in 
this and in the use of tiny cameras with very 
short-focus lenses. Then the day of the bulky 
outfit will indeed he over, except for special 

Study posing outside, then go into the studio 
and forget it. — Ryland JJ . Phillips. 




Bathed Plates for High-Speed Ortho. Work 

I T is universally conceded that the very hest 
color-sensitive plates are to he obtained by 
bathing a good ordinary plate in very weak 
solutions of dyes, afterwards washing and dry- 
ing the plate, when it may he stored ready for 

The operation is by no means difficult, and 
does not require any expensive apparatus, and it 
is much more economical to prepare the plates 
at home than to pay the manufacturer for this 
work. The plates so prepared have a greater 
color-sensitiveness than when the emulsion is 
treated with the (lyes in the course of manufac- 
ture, while in no other manner can such a high 
degree of sensitiveness to artificial light he 

Bathed plates are expressly indicated for use 
in orthochromatic and three-color photography, 
and in artificial light photography, such as when 
taking photographs at the theater during the 

The plates are sensitized by bathing with 
either pinachrome or pinacyanol, which gives a 
pronounced red-sensitiveness, so that it is neces- 
sary to use a dark-green safe-light in the dark- 
room. Pinachrome plates are not so sensitive 

to red light, and may lie handled in a deep ruby 
light. For theatrical work we prefer to use 
pinacyanol-bathed plates. 

It is customary to bathe the plates in a 
porcelain developing-dish. The plates are im- 
mersed for three minutes in the following 
solution : 

Pinacyanol solution (1 : 1000) .... 1 part 

Distilled water 50 parts 

At the expiration of the proper period, the 
solution is poured off (it may he used only once), 
and the plates are washed for three minutes in 
several changes of water, and then dried in the 
dark. A tin deed-box containing a quantity of 
blotting-paper forms a convenient drying-box, 
particularly if a dish containing calcium chloride 
is stood on a block in the center of the box so as 
to he near the top of the box when the lid is 

Plates may also he sensitized with ortho- 
chrome T, or with pinachrome, in a similar 

Any developer, except pyro-ammonia, may be 
used for these plates, hut we prefer to use 
edinol. — The Red Lamp. 


The Transformation of Ugliness 

T HE famous French sculptor, Auguste 
Rodin, is always interesting when he 
talks on art. Dealers and all others 
interested in art will enjoy the following : 

The vulgar crowd is fond of believing that 
what it considers ugly is not tit material for the 
artist. It wants to forbid ns to reproduce what 
displeases it in nature. 

This is a great mistake on the part of the 

What is commonly called ugly in nature may 
in art become a great beauty. 

In the order of real things, everything is 
called ugly which is deformed, which is un- 
healthy, which suggests the idea of sickness, 
debility and suffering, which is in contrast to 
regularity, a sign and condition of health and 
strength. A hunchback is ugly, a bandy-legged 
person is ugly, misery in tatters is ugly. 

Ugly are the soul and conduct of the im- 
moral, the vicious and criminal person, the 
abnormal person who is harmful to society. 
Ugly is the soul of the parricide, the traitor, the 

It is legitimate that beings from whom one 
may expect only evil are designated by an odious 

But as soon as a great artist or a great writer 
takes hold of this ugliness he instantly trans- 
forms it, and with his magic wand he chances it 

o o 

into beauty. 

A hen Velasquez paints Sebastian, Phillip 
IV’s dv arf, he gives him an expression so 
touching that we read in his face all the sad 
secrets of this crippled, unfortunate being, 
forced to forget his human dignity, to become a 
mere plaything in order to make a living. And 
the more evident is made the martyrdom of the 
soul imprisoned in this misshaped body, the 
more beautiful is the work of the master from 
an artist’s point of view. 

When Francois Millet paints a poor field- 
laborer who rests a moment leaning on the handle 
of his scythe, a miserable, tired-out being, baked 
by the sun, broken down like a beast of burden 
under a hail of beatings, he depicts in the ex- 
pression of the man the resignation of this poor 
creature to the cruel decrees of destiny and thus 
transforms this nightmare of a man into a 
splendid symbol of all humanity. 

V hen Shakespeare describes lago or Rich- 
ard III. when Racine describes Nero or Nar- 
cissus, the moral ugliness expressed by spirits so 
clear and penetrating becomes a marvelous theme 
of beauty. 

What is beautiful in art is indeed only what 
has character. 

Character is the intense truth which is inher- 
ent in every natural spectacle, beautiful or ugly, 
and it is even what one might call the double 
truth, for it is the hidden truth revealed by the 
apparent ; it is the soul, the idea, the sentiment 
which the features express, the movements and 
actions of a human being, the shading of a sky, 
the line of a horizon. 

To the great artist everything in nature shows 
character, for the penetrating freedom of his 
observation goes deeply into the hidden sense of 

That which is considered ugly in nature often 
possesses far more character than what is con- 
sidered beautiful, because in the drawn features 
of a suffering face, in the distorted lines of a 
vicious mask, in every deformity, in every scar, 
the interior truth is more plainly revealed than 
in the healthy and regular features. 

And as it is principally the power of the 
character depicted which stands for beauty in 
art, it often happens that the more ugly a thing 
is in nature, the more beautiful it is in art. 

There is in art nothing ugly but what is with- 
out character, that is to say, that which offers 
neither interior nor apparent truth. 

The ugly in art is all that is false, all that is 
artificial, all that tries to lie beautiful or pretty 
without being expressive, all that is hollow, all 
that smiles without reason, all that is without 
soul and without truth, all that is nothing but a 
showing off of beauty or grace, all that is lying. 

When an artist with the intention of making 
nature more beautiful adds to the green of spring, 
the rosy hue of sunrise, the purple of young 
lips, he creates ugliness, because he is afraid of 

To the artist worthy of his calling, everything 
is beautiful in nature, because his eyes, accept- 
ing fearlessly the whole exterior truth, reads in 
it without effort, as in an open book, the whole 
interior truth. 

He has only to look at a human face to recog- 
nize a soul ; no feature deceives him — hypoc- 
risy is to him as transparent as sincerity. The 
inclination of a forehead, the smallest frown of 
the brow, the quickest, most fleeting expression 
reveal to him the secrets of a sold. 

He scrutinizes the soul of the animals. Signs 
of feelings and thoughts, dumb intelligence, 
rudiments of tenderness — everywhere he dis- 
covers the humble moral life of the animals in 
their looks and movements. 



He is even the confidant of the insensible 
nature. Trees and plants speak to him as 

The gnarled old oaks tell him of their benevo- 
lence toward mankind, that they protect in the 
shade of their branches. 

The flowers speak to him through the grace- 
ful curves of their stems, by the lovely tints of 
their petals ; every leaf of grass is an endearing 
word that nature addresses to him. 

To him life is a source of infinite enjoyment, 
a perpetual joy, a perfect bliss. 

Not that everything appears good to him, for 
suffering, which so often attacks those whom he 
cherishes and himself, puts a cruel end to this 

But to him everything is beautiful, because 
he is always walking in the light of spiritual 

Often his heart is wrung with pain, but more 
strongly than the pain he feels the joy of being 
able to understand and express. Upon his own 
anguish, his own wounds, he fixes the enthusi- 
astic eye of a man who has divined the decrees 
of fate. Betrayed by a beloved being, he totters 
under the blow, but be recovers and looks at the 
perfidy as a beautiful example of baseness, he 
greets ingratitude as an experience that enriches 
his soul. His ecstasy is somewhat terrifying 
but it is happiness nevertheless, because it is the 
continual adoration of truth. 

When he discovers beings who destroy one 
another, youth that disappears, vigor that decays, 
genius that dies out ; when he stands face to 
face with the Will that created all these sombre 
laws, he enjoys more than ever his knowledge, 
and realizes the truth, he is radiantly happy. 

The Picture- ami Art-Trade. 


A Photographic Trip to Ancient Chester 



T HE usual approach to Chester is by the 
line from Liverpool to Crewe, hut an- 
other, from Manchester, passes through 
a more interesting country-side of old towns, 
manors, moorland and thatches, and having 
traversed Delamere Forest lands the traveler 
nearer the city walls, almost under the shadow 
of the cathedral. 

Just by the little Bridge of Death, of mediae- 
val days, which prisoners under sentence crossed 
to suffer its execution, hut now idly hanging 
high above the canal, one enters the ancient 
streets by the Northgate, and probably no new- 
comer fails to climb the steps here leading to 
the walls and make the circuit of Roman Ches- 
ter before going farther into the city. It is a 
happy promenade, only a few feet wide, now 
looking over the Welsh hills, now over the 
river, descending to the street level and again 
among roofs and chimney-pots. The Phoenix 
and the Water Towers, the Wishing Steps and 
the Cathedral from the east walls figure so con- 
tinuously in the windows, the books and the 
post-cards that one has no desire to expose for 


them, hut there is material in the paved way 
itself, particularly in that tree-shaded stretch by 
the Goblin Tower and Morgan’s Mount on the 
north wall — and again, where the wall follows 
the liver, there is the delightful hit of Hand- 
bridge across the water, boats drawn up on the 
shore, a steep street and clustered houses. And 
yet again, from the Bridgegate one may look 
townward and secure the fine timbered Bear 
and Billet Inn, the leaded windows of which 
reach in abroad, unbroken band across the entire 
front. These hits are all for morning light. 

All summer, an unusually sunny time, I had 
used my 3 A Folding Pocket Kodak without 
tripod, at least since finding it possible to give 
V 2 second exposures with apparent steadiness. 
My exposures averaged % second at F / 1 6 and I 
had been able to give that time while standing on 
the top-bar of a rickety swinging gate, my heels 
held by a friend. The softer lights and atmos- 
phere of the English country were confusing in 
the first days, and in spite of apparently well- 
lighted subjects. I underexposed continually with 
j /25 second at F/ll. With the adoption of the 




tripod results were infinitely more satisfying, 
seeming more fitted to my choice of subjects, 
almost always intimate things — doorways, cot- 
tages, details of architecture, old halls and 
lanes ; for a general view would have split the 
difference, and in the Lake District for the 
wide, open stretches, lb.-, at F/ll would be 
nearer right. In planning for the Rows, per- 
haps Chester’s most unique feature, I'd quite 
overlooked the necessarily longer exposures for 
the shadowy galleries, and now I overlooked 
the possibility of hiring a tripod from a dealer. 
So. taking a deep breath to make the body 
more rigid — a trick learned I forget where — 
I opened the shutter for one second. Of the 
Rows, the Watergate offers most material for 
pictures suggestive of ancient days, but even 
here new glass and silvered door-knobs are 
creeping in. The Rows are awkward things to 
describe and my attempt may leave one in the 
same confusion in which other accounts left me : 
stores on the street floor as usual — the story 
above, an open room, which, connecting with 
similar open rooms on either side makes a long 
gallery with stores at its back. The floor of 
this arcade is the roof of the street-floor store, 
and its roof the floor of the story above. Where 
the floors are of differing levels a step or two 
up or down is encountered and flights of steps at 
intervals give access from the street. On rainy 


days this upper row must make an ideal shop- 
ping-place, the more that here are the better 
stores, which, quite in keeping with their repu- 
tation, remain closed later in the morning as a 
friend learned, who, rattling a door at eight- 
thirty, was confronted by a rather indignant 
person, “ Ow now, lady, the shops in the Rows 
never opens till ’alf-past nine.” 

In the Watergate are the finest of those 
timbered houses which have made Chester 
famous — houses the fronts of which are 
masses of paneling and carving. Of these the 
Bishop Lloyds Palace is particularly quaint, with 
its rudely grotesque series of Biblical carvings 
directly over the open gallery — Adam and Eve, 
The Sacrifice of Abraham, Cain Killing Abel, 
The Immaculate Conception and The Sacrifice 
for All. The house is now the home of the 
Y. W. C. A., and for a small fee the stranger 
may view its fine plaster fireplaces and ceilings 
and charmingly carved winding staircase. This 
and the God’s Providence House — which by 
reason of its name-deriving inscription, “ God’s 
Providence Is Mine Inheritance,” attracts more 
attention than any other building — can be 
photographed from the opposite arcade, but the 
Derby House one enters by a “ ginnel ” just 
beyond Nicholas Street. The “ ginnel ” leads 
to a tiny courtyard. From this house, the 
projecting windows of which are upheld by 


carved figures, the Earl of Derby was dragged 
to be beheaded at Bolton. Teas are served now 
in the dark oak rooms and, while it was being 
got ready, I tried in vain to get far enough 
away to obtain a satisfactory picture, but the 
yard is so cramped that a wide-angle lens is 
needed, and even then only a portion of the 
front can be secured. To my joy I found a 
ladder leaning against the wall and, by moving 
and mounting it, I managed to get more of the 
roof-line than at first seemed possible. 

Before going to the cathedral and the Abbey 
Gate I bought more films ; for the previous 
afternoon at Beeston bad been a busy one for 
me. The proprietor offered the use of bis 
darkroom if I wished to do any developing — 
a process for which everywhere, here, there 
seems to be opportunity ; for, besides the hotels’ 
advertising one, nearly all the dealers, and there 
are many, have a good-sized closet fitted up. 
where for a few pennies you may develop or 
change plates. Few dealers print, but nearly 
all develop — films, chiefly by the Kodak Ma- 
chine, the 3 A at a cost of Is. 8d. or 40 cents for 
two 6 exposure spools. A somewhat higher 
price is charged for tray-development, which, as 
a rule, is very indifferently done. I am unable 
to speak of cost of printing-papers as I use only 
platinum, that averaging about as in the United 
States, but several things are put on the market 
by American manufacturers and sold at a lower 
price than at home, including things that are 
not attainable in the States. One is surprised at 
the prevalence of lozenge or tabloid developers 
for sale. I used on all my personally developed 
films a chemical called Lotol, which was most 
satisfactory, giving detail and softness ; it cost 
about as much as our prepared powders and I 
was told it was put out by Kodak, Ltd. For 
oxalate of potash 1 paid 7-1 cents a pound, but 
as at different stores at home I have paid sur- 
prisingly varied prices for some one chemical, it 
is perhaps not fair to accept that as an average. 

One thing pleased me. “ Take it,” the man- 
ager of a large supply-house said to me when I 
had ordered without first looking at my pocket- 
book ; “ we’ll trust you, we’ve never lost a 

penny by Americans yet.” (An embarrassing 
side was developed when I left England hur- 
riedly, leaving 14 shillings unpaid at the shop, 
which amount I lost, no time in remitting on 
arrival home and later received a kindly acknowl- 
edgment. ) 

From the East Wall the best general view of 
the cathedral is to be had, but it does not pre- 
sent nearly so venerable an appearance as from 
the south side. Entering by the south door, 

one sees the nave and choir stretching away in 
long lines, almost unbroken save by the gilded 
organ-pipes. The mosaics on the north wall 
are masterpieces, but succeed in giving only a 
bare, cold feeling. The carving of the choir- 
stalls is superb and deserving an exposure at 
any amount of trouble, and the unusually vast 
south transept is worth a plate. Nearly as 
large as the nave and as high, it long served, 
by being partitioned off, as a church for a dis- 
senting body of worshipers. From the north 
aisle a Norman door leads to the cloister court. 
Here and there fragments of diamond-leaded 
glass cling in the traceries, and sparrows fly in 
and out, and quarrel on the velvety green patch 
bounded by these walls. 

Just beyond the city-wall are the scanty 
though picturesque ruined arches of St. John, 
and just below, by the river, near the boat- 
livery, perched on a rock just big enough to 
hold it, “ The Anchorite’s Cells,” which tradi- 
tion has invested with several foolish legends. 
Though pretty still, it has suffered much in late 
years ; the rough-buttressed causeway leading 
to the narrow door still holds the rounded arch, 
but hidden by a hideous lath lattice, and the 
crumbling chapel-like window-traceries have 
gone, the space filled with silly spick-and-span 
casements and the all-covering ivy has been cut 
away. Chester’s necessary changes have not 
always fallen into fortunate hands. 

Near the cathedral, looking south, one sees 
Beeston and its ruined castle rising from the 
plain. Soon after one leaves Chester by the 
Crewe train, there thrusts itself into the sky on 
the right this abrupt mass crowned by towers 
and walls which cling to the very edge of the 
cliff, nearly four hundred feet above. “ The 
Roman emperors need not have poisoned their 
mistresses,” said a Californian that afternoon, 
“ if they had had such a place to fling them over.” 
Coming by a steep path from the only possible 
side, the south, one realizes its almost utter in- 
accessibility as also its utter ruin, not from 
assault, for of battle it has seen little, but from 
dismantlement in the 15th century after four 
centuries of being. After toiling up the rough 
hillside through bracken, shoulder-high, and 
lovingly picked out cottage, church and hamlet 
from the green beneath, you can lunch at the 
inn near the station in a room hung with portraits 
of masters-of-the-hounds and whose sideboard is 
filled with shining trophies, for this is the heart 
of a fox-hunting country ; and you may chat 
with a fellow-traveler, as the writer did, and 
find by a slow progress, one of comparison, that 
you live on “ next ” streets at home. 



An Appreciation of R. S. Kauffman 



I T is a well-known fact that in art and liter- 
ature the great masterpieces of the past 
have not been excelled and, in truth, rarely 
if ever equaled. At the present time, however, 
a knowledge and appreciation of art and litera- 
ture have become well-nigh universal. Fine re- 
productions of the works of the great masters can 
he found in nearly every hovel, the best litera- 
ture is scattered broadcast, and in the general 
uplift the camera has become an exceedingly 
common medium for artistic expression. 

These preliminary remarks give meaning to 
the proposition that the art of the camera is 
without its masterpieces for study and its pres- 
ent-day followers must produce the masterpieces 
which will raise this new method of artistic ex- 
pression to its rightful place among the arts 
and make it worthy of recognition by artist and 
layman alike. 

The assertion I make is that R. S. Kauffman 
is one of the men who successfully devote their 
energies to advance the art of the camera and 
elevate it to a place where it can he classed as 
an art. Since to the uneducated eye the pic- 
tures of the unnumbered amateurs are as good 
as the finished product of the recognized artist, 


it is his task to educate the masses so that the 
difference between a common print and a pic- 
ture of real merit can he immediately seen 
and appreciated. The importance of men like 
Mr. Kauffman and others of his class consists 
in their usefulness as educational leaders, reveal- 
ing, as they do, the possibilities of the camera 
to the great army of ambitious beginners who 
are looking for instruction and are eager for 

To an artist of the brush the miracle of the 
art of photography lies in the fact that the cam- 
era-artist, with the same instruments, the same 
outfit and the same subject will produce a print 
full of depth, tone and beauty, and by intelli- 
gent arrangement secure an artistic composition ; 
whereas the beginner will have only a sharp 
black and white print, simply a record of facts. 
The student will observe in the reproductions 
accompanying this article that the artist is de- 
clared in the choice of subject, the lighting and 
the point of view. 

But after all is said, unless to these qualities 
there is added a skill in the mechanics of photo- 
graphy, such as a knowledge of the tricks of 
development and printing and ability to use 





them judiciously, the resulting print will he 
marred by its failure accurately to reproduce 
the scene that inspired the original exposure. 
In other words the presentation of the beauty 
inherent in the negative demands careful thought 
and painstaking endeavor, such as are always 
furnished in the prints produced by Mr. Kauff- 
man. These published herewith are nothing 
less than gems in this respect. 

The subject of this appreciation measures up 
to the high standards demanded at the present 
time. It is not hard to state just what is ex- 
pected of a first-class camera-artist ; neverthe- 
less, though there are many ways to achieve 
excellence, all of these ways require unusual 
ability, application and the greatest patience. 
It is safe to say that the man who can keep his 
place among the leaders by sending prints to 
the leading exhibitions for several years and 
show decided improvement every year, is not 
only able to take infinite pains but lias (what is 
absolutely indispensable) artistic talents of high 
order. The modern artist does not content 
himself with making a good print from a good 
negative of a carefully selected subject; he does 
more ; lie brings out all the possibilities ; he sees 
that every shadow is rich and transparent, 
every light and shade properly distributed, and 
that the lines and masses are harmoniously 
adjusted. Artistic feeling, good technique and 
individuality — all are required, or the result- 

ing picture is not a work of art. Mr. Kauff- 
man has taken a place among the coterie of 
America’s artists because he has, for a number 
of years, sent notable pictures to the displays of 
first-class work in this country and in Europe. 
Few men more fully meet all the requirements 
necessary at the present time for approval. 

He has contributed to the American Salon 
since its first exhibition, also to the important 
London and Dresden Exhibitions. He lias con- 
tributed to all the American exhibitions of im- 
portance. He was first in the genre class in the 
recent exhibition conducted by Wanamaker, at 
Philadelphia, also second in the landscape class. 
Many of his pictures have been reproduced in 
the leading photographic journals. In the 
annual exhibitions of the Wilkes-Barre Club he 
has had his share of the honors. He was one 
of the original members of this club and has 
had much to do in giving it the place it now 
occupies. His greatest achievement, however, 
is his success in promoting the efforts being 
made by the camera-artist to elevate the stand- 
ards of the art of the camera. 


Art is the sensitive plate in the dark-camera 
of history which records both the mental and 
physical features of humanity without preju- 
dice when all other sources of light are shut 
out. — Walter Crane. 




the appeal to the great spirit 

A MONG the noteworthy works in sculpture 
at the Paris Salon of 1909, none made so 
deep an impression as the equestrian statue of 
an American Indian, by Cyrus Dallin, of Boston, 
U. S. A. It was not so much the superb model- 
ing of the horse and its rider, as the nobility 
and power of inspiration and beauty of expres- 
sion. which mark only the truly gifted artist. 
In this work Mr. Dallin manifests an intimate 
knowledge of the task he has undertaken, and 
proves himself an ideal interpreter of the higher 
traits of character of a savage race, for the 
American Indian, even at a time when the white 
man ruthlessly drove him from his native heath 
into forbidding regions, was not half so had as 
his conquerers had painted him. The subject 
excites the sympathy of everyone familiar with 
our country’s treatment of the Indian. 

" The Appeal to the Great Spirit ” so im- 
pressed the jury, that it awarded the artist 
the much-coveted gold medal, thus ranking 

Copyright , 1909 , Cyrus Dallin 

him with the great sculptors of the day. The 
work thus honored naturally attracted the atten- 
tion of the artist’s adopted city, and an effort 
is now being made to secure the original 
bronze, recently cast by Japoeus & Rouard, of 
Paris, for the city of Boston, the sum needed 
being $12,000. The Metropolitan Improvement 
League has started the movement, the Boston 
Art Commission has expressed its approval and 
the Boston Park Commission has assigned the 
site — the fashionable park, the Back Bay Fens. 
Among the artists and laymen of Boston who 
urge the acquisition of Mr. Dallin’s work are : 
Henry L. Higginson, Frederick P. Vinton, Bela 
L. Pratt. Joseph R. DeCamp, C. Howard Walker, 
Ignaz M. Gaugengigl, Edmund C. Tarbell, 
Thomas L. Livermore, Frank W. Benson, Wil- 
liam IV. Churchill, W. M. Paxton. Clarence H. 
Blackall, Sylvester Baxter, Frederick S. Con- 
verse, Henry LeFavour, Robert A. Boit and 
Wilfred A. French. [-Editor]. 



Advance in Roentgenology 

T HE process of producing impressions by 
means of the Roentgen rays, which is 
called radiography, and is embraced in the 
science of Roentgenology, although not strictly 
within the sphere of photography, may, however, 
engage the interest of our readers. Everybody 
is familiar with the first radiographs produced 
about fifteen years ago, which portrayed such 
objects as bullets embedded in bone, pins located 
in the muscular tissues, coins contained in a 
leather purse, and so forth. From this elemen- 
tary stage Roentgenology has rapidly advanced, 
until today the most astounding feats are per- 
formed, such as the recording of incipient and 
advanced pathological conditions of almost any 
of the internal organs. 

A recent demonstration of the most convin- 
cing character of the value of the x-ray as an 
aid to medicine and surgery, was given by 
Dr. Percy Brown, President of the American 
Roentgen Ray Society, at the Boston Art Club, 
Boston, U. S. A., on February 18, 1911. Doctor 
Brown gave a lucid description of the achieve- 
ments in medical science by means of the Roent- 
gen rays, particularly in determining the diseased 
conditions of bone, of the respiratory and digest- 
ive organs, and of the heart and kidneys. The 
lecturer showed stereopticon-projections of radio- 
graphs which depicted the earliest and more 
advanced stages of pulmonary tuberculosis in 
its various forms. He showed, too, the physio- 
logical process of the food passing into and out 
of the stomach, which can be depicted by 
momentary exposures. There were also shown 
abnormalities involving the appendages of the 
nose, the ear and other portions of the human 
organism. In the opinion of the speaker there 
is a distinct future for Roentgenology in the 
determination of actual conditions in practically 
any part of the human organism, both in health 
and in disease, with certain and definite results 
as regards complex diagnosis. 

According to Doctor Brown, it will not be 
long before we shall have x-ray motion-pictures 
as a routine method of teaching medicine, just 
as we now have photographic motion-pictures 
for purposes of amusement. The x-ray motion- 
pictures have already reached more than an 
experimental stage, as our readers may see, by 
referring to our Berlin Letter of Dec., 1910. 

Photo-Era’s Advertising Policy 

T O our advertisers, and to those who con- 
template advertising in this publication, we 
would say that we do not accept merchandise of 
any kind in payment for advertising-space. The 
only quid pro quo which we recognize is cash. 
W e are eager to acquaint our readers with any 
desirable commodity, photographic or other, pro- 
vided the article advertised, as well as the adver- 
tiser, merits our full approval and guaranty. This 
is our inflexible rule. What we lose pecuniarily 
in discriminating against unsafe advertisements, 
we more than make up in the esteem and confi- 
dence of our patrons. This, alone, is worth 
striving for. 

Mutilation of Proper Names 

W HEN persons write or talk about art — 
a fascinating and popular topic, but un- 
derstood by relatively few — they should, at 
least, be familiar with the names of the great 
artists. It therefore grieves the editor — and 
others who have seen and admired the master- 
pieces of the Italian school — to observe the 
constant mutilation of names honored in art. 
Take, for instance, the name of the master who 
painted that beautiful, stately figure of Santa 
Barbara which glorifies the little church of Santa 
Maria Formosa, in the rear of St. Mark’s Square, 
Venice. His real name is Jacopo Palma; but 
because there was another painter of the same 
name, who lived many years later, the creator of 
“ Santa Barbara ” and other famous pictures is 
known as “the elder,” or, in Italian, “II 
Vecchio.” Hence, this admirable artist is known 
as Jacopo Palma II Vecchio, or. for short, Palma 
Vecchio. When, therefore, fledglings in art- 
criticism refer to this painter as Palma de 
Vecchio or, worse still, by the single adjective 
“Vecchio,” the height of absurdity is reached. 

Buonarroti, sometimes spelled Buonarotti, was 
the family-name of the great Michelangelo, or 
Michelangiolo, so baptized, so called by his 
brother-artists, friends and patrons, and so writ- 
ten by those who would really honor him. 
Many writers, who should know better, seem to 
be under the impression that the illustrious 
Florentine’s given name was Michel, and that his 
patronymic was Angelo ; hence we sometimes 
read that “The Last Judgment,” in the Sistine 
Chapel, is by Angelo ! 



An Association of Amateur Photographers 

This association, conducted under the auspices of PHOTO-ERA, and of which PHOTO-ERA is the offi- 
cial organ, is intended primarily for the benefit of beginners in photography, although advanced camerists 
are just as welcome and many are numbered among its members. The aim of the association is to assist 
photographers by giving them information, advice and criticism in the Guild pages of PHOTO-ERA and by 
personal correspondence. Membership is free and may be obtained by sending name and address to 
PHOTO-ERA, The Round Robin Guild, 383 Boylston Street, Boston. Send a stamp for complete prospectus. 


Apkil is a month of transient showers and springing 
flowers. Everywhere Nature is rehabilitating herself, 
waking from her long winter’s sleep and putting on the 
translucent greens which make her so beautiful at this 
season. April is an ideal month for outdoor photo- 
graphic work, but its charm is fleeting and the amateur 
must avail himself of the brief hours which are productive 
of the most artistic effects to him who knows “ how and 
when ” to do the right thing. 

The weather has as much to do with the quality of a 
landscape-photograph as the landscape itself, for while 
the lines of a subject and its principal features are the 
same, yet the weather-aspect under which it is seen 
makes of it an entirely new scene. The April showers 
which come and go so quickly give an opportunity for 
the photographer to secure many fine effects in his pic- 
tures. When the shower is followed by bright sunlight 
the wet earth has a certain luminosity of its own which 
gives it in the picture a very interesting quality. 

Spring foliage comes forward very rapidly. One can 
make an object lesson in this fact by bringing a branch 
of pussy-willow into the house before the catkins have 
begun to swell perceptibly. In less than a week these 
embryonic buds will have grown to long fuzzy catkins. 
A warm April shower will cause leaves just budding to 
grow twice their size in a few hours, sometimes ; and 
over night there is often a wonderful change, for the 
leaves have so enlarged that the delicate effect they 
presented the day before is entirely gone. 

In making landscape-pictures in April one should 
study his subject carefully. The point of view should 
be well selected and the composition of the picture 
should be thought out beforehand. ( )ne particular reason 
for this is that the scene itself will be in a light tone 
and lack the strong contrasts and the deep halftones 
that a landscape later in the season presents. At the 
same time the spring-landscape is the most delightful 
of all pictures owing to the delicacy of the tones and 
lines of the fresh vegetation. 

If one chooses a day when the sky is not clear, but 
full of softly-floating clouds — “ cloud-argosies,” the 
poet calls them — it is a good idea under such condi- 
tions to photograph trees against the light for the pur- 
pose of getting an artistic rendering of the lightly- 
springing foliage. 

To the city -dweller spring-pictures means photograph- 
ing the streets and perhaps the parks. A wet street in 
early spring is a fine pictorial opportunity for the 
amateur. One can make very short exposures even 
during a shower, for the wet street is to a certain ex- 
tent a reflector, and a short exposure is all that, is neces- 
sary. Indeed, the exposure for a wet street is much less 
in many cases than when the street is dry. 

In the city the amateur has many opportunities for 
spring-pictures which include figures. With the first 
warm days the children come out with their tops and 
kites and marbles and very interesting genre pictures 
may be secured. 

Spring flowers should not be passed by when one is in 
search of a spring-picture. ( >ne may make such pictures 
outdoors or he may bring his specimens home and photo- 
graph them at his leisure. In the latter case it will be 
wise to put the flowers into water and let them remain 
for two or three hours before attempting to photograph 
them. These spring blossoms are so delicate that they 
droop very quickly, but if placed in water the stems 
will fill with the liquid and will remain upright for 
some time. In photographing flowers one should re- 
member what has so often been said in these columns — 
to photograph three or four blossoms rather than a mass 
of flowers. Such a picture is not only more artistic, 
but one is able to get a much better negative. Ortho- 
chromatic plates are to be preferred, as they give the 
true color-value of the blossoms. Great care should be 
taken in filling the picture-space well. Many decorative 
effects may be made by using the trailing vines of spring 
with their almost transparent foliage. Plain paper for 
fine delicate flowers and rougher paper for coarser blos- 
soms will bring out the picture in harmonious tones. 

The poet tells us that “Art is long and time is fleet- 
ing,” but the April photographer in search of ideal 
spring-pictures should bear in mind that his chance for 
artistic pictures and his time for making them are both 
fleeting, and he who would get the best must be up and 
doing early. 

Imperfect Prints 

The use of the adjective “ imperfect ” in this article 
is to designate prints which, although made from good 
negatives, come out spotted and stained. Many such 
prints come to the editor’s table from perplexed ama- 
teurs who do not know the cause of these imperfections 
and seek to know both the cause and its remedy. 

In many cases spots and stains are caused by dirt, 
either in the solutions or in the dishes in which the 
processes of making the picture were conducted. A tray 
may look clean and yet not be chemically clean, for the 
ingredients of solutions have an exasperating facility of 
attaching themselves to the trays, even those of glass and 
porcelain. With fiber trays one must be particularly 
careful that they are cleaned after using. Spirits of 
salts [commercial hydrochloric acid] mixed with an equal 
quantity of water will remove from glass and porcelain 
and celluloid trays all traces of photographic solutions. 
Muriatic [hydrochloric] acid or oxalic acid diluted will 
clean fiber trays and in some cases common washing- 
soda will remove all traces of chemicals. Wet common 
salt is the best cleanser of trays used for toning. 




In the ease of P. 0. P., hypo is the principal cause of 
stains. Hypo dissolves the unused silver salts from the 
print as well as from the plate, and if the solution is 
not strong enough the hypo changes the silver salts into 
silver sulphide, a compound almost if not quite impos- 
sible to remove from the paper. Prints which turn an 
ugly yellow perhaps after several weeks show that the 
fixing was imperfect, hence the yellow tone of the 
print. In transferring prints from the toning- to the 
fixing-bath they should first he well rinsed. The hands 
should also he rinsed well, for any trace of the hypo on 
the fingers will leave a brown stain, which is quite im- 
possible to eradicate, on the print. In using P. 0. P., 
one should tone only a few prints at a time, and, as a 
preventive of stains and to stop the toning, the prints 
should )>e rinsed and then dropped into a salt-bath for 
five minutes before putting them into the hypo. 

It often happens with the beginner that in his prints 
there appear small patches which look like stains owing 
to their being of a different color from the rest of the 
print. These apparent stains are not really stains at 
all, but are untoned spots. They are caused by air- 
bubbles which formed on the surface of the print when 
it was put into the toning-solution and prevented the 
action of the hath. In putting a print into the timing- 
solution, one should slip it in face down, turn it over 
immediately, and (if any hubbies have formed) one must 
break them immediately with the tip of the finger. 

Sometimes a print is toned more deeply at the edges 
than in the middle, and this imperfection is caused by 
the toning-solution’s being too strong. In most cases it 
is the better plan to soak the prints for a few minutes 
in water so that the surface may he evenly moistened, 
for this prevents the uneven toning though the solution 
may be too strong. 

Black specks surrounded by a white ring are caused 
by bits of metal lodging on the surface of the paper. 
These spots may come from a variety of causes. If 
there are not too many of them, they may be removed 
with a sharp needle and the spot may he filled with 
water-color paint of the tone of the print. 

Reddish spots on printing-out paper are caused by 
contact with the fingers, and may be removed by dip- 
ping a little piece of absorbent cotton into the toning- 
solution and rubbing the places gently. Abrasions or 
marks which occur on glossy paper will usually dis- 
appear when rubbed over with cotton dipped in alcohol. 

In gaslight-papers the brown or reddish stains which 
sometimes appear are caused by the developer’s being 
too old, or they may be caused by not moving the prints 
about frequently in the fixing-bath. Round white spots 
are caused by the formation of air-bubbles on the print. 
Greenish tones instead of the pure blacks and whites 
are the result of using a developer which is too old or 
contains too much potassium bromide. 

When one is unfortunate enough to get grease-spots 




on his prints, all that is necessary to do to remove them 
is to brush them over thoroughly with pure benzole, 
then after a few minutes blot off any of the liquid 
which is left with clean white blotting-paper. 


Picture-postcards are now like the poor, — we have 
them always with us. These cards are of immense 
quantity but of varying qualities, and the amateur who 
can make an artistic postcard or secure a subject of 
universal interest has the means of putting a pretty 
penny in his pocket for the trouble. 

Recently some very clever postcards were sent to the 
editor which suggested the using of one’s tiny negatives 
and making a postcard of several pictures instead of one. 
This card was a trifle larger than the government 
postals, being (i x 4j4, and on it were printed five 
small Italian scenes. The amateur had lately returned 
from abroad, his photographic outfit consisting of a 
small camera making a picture about 1 x 1% in size, or 
at least the prints were trimmed to this size. The pic- 
tures used were two made the long way of the plate, 
and three the short way, the longer prints being placed 
at the bottom of the card, one of the others at one side 
of the center and the other two above. None of the 
prints was on the same line, thus making the arrange- 
ment very pleasing. The general title was at the right 
of the central picture, and the titles of the scenes were 
printed below the respective subjects. These were all 
contact-prints and it must have required not only a good 
deal of time but much skill to arrange the prints so 
well and get them uniform in depth and tone in printing 
and finishing. 


This manner of making a picture-postal suggests a 
way to make them other than by contact-printing. 
This is to take a sheet of mounting-paper, arrange a set 
of views on it in as pleasing a manner as possible, put 
title and whatever ornamentation one desires on the 
margins, then copy the whole in the camera. One 
would thus have a negative from which any number of 
prints could be made, and if the scenes were of some par- 
ticular locality, as in the one described, the cards would 
he very attractive and would immediately find a market. 
If the prints were mounted on a medium-toned gray 
mount, the lettering should be done with white ink, so 
that it will show distinctly in the smaller print. One 
could make such postcards of scenes about a watering- 
place or summer-resort, for tourists are always in search 
of attractive cards picturing the vicinity in which they 
are staying. For the young amateur the way to get busi- 
ness would be to make a specimen card, then go to the 
stationer or to the druggist — for druggists carry pic- 
ture-cards now — and secure orders. If his work is 
well done there will he no difficulty in building up a 
profitable business. 

Printing-in Clouds 

The day of white skies in photographic landscapes 
has happily passed, and the amateur is now as anxious 
to secure clouds in his sky as he was heretofore to elim- 
inate them. It does not happen so very often with the 
average negative that one secures both clouds and skies 
in the same exposure, so that the printing of both may 
be done at the same time. The ray-filter helps to give 
a negative with a uniform printing-quality in clouds and 
landscape, hut it also prolongs the exposure and this 





is not an advantage. The wise amateur makes cloud- 
as well as landscape-negatives, carefully noting in a book 
the time of day at which the negatives were made and 
the condition of the weather. This is his guide to 
future double-printing, so that he may not commit the 
blunder of introducing storm-clouds into a sunny land- 
scape or evening-clouds into a picture taken at midday. 

Where one has been fortunate enough to obtain 
clouds in his landscape-negative and yet the printing- 
time of the clouds far exceeds the printing-time of 
the landscape, it is a very easy matter to get the clouds 
properly in a single printing. To do this, use non- 
actinic paint, or opaque, and block out on the glass side 
of the negative all of the landscape part, following the 
outline of the horizon carefully and cover also with the 
paint all objects which rise above it. The negative is 
then put into the frame, the paper adjusted and the 
printing continued until the clouds are deep enough ; 
then with a moist cloth the paint is wiped olf from the 
negative and the landscape itself printed. Such a 
course necessitates painting the negative each time a 
print is made, but unless one is making a wholesale 
business of duplicating prints, it is not so very much 
work and is the simplest way of printing. 

Masking the landscape-part of the negative and 
printing-in clouds from another negative is called 
double-printing. A print is first made on I’. 0. P. deep 
enough to show the horizon-line well. This print is 
then cut in half along the horizon-line, following the 
outline carefully. The pieces of paper are laid in the 
sun and left until they are blackened. These pieces of 
paper are used as masks to protect the paper from the 

action of the light while a print is being made from 
the cloud-negative or vice versa. To print, adjust the 
landscape mask over a piece of printing-paper, holding 
it in place with a bit of mucilage or a gummed wafer. 
Adjust the paper over a cloud-negative, and print until 
detail shows up pretty well but not too deep. Remove 
from the printing-frame, and, if the sky part of the 
negative is dense — that is, has a white sky — place the 
paper over the negative, taking care that the horizons 
register exactly. Print until deep enough, then tone as 
usual. In case the sky is thin, the sky-mask is used 
to protect the cloud-printing while the landscape is 

Clouds introduced into a landscape should not be 
printed too deep, but should be more sketchy or filmy- 
looking than deeper printing woidd make them. When 
they are printed-in lightly they are not likely to be dis- 
covered as a false sky. In making cloud-negatives one 
should always lower the camera enough to get in a bit 
of the horizon, for unless one is particular about this he 
may make the mistake of printing-in his clouds bottom- 
side-up. This has often been done and a superficial 
observer might not notice the curious effect ; but anyone 
who spends much time outdoors would see the upside- 
down clouds at once. 

A short time ago an article appeared in the Guild 
department on the kinds of clouds seen and the sorts of 
weather which occasion them. It would be well for the 
amateur not familiar with these most familiar objects to 
cut out the article on clouds and transfer it to his scrap- 
book. It will help amazingly in choosing the sort of 
cloud-negative to print into one’s landscapes. 


“ OH ! ” 



Cleanliness in the Darkroom 

Many prints come to the editor’s table for criticism 
each month, and among them are always several which 
would be very good if it were not for defects of various 
kinds. A serious source of many of these troubles is lack 
of cleanliness. The amateur is not usually clean enough 
in handling films and paper. 

One must remember that the sensitive surface (the 
dull side) of the plate or film should never be touched 
by the finger, or one will surely find a spot after devel- 
opment. One's fingers are seldom really clean except 
when they have just been rinsed. If one is handling 
chemicals such as hypo, it is absolutely necessary to 
rinse the fingers with great care and then wipe them dry 
before touching a plate or immersing them in the devel- 
oper, for a trace of hypo is enough to cause a spot or a 
stain. One is often shocked to see the filthy condition 
of the towel kept in the darkroom, but a sight of it ex- 
plains the source of the defects complained of, such as 
pinholes. It is of course clear that a dirty towel may 
leave more hypo on the fingers than it takes off. One is 
likely, too, to hold a plate just out of the fixing-bath 
where it can drip the strong solution of hypo on the 
floor. In such a case the water soon evaporates and the 
hypo, in the form of a fine dust, rises into the air and 
settles where it can injure sensitive material or the de- 

Dust is a great enemy to good results, and one’s best 
friend is the soft, broad, camel’s-hair brush. The kind 
with the hair set in rubber is the most durable, and it 
should be kept protected in an envelope when not in use. 
Dust can be prevented from doing damage if one uses 
a damp cloth instead of the dry dust-cloth, and a wet 
mop for the floor ; but it is well always to brush off every 
plate before putting it into the developer and every 
negative before putting it into the printing-frame. 

Clean solutions are necessary to ensure freedom from 
pinholes, for any little particles of undissolved matter 
may settle on the plate and prevent the solution from 
acting. One can always have clear solutions by filtering 
them just before use. The best filtering-medium is ab- 
sorbent cotton. Glass filter-funnels are cheap, but the 
rubber ones, though more expensive to buy, in first cost, 
are cheapest, in the long run, because they are practi- 
cally unbreakable. Wet a tuft of cotton placed in the 
funnel, pack it against the sides and filter the solution. 
One other precaution in the line of cleanliness should be 
taken, and that is always to rinse every utensil thor- 
oughly under the faucet as soon as one is through with 
it. Graduates, trays and other darkroom-utensils do not. 
need to be wiped dry, for cloth might leave more impu- 
rities than it took off. One should drain them well and 
set them up to dry, rinsing thoroughly before using 


Rodinal for Gaslight-Papers 

Rodinal is one of the most convenient of developers 
for the reason that all it requires to prepare it is the 
addition of water. This in itself commends it to the 
busy worker who must husband the time which he de- 
votes to his loved pastime. 

The main trouble with gaslight-pictures is the strong 
contrasts one gets unless he is careful to select the right 
grade of paper. Rodinal used as a developer for gas- 
light-prints seems to tone down these harsh contrasts 
and give a print with good gradations of lights and 
shadows, even though the negative itself be one of a 
more or less contrasty nature. 

Rodinal may be used in a weak or much-diluted solu- 
tion, and for some prints it is better to use it so, for the 
development although taking place more slowly is much 
easier to watch, and one can withdraw the print at the 
moment when it has reached the right degree of density. 

Rodinal is a clean developer and will not stain the 
print or the fingers. It is pretty sure to bring out of the 
print all the detail necessary and develops up the picture 

evenly anil* with good vigor. To use, take 1 dram of 
rodinal to 4 oz. of water. It can lie used even weaker 
than this, but if prints are developed in slow developer 
they must be shielded from light to avoid fogging. 

Rodinal is a concentrated salt of paramidoplienol and 
is closely allied to hydrochinone, but it gives a much 
softer negative than does this latter developer, pro- 
ducing a clear, gray-black image which makes a very 
beautiful print. 

When rodinal is used for plates it does not injure the 
plate if the solution becomes discolored, but for papers 
the solution should be clear to avoid muddy whites. 

Some of our leading amateurs use rodinal to the ex- 
clusion of other developers, because they like its action 
and also its cleanliness. 


There is, however, such a thing as imagination. 
Imagination is the seeing eye, the faculty of perceiving 
what is finest in nature and reproducing it in such a 
manner as to suggest beautiful ideas, or recall beautiful 
impressions. — G. Woolliscroft Eheaile. 


The Round Robin Guild 
Monthly Competitions 

Closing the last day of every month. 

Address all prints for competition to Photo-Era, 
The Bound Bobin Guild Competition, 3S3 Boyl- 
ston St., Boston, U.S.A. 


First Prize : Value $10.00. 

Second Prize: Value $5.00. 

Third Prize : Value $2.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is deemed 
worthy of reproduction with the prize-winning- picture, 
or in later issues, will he given Honorable Mention. 

Prizes may be chosen by the winner, and will be 
awarded in books, magazines, enlargements, mounts, 
photographic materials, or any article of a photographic 
or art nature which can be bought for the amount of the 
prize won by the successful competitor. 


1. These competitions are free and open to all photo- 
graphers, whether or not subscribers to Photo-Era. 

2. As many prints as desired, in any medium except 
blue-print, may be entered, but they must represent the 
unaided work of the competitor from start to finish, and 
must be artistically mounted. 

3. The right is reserved to withhold from the com- 
petitions all prints not up to the Photo-Era standard. 

4. A package of prints will not be considered eligible un- 
less return-postage at the rate of one cent for each two 
ounces or fraction is sent with the data. 

5. Each print entered must bear the maker's name, ad- 
dress, Guild-number, the title of the picture and the name 
and month of the competition, and should be accompanied 
by a letter sent separately, giving full particulars of 
date, light, plate or film, make , type and focus of lens, stop 
used, exposure , developer and printing-process. Enclose 
return-postage in letter. 

6. Prints receiving prizes or Honorable Mention be- 
come the property of Photo-Era. If suitable, they will 
he reproduced, full credit in each case being given to 
the maker. 

Notice to Prize-Winners 

These contests are open to everybody except those 
who have won three or more prizes. 

Subjects for Competition 

March — “ Artistic Interiors.” Closes April 30. 

April — “ Spring-Pictures.” Closes May 31. 

May — " Decorative Flower-Studies.” Closes June 30. 
June — " Water-Craft.” Closes July 31. 

July — “Gardens.” Closes August 31. 

August — “ Wood-Interiors.” Closes September 30. 
September — “ Shore-Scenes.” Closes October 31. 
October — “ Rainy Days.” Closes November 30. 
November — “ Christmas Cards.” Closes December 31. 
December — " Home-Scenes.” Closes January 31. 

Awards — Flashlights 

First Prize : L. S. White. 

Second Prize : Horace E. Stout. 

Third Prize : Ernest M. Astle. 

Honorable Mention : David Bevan. F. E. Bronson, Ger- 
trude M. Dodds, George E. Fitch, Alice F. Foster, O. G. 
Gilles, A. B. Hargett. James A. .Jarvis, R. W. Johnston 
Studios, F. W. Meiser, R. Reger, H. C. Roberts, 
H. Romeyn. C. M. Whitney, R. M. Wiltbank. 


Quarterly Contests for Beginners 

In these contests all Guild members are eligible pro- 

or Honorable Mentions in the past, from any 
SOURCE, and provided also that they have not 

All prints submitted, except prize-winners, will be 
returned if postage is sent in a separate letter with the 
data. See rules 4 and 5 in opposite column. 


First Prize : Value $5.00. 

Second Prize: Value $2.50. 

Third Prize: Value $1.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is worthy will 
be given Honorable Mention. 

A Definition of the Beginner 

Competitors in the Quarterly Contests for Beginners 
will please take note of the strict definition of the be- 
ginner which has appeared in the last two issues of 
Photo-Era. The tightening of the lines was made nec- 
essary by the fact that many contestants sent for these 
events work which was clearly the output of experts, 
thus taking advantage of the genuine beginners, viz., 
camerists of less than one year’s experience. 

Subjects for Competition 


Pictures of all sorts of winter amusements outdoors, 
skating, sleighing, coasting, snowballing, bunting, or 
any other sport, as well as indoor games, will be con- 
sidered eligible. 


Landscapes of trees in bud, early vegetation, late 
snow in the woods, flowering trees and shrubs, April 
showers and cloudy skies. Landscapes made on ortho- 
chromatic plates with a ray-filter not later than May 20. 

Sending Prints Safely 

It is strange that workers sending us prints persist in 
enclosing them between sheets of cardboard with the 
corrugations running in one direction. Photographs sent 
thus, or placed against one single sheet, very seldom 
reach their destination safely. Prints should first be 
wrapped in soft paper , and then placed between two pieces 
of cellular board — the kind which is covered on both 
sides — with the corrugations running in opposite directions. 

How to Send Stamps 

Readers are requested not to send postage stamps 
loosely placed in the envelope either before or after the 
insertion of the letter. In extracting the letter, the 
stamp remains in the envelope unless the recipient takes 
care to look into the envelope. Some thoughtless per- 
sons take a number of stamps and fold them so that the 
backs shall come together, which is not so bad as to 
have the backs cover the face. If the letter happens to 
be in a warm place during transit, the stamps become 
glued together and must be soaked apart by the recip- 
ient. The proper way is to moisten a small place in the 
center of the stamp and attach it to an upper corner of 
the front page of the letter. Or, if there are a number 
of stamps, they can be safely enclosed in paraffine-paper, 
which prevents them from sticking to each other during 
transit in the mails. 



E. .1. STURZ 




Answers to Correspondents 

Readers wishing information upon any point in 
connection with their photographic work are invited 
to make use of this department. Address all in- 
quiries to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 7 '43 East 
27th Street , Paterson , N. J. If a personal reply 
is desired, a self-addressed , stamped envelope must 
be enclosed. 

Leslie J. — The negatives which you send are all 
very much over-exposed. They seem to he hopeless as 
regards rendering them good printers. I would advise 
you to throw them away and make new ones. If you 
are not familiar with the camera and have not had 
enough experience to judge the time of exposures cor- 
rectly, then it would he a good plan for you to get an 
exposure-meter and learn to use it before going on the 
trip which you are contemplating. 

S. C. A. — No. there are Neither Fees nor Dues 
for Membership ill the Round Robin Guild. Send 
name and address to the Boston office and signify your 
wish to become a member. Any member of the Guild 
may compete in the monthly competitions. The hand- 
books for 1911 are not yet issued, hut you will find in 
the current number of the magazine a list of the sub- 
jects for the 1911 Guild competitions. 

B. R. T. — The reason why your Silver Nitrate 
Solution turned black may he from one of two causes. 
Either you left the bottle in the light, or else it was not 
tightly corked and the solution oxidized. If the solution 
is to stand for some time, pour a little melted paraffin 
wax round the cork where it enters the bottle. Keep 
the bottle wrapped in black needle-paper — the kind in 
which gaslight-papers are wrapped — and as a further 
precaution keep the bottle in a cupboard. 

II. E. M. — A Salve for MetoURoisoning is 

made as follows : Ichthyol, 1 dram ; lanoline, 2 drams ; 
vaseline, 3 drams ; boracic acid, 2 drams. Metol-poison- 
ing is denoted by the skin’s peeling from 1 1 le ends of the 
fingers. If not checked, the size of the place increases. 
It is sometimes accompanied by severe itching of the 
parts. If one has an abrasion on the skin the metol is 
pretty sure to poison. Use rubber finger-tips when de- 
veloping and avoid the consequences of metol-poisoning. 
If the skin-trouble is very serious it would be wiser to 
consult a doctor than to try to cure it one’s self. 

P. S. W. — The Materials of which a Bellows 
Is Made are leather, cloth, rubber, and sometimes silk. 
The leather bellows stands the greatest wear and tear. 
When the bellows is extended it should he three times 
the length of the longest side of the plate used with 
it. For instance, if you are using a 4x5 plate the ex- 
tension of the bellows should he fifteen inches. Unless 
you have special facilities for folding and pressing the 
bellows it would he very hard to construct one, though 
amateurs do sometimes make not only the bellows but. 
also the entire camera. 

J. W. R. — The Lens about, which you ask compares 
very favorably with the average anastigmat. It gives 
clear detail, is quick in action, and is a very satisfactory 
lens for all-round work. 

C. L. Powers. — A Ground=Glass=Substitute is 

made as follows : Sandarae, 36 grains ; mastic, 8 grains ; 
ether, 400 minims; benzole, 160 to 200 minims. Dissolve 
the gums and strain the solution. Coat the glass evenly, 
using a wide, soft brush. The more benzole used the 
finer will be the grain on the glass. 

Horace Green. — Actinic Rays are those rays 
of light which produce chemical changes. In photo- 
graphy the actinic rays are the blue, the violet, and the 
ultra-violet. Nonactinic paper is a paper which shuts 
out the actinic rays from objects. Black needle-paper 
and yellow post-office paper are nonactinic papers. 

Celia Dow. A Toning-Solution Containing 
Borax is made as follows : Gold chloride, 1 grain ; borax, 


45 grains; water, 7 li> oz. Heat the water and dissolve 
the borax in it, and when cold add the gold. This solu- 
tion must be used immediately, as it does not keep. It 
gives warm brown tones. To stop the toning, drop the 
prints into a weak salt-bath for three or four minutes be- 
fore fixing. 

J. L. Poorer. — The Factor for Pyro where one 
grain to the ounce is used with % grain of bromide is 
9. The factor without the bromide is 18. To find the 
factor of any developer divide the total time of the de- 
velopment of any plate by the time in which the image 
first appeared. Metol is one of the “ long-factor ” de- 
velopers. Metol brings up the image quickly all over 
the plate, but it takes time to attain density. 

A. T. Ross. — There are no books devoted to the sub- 
ject of Photographing Waterfalls. Consult the files 
of your photographic magazines and you will find arti- 
cles on the subject. Every Size Smaller Stop in the 
Uniform System or the F/ System doubles the 
time of exposure ; but with the stop you mention give 
about a third more time than with the larger. A 
Method of Restoring Faded Prints is to remove 
the print from the mount and immerse it in a solution 
of gold composed of one grain of gold chloride to each 
oz. of water. The solution must be neutral. Wash, 
then place for three or four minutes in a weak fixing- 
bath, wash and dry. This process is not always a suc- 
cess, but it works in many cases. 

George F. Ingalls. — To produce Sepia Tones on 
Bromide Paper use the solution called the redevelop- 
ing-solution. This gives beautiful warm tones. Prints 
on any grade or texture of paper will make good sepia 
prints if they are well washed to free them from hypo. 
Gaslight-paper as well as bromide may be treated with 
the redeveloping-solution. 

Mrs. N. M. C. — To Bleach Out the Yellow 
Spots on your negative caused by spattering it with 
developing-solution, use a solution of oxalic acid after 
soaking the negative for a short time in an alum-solu- 
tion. Such spots as you describe are very hard to elim- 
inate from the film. 

Howard H. Hess. — The Irregular Spots on Your 
Negatives developed in the tank are probably due to 
the fact that the chemicals in your developer were not 
thoroughly dissolved. Doubtless the chemical at fault 
was sulphite of soda, which does not. always dissolve 
readily. Developer should be well stirred to mix the 
ingredients thoroughly. 

N. L. Means. — To make Glossy Colors for 
Prints, mix water-colors with gum-arabic in rather 
strong solution. Use white gum-arabic, as the ordinary 
gum is yellow and likely to be rather dirty. In any case 
it is well to strain the gum-arabic before using it for 
mixing the water-colors. Gum-arabic-solution turns sour 
after standing a while, so it is wise to mix only a small 
quantity at a time, or to use a few drops of formalin as 
a preservative. 

Mary T. A Hydrochinone Developer for 
Warm Black Negatives is made of : Hydrochinone, 
40 grains; sodium sulphite, 1 -j oz. ; citric acid, 20 grains; 
potassium bromide, 10 grains; water, 5 oz. Make up 
another solution of: Caustic soda, 40 grains; water, 5 oz. 
To use, take 1 oz. of each and 2 oz. of water. Hydro- 
chinone gives sharp negatives with strong contrasts. 

Paul H. .1. — The Size of Drops of the different 
liquids varies greatly. For instance, water-drops are 20 
to a cubic centimeter, but it takes 83 drops of ether to 
make a cubic centimeter, it is wiser to measure liquids 
than to drop them. 

Arthur K. J. - To Spot Glossy Prints, use the 

ordinary spotting-colors and mix with white of egg or 

else with gum-arabic-solution. See answer to N. L. 
Means. The Definition of a Restrainer is a chem- 
ical which, added to the developer, retards its action and 
prolongs the development. Potassium bromide is the 
restrainer most used. 

E. R. Tenant. — A Test=Paper is a paper chem- 
ically prepared to detect the presence of acid or alkalies 
in solutions. Litmus paper is generally used for photo- 
graphic solutions. A piece of blue litmus paper put 
into a bath which is strongly acid will immediately turn 
a bright red. The red litmus paper put into a bath 
containing alkalies will turn blue. If the bath is neu- 
tral, that is, if it does not contain a preponderance of 
either acid or alkali, the red litmus paper will remain 

D. 0. T. — You can buy Luminous Paint, which 
comes ready-prepared for use, which you will find much 
better than to try to prepare it yourself. You can buy 
it in water-color — a white powder — or in oils as you 

S. S. Clarke. — Principal Focus is defined as 
follows : If rays of light from an object very far away 
enter a lens, they will be brought together at a point on 
the other side of the lens. The distance of this point 
from the stop or diaphragm of the lens is called the 
principal focus or equivalent focus of the lens. This 
explanation is not scientifically exact, but, will answer 
all practical purposes. All objects nearer the lens than 
100 feet (usually) are not sharp unless the lens is moved 
or a smaller diaphragm is employed ; and for commer- 
cial work, in which sharpness of all the objects in a view 
is required, it is necessary to utilize both methods to 
secure perfect detail. In artistic photogTaphy, how- 
ever, too sharp a focus is not considered desirable. It is 
better to focus the principal object clearly and then rack 
the lens a trifle backwards or forwards to soften the 
details without blurring them. 

Garo’s Art-Gallery 

President Garo’s studio at 747 Boylston Street, Bos- 
ton, is noted for its spaciousness, elegance and complete- 
ness. On the same floor as and directly opposite the 
studio is a large apartment fitted up as an art-gallery, 
where almost always one may see examples of the work 
of Boston’s foremost painters. At the present, time the 
room is filled with about forty paintings of unusual in- 
terest by such well-known artists as William Dean Ham- 
ilton. Louis Kronberg, William J. Kaula, William W. 
Churchill, Sears Gallagher, Lee Lufkin Kaula, Charles 
P. Thompson, Chase Emerson, Theodore Schneider, 
Marion Powers, J. A. S. Monks and F. G. Quimby. 
Visitors, particularly members of the P. A. of A., are 
heartily welcome. During Mr. Garo’s absence at State 
Conventions, his Secretary, Mrs. Fairbanks, will do the 
honors of the studio. 

Interesting Travel-Talks 

While a fickle public is just now favoring a low class 
of musical comedies and vaudeville, including a meretri- 
cious variety of motion-pictures — and purveyors of 
amusements are only too eager to cater to this depraved 
taste — illustrated lectures on travel are maintaining a 
high standard of excellence. 

Eugene Farnsworth’s travel-talks are among the best, 
chiefly because the stereopti con- views are superb as 
photographs, showing uncommon selective skill, and the 
coloring is consistent and skilfully done. His motion- 
pictures are a delight and admirably presented, the 
spectator experiencing no discomfort in viewing them. 
This feature of Mr. Farnsworth’s lectures cannot be too 
highly praised. 




Address all prints for criticism , enclosing return 
postage at the rate of one cent for each two ounces 
or fraction thereof , to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 
7Jf.3 East 27th St., Paterson, N . J. Prints must 
bear the maker's name and address, and should be 
accompanied by a letter , sent separately , giving full 
jjarticulars of date , light, plate or film, stop, expo- 
sure, developer and printing-process . 

u Marie.'* L. T. R. — This picture is of a class 
which often finds its way to the editor's table and is 
evidently the work of a beginner. It shows the figure 
of a young woman backed up against a tree and so evi- 
dently posed for her picture that one longs to attract 
her attention in some other direction. The tree comes 
directly in the center of the picture and so of course the 
principal object, the young woman, comes there also. 
The worker has overlooked the fact that the center of a 
picture is its weakest part and that the principal object 
of interest should never occupy this place. The trunk 
of the tree cuts the picture exactly in half and one has 
two pictures instead of one. The contrasts are very 
unpleasant, the trunk of the tree being very black and 
the gown of the girl very white. The camerist should 
study the simple laws of composition. These were pub- 
lished a short time ago in the Guild department together 
with diagrams showing where the objects in a picture 
should be placed in order to conform to the laws of 
good composition. 

Night Across the City. C. F. D. — Night-photo- 
graphy has a great fascination and the use of non-hala- 
tion plates makes it possible to get unusual pictures of 
very commonplace objects and scenes. The print here 
criticized was taken from the top of some tall building 
in Chicago and shows roofs of buildings dimly outlined, 
brilliantly-lighted windows on a busy street, and in the 
distance two skyscrapers, their windows picked out with 
little dots of light. Taken in the daylight this would 
be a very prosaic scene, but, like all night-pictures, this 
one has an air of mystery which makes it interesting. 
This picture, though it shows no ground at all, the 
buildings in the immediate foreground shutting off the 
view of the streets, is very well composed, the blemish 
in it being a bright row of electric lights at the lower 
right-hand side. With this toned down by the use of 
water-color paint, the objects of interest immediately 
take their proper prominence. The print is mounted 
on a dark gray paper about the tone of the deeper half- 
tones, and a light gray border is introduced between 
print and mount, giving the effect of looking through a 

To Green Fields. B. L. G. — This print is made 
on a postal and is only about 2 x *1 V 2 in size, and yet 
it is a very charming bit of work. It shows two or 
three cows with their calves just a short distance from 
the pasture-bars, the path to which leads through a 
shady lane. In the middle-distance stretches the sunny 
pasture toward which they are eagerly hastening. A 
small boy is lowering the bars, his presence completing 
a very good genre picture. This picture is good in 
composition, but unfortunately the time of day was not 
well chosen, for the shadows are too small and sharp 






and the delicate halftones which would have made the 
picture very attractive are wanting. It is a pity that 
this could not have been taken when the sun was not 
quite so high in the heavens. Two or three pictures 
sent hy the same artist, though excellent in technique 
are lacking in artistic merit. 

On the Edge of the World. — This picture was 
taken in the far West and shows the figure of a young 
woman standing on the edge of what is apparently a 
deep and wide chasm. In the distance are indistinct 
ranges of mountains and in the foreground are rough 
rocks, flat, but full of cracks and crevices. The figure 
is placed rather low on the plate and almost at the ex- 
treme left of the picture, a position which in most cases 
would be considered inartistic, but in this particular picture 
— if one uses his imagination a little — it suggests that 
she is withdrawing from the scene rather than becoming 
a part of it. the mountains in the distance looking al- 
most like clouds rolling up to engulf her. The pose of 
the figure is good, the lines simple, and were it not for 
the very heavy shadow in the fold of the dress, the pic- 
ture would he extra good. This defect could be light- 

ened on the plate to bring it into harmony with the rest 
of the costume, which is light in tone. A second picture 
sent hy the same artist is called “ Final Falls,” and al- 
though not very artistic it is excellent in technique. 
The picturing of the water is well done, as it is full of 
detail instead of white and chalky-looking. The print 
shows unusual rock-formations and a most unique bit of 
w ate rf all. 

Avoiding the Bridge. R. 0. W. — This is a very 
interesting- picture of six elephants in single file crossing 
a sandy creek. This picture has good illustrative value 
and was a happy snapshot of these clever animals. The 
same artist sent in two prints entitled kfc The Lily Pond ,' 1 
made from the same negative but using a different kind 
of paper for each. The one printed on rough paper is 
better than the one printed on the postcard, the latter 
paper giving too harsh contrasts for such a subject. 
This picture is decorative in treatment, and enlarged and 
toned to a soft green would be quite effective. No sky 
shows in this picture, the background of trees entirely 
obscuring it, and this detracts from the composition. 
These prints are all well finished and mounted. 


Exposure for Interiors 

The editor of “ The Crucible ” lias always seemed to 
have an instinct about the exposure necessary for a given 
interior, based partly on judgment of the illumination 
on the ground-glass and partly on the results of a series 
of comparative exposures. On some interiors recently 
undertaken, however, we failed lamentably, getting 
over-exposure in every case. The Watkins meter was 
accordingly tried. Using Vulcan plates as Watkins 
250, the Pin-tint, by the table in the little instruction- 
booklet. required stop F/32. A number of comparative 
tests were made on the same subject with stops both 
larger and smaller than this standard. The rendering 
was best at F/32, and no improvement resulted from 
doubling the time by the use of F/22. F/45, on the 

other hand, proved too small for this particular plate 
with the Vl e-tint, thus confirming the speed-number of 
250 for the batch, when used indoors. 

The method is very simple. The camera having been 
made ready, the meter is set up facing the light in the 
worst-lighted part of the room in which detail is re- 
quired and the lens uncapped. As soon as the sensi- 
tive paper in the meter shows a visible discoloration 
(the sixteenth-tint) the lens is capped. The table re- 
ferred to above gives particulars for other plates. In 
the case of Eastman Film, for instance, with a speed of 
180, F/28 (i.e., between F/22 and F/32) and the Do- 
tint should give perfect results. 

Photographing Forts Forbidden 

The so-called spy bill, introduced by Representative 
Hobson, of Alabama, makes it unlawful for any person 
to make photographs or drawings on board battleships 
or in navy-yards or forts without proper authority. The 
penalty is a fine not to exceed $1,000 or one year in 
prison. If the person attempts to sell the information 
to a foreign government, the penalty is fixed at ten 
years in prison. Mr. Hobson explained, in response to 
questions, that the bill would not prohibit tourists from 
taking harmless snapshots. | Exchange. ] 

Such provisions are in very general force abroad, and 
our readers are advised to attempt no snapshots near any 
government property on their trips to Europe. The 
least annoying accident which can happen to a photo- 
grapher who has innocently infringed the law is the loss 
of his roll of films — containing, it may be, much- 
treasured subjects. 

Greenville Camera Club 

The Greenville Camera Club of Jersey City at its 
annual meeting elected the following officers : President, 
William Iiohidoux ; Vice-President, Charles Agneau ; 
Secretary, A. A. Langer ; Treasurer, William Arm- 
bruster ; Trustees, George Van Blaricom. Charles Arm- 
bruster and Thomas F. O’Brien. Plans were also 
discussed for a joint-exhibition with the Elysian Camera 
Club of Hoboken. 

Plate-Speeds for Exposure-Guide on Opposite Page 

Class 1/3 
Lumiere Sigma 
LumiO-e Non-Halation Sigma 

Class 1/2 

Barnet Super-Speed Ortho 
Ilford Monarch 

Class 3/4 

Barnet Red Seal 
Ilford Zenith 
Imperial Flashlight 
Eastman Speed-Film 
Wellington Extra Speedy 
Wellington Anti-Screen 
Class 1 


Ansco Film, N. C. and Vidil 
Barnet Extra Rapid 
Barnet Ortho Extra Rapid 
Barnet Studio 
Cramer Crown 
Cramer Crown Non-Halation 
Ensign Film 

Hammer Special Extra Fast 
Imperial Special Sensitive 
Imperial Non-Filter 
Imperial ( Irthochrome Special 

Kodak N. C. Film 
Lumiere Film 

Premo Film Pack 
Seed Gilt Edge 27 
Standard Imperial Portrait 

Standard Polychrome 
Stanley Regular 
V ulcan 

Wellington Film 
Wellington Speedy 
Wellington Iso Speedy 

Class 1 1/4 

Cramer Banner X 
Cramer Banner X Non-Halation 
Cramer Instantaneous Iso 
Cramer Inst. Iso Non-Halation 
Cramer Isonon 
Eastman Extra Rapid 
Hammer Extra Fast 
Hammer Extra Fast Ortho 
Hammer Non-Halation 
Hammer Non-Halation Ortho 
Seed 26x 
Seed C. Ortho 
Seed L. Ortho 
Seed Non-Halation 
Seed Non-Halation Ortho 
Standard Extra 
Standard Orthonon 

Class 1 1/2 
Cramer Anchor 
LumRre Ortho A 
Lumi&re Ortho B 

Class 2 

Cramer Medium Iso 

Cramer Medium Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford Rapid Chromatic 

Ilford Special Rapid 

Imperial Special Rapid 

Lumiere Panchro C 

Class 2 1/2 

Barnet Medium 
Barnet Ortho Medium 
Hammer Fast 
Seed 23 

Class 3 
Wellington Landscape 

Class 4 

Stanley Commercial 
Ilford Chromatic 
Ilford Empress 
Cramer Trichromatic 

Class 5 

Cramer Commercial 
Hammer Slow 
Hammer Slow Ortho 
Wellington Ortho Process 

Class 8 

Cramer Slow Iso 

Cramer Slow Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford Ordinary 

Class 12 

Cramer Contrast 
Ilford Halftone 
Seed Process 

Class 100 

Lumiere Autochrome 


Exposure-Guide for April 


Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground ; river-scenes ; figure- 
studies in the open ; light-colored buildings and monuments ; wet street- 
scenes, with stop F/8 (U. S. No. 4) on Class 1 plates. 










l 9 A.M. to 3 P.M. 






8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 






7 a.m. and 5 p.m. 






6 a.m. and 6 p.m. 




1 1/3 

2 2/3 

The exposures given are intended merely as a basis for trial, and 
will vary with latitude and other conditions, but they should give 
full detail in the shadows, except when iso or ortho plates are used 
without a screen, when the exposure should he doubled, unless the 
light itself is yellow. Color-sensitive plates in such a case are much 
faster than plain plates. 

For other stops multiply by the 
number in third column. 


U. S. 1 

X 1/4 


U. S. 2 

X 1/2 


U. S. 2.4 

X 5/8 


U. S. 3 

X 3/4 


U. S. 8 

X 2 


U. S. 16 

X 4 


U. S. 32 

X 8 


U. S. 64 

X 16 

SUBJECTS. For other subjects, multiply the exposure for average landscape by the 
number given for the class of subject. 

18 Studies of sky and white clouds. 

1 4 Open views of sea and sky ; very distant 
landscapes ; studies of rather heavy 
clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. 

1 2 Open landscapes without foreground ; open 
beach, harbor and shipping-scenes ; 
yachts under sail ; very light-colored 
objects ; studies of dark clouds ; snow- 
scenes with no dark objects ; most tele- 
photo subjects outdoors ; wooded hills 
not far distant from lens. 

2 Landscapes with medium foreground ; 
landscapes in fog or mist ; buildings 
showing both sunny and shady sides ; 
well-lighted street-scenes ; persons, ani- 
mals and moving objects at least thirty 
feet away from the camera. 

4 Landscapes with heavy foreground ; build- 
ings or trees occupying most of the 
picture ; brook-scenes with heavy foli- 
age ; shipping about the docks ; red 
brick buildings and other dark objects ; 
groups outdoors in the shade. 

8 Portraits outdoors in the shade ; very dark 
near objects, particularly when the 
image of the object nearly fills the plate 
and full shadow-detail is required. 

16 Badly-lighted river-banks, ravines, glades 
and under the trees. 

32 Wood-interiors not open to sky and with 
dark soil or pine-needles. 

48 Ave rage indoor portraits in well-lighted 
room, light surroundings, big window 
and white reflector. 

PLATES. M hen plates other than those in Class I are used, the exposure indicated above 
must be multiplied by the number given at the head of the class of plates. 


With Reviews of Foreign Progress and Investigation 

Conducted by MALCOLM DEAN MILLER, A.B., M.D. 

Readers are encouraged to contribute their favorite methods for publication in this department 
Address all such communications to The Crucible, PHOTO-ERA, 383 Boylston Street, Boston 

Enamel Labels for Bottles 

Enamel paint, such as is sold for various household 
purposes, makes a practically indestructible and water- 
proof label. G. L. King' suggests the following proce- 
dure. “ Tlie first thing to be done is to make a template 
of some stilf paper, such as brown paper. One for each 
size of bottle in use may be cut. The template is simply 
a piece of paper large enough to wrap around the bottle, 
with an opening the size of the label cut in such a posi- 
tion on the paper that when the edge of the template is 
level with the bottom of the bottle the label comes in 
the right position. 

“ The bottle being clean and dry, the template may 
be put round it and secured with an elastic band, and 
then with just a trace of dark enamel and a small brush 
the outline of the label may be drawn on the bottle. 
The template is then removed, and the whole area of the 
label given a thin coat of enamel. It is well to give 
three coats at intervals of a day. When the last is quite 
dry, the name of the chemical may be written or printed 
in white enamel.” 

Defects of the Focal-Plane Shutter 

A writer in Photography in speaking of the selection 
of a shutter, comments as follows on the weak points of 
the focal-plane type. “ Taking smoothness of action, 
the small diaphragm shutters are easily first, the focal- 
planes, with their big blinds and comparatively heavy 
moving parts, coming last in this respect. For slow 
speeds, many who are alive to the advantages of the 
reflex camera . . . still prefer to use other patterns be- 
cause of the smoother movement of the tiny leaves of the 

“ It is the lack of simultaneous exposure over the 
whole plate which is the weakest point about the focal- 
plane shutter with a narrow slit. When such a slit 
passes across the face of the plate, one part is exposed 
an appreciable time before another part. As the narrow 
slit is used only for rapidly-moving objects, it follows 
that there must be distortion of the picture. 

“ The exposures given with focal-plane shutters vary 
according to the way the shutter is kept, with spring in 
tension or relaxed ; and they vary more than many sus- 

The best solution seems to be to have even a reflex camera 
provided with a supplementary shutter on the lens, this 
latter being set open on “ time ” whenever the focal- 
plane is in use. The ordinary focal-plane is deficient in 
not allowing speeds under '1 o second ; but there is a 
tendency to give slower snaps in some of the more recent 
models produced abroad. Lately we bave seen speed- 
work produced by shutters such as the “ Koilos,” the 
“ Compound,” and the “ < Iptimo,” of sufficient merit 
to convince us that, the focal-plane is not an essential 
unless the worker can easily afford to own a battery of 
cameras for different purposes. 

Exposure-Table for Autochromes 

Users of the Watkins Bee Meter who do not wish to 
go to the trouble of obtaining an extra Autochrome-dial 
can use the following table with their regular meter. 
The rule is to test the best light , entirely disregarding the 
illumination of the shadows, and to make no variation 
for subject. Exposures for other stops can be calculated 
by the usual rules. The table is for outdoor views only, 
and is derived from an instrument fitted with a special 
dial for Autochromes. 

Exposure at F/8 (U.S. 4) 

Light (seconds) Exposure (seconds) 

2 1 

3 U/2 

4 _____ _ 2M> 

5 3 

6 _____ ._ 3 y 2 

7 4 

8 5 

11 8 

16 _ 11 

22 16 

Securing Skies and Foregrounds Together 

Mr. R. James Wallace, the noted authority on the 
photography of color and Director of the Research 
Laboratories of the G. Cramer Dryplate Company, writes 
to us as follows : 

“ The difficulty you refer to in the use of a color- 
filter, insofar as your obtaining skies and foregrounds 
or distances and foregrounds which will print with full 
detail, is inherent in the use of every filter which pre- 
sents a perfectly flat plane of color. It is not a case of 
color-correction, but a case of luminosity-correction; in 
other words, you have a brightness which is many times 
in excess of the brightness reflected from the objects in 
the foreground, and this excessive lightness cannot be 
corrected with a simple flat color-filter. 

“ We are, however, now preparing for sale a divided 
filter, the function of which is to correct just this diffi- 
culty to which you refer. It is composed of two filters 
cemented together. One of the glasses carries an even 
film of color over its entire surface, whereas the second 
filter-glass contains a dim gray dye which extends over 
only one-half the area. These two are then cemented 
together. The action is obvious : the flat color-filter 
simply corrects the view for color, while the divided 
plate dims down the excessive brightness of the sky to 
a definite amount, thus bringing it into printing-accord 
on the negative. Of course you understand that this 
relative brightness in the view is beyond the range of 
the ordinary photographic plate. Hence the necessity 
of this new ‘ Gradus ’ filter.” 




Our Easter picture, which appears on the front cover, 
also on page 16S, was made expressly for this issue by 
Katherine Bingham. Like all this artist's work, this 
picture is eminently refined in conception and treatment. 
Data: 8x 10 Century Studio Camera; 1 B No. 7 A 
Goerz Lens ; 16Mj-inch focus ; used at full aperture ; 
March, 2 p.m.; 0 seconds; north studio light,; 8x10 
seed 27 ; Pyro Acetone ; 6 Vi x 0V-> platinum print. 

Mr. Fleckenstein's “ April Fog,” our frontispiece, is a 
companion to “ A January Thaw,” published in the 
March issue. Viewed at the proper distance, the picture 
will hold its own as a poetic conception of a phase of early 
spring. Data: April. 6 P.M. ; dense fog; rear combina- 
tion Series III Goerz lens; 14-incli focus; stop F/ll; 
60 seconds exposure ; Standard plate ; Rodinal ; Angelo 
Sepia Platinum print. 

The eight pictures which accompany Miss Stanley’s 
excellent paper on home-portraiture, pages 160-164, are 
unusually attractive, not so much because the subjects 
themselves invoke sympathetic interest, but because the 
artist has the faculty to create childhood-scenes which 
are quite irresistible, and then to capture them success- 
fully. All this requires tact — a faculty developed to 
an eminent degree by such women photographers as 
Mrs. Pearce, Mrs. Cones, Blanche Reineke, Katherine 
Bingham, and, as in this instance, Katherine Stanley. 
Data : Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss Tessar, Series II B lens ; 
F /6.3 ; 814-inch focus ; used at full opening ; 5x7 
Century Grand ; Eastman Plate Tank, Eastman Pyro 
tank-powders ; Angelo Sepia Platinum prints ; Standard 
Polychrome plates ; for other details see article. 

“ Artillery Going Into Action,” page 166, is one of the 
few military photographs — and the editor has seen 
many — which possesses strong pictorial value. How 
1 > (bailie would have liked to paint this scene ! If artist 
Berger is as successful with his other endeavors of this 
character, he deserves to be known as the D^taille 
among photographers. Data: Nettel camera ; Euryplan 
lens; F/4.5; June. 8 a.m. ; clouded sky; %oo second ; 
Agfa Chromo plate. 

The picture by Albert Hochheimer, page 169, is from 
a commercial gum-print, (single printing) of the artist’s 
own manufacture, and represents one of those pictur- 
esque groups of old-time dwellings in which his part of 
Bavaria abounds. Data: Busch lens; 6-inch focus; 4x5 
camera ; August, sunset, 6 p.M. ; Vito second ; metol hydro 
developer ; Hochheimer gum-print. 

This month’s iusert is a strong, well-balanced, pictorial 
shore-view — one of the best we have ever seen. The 
atmospheric perspective is superb and the values are 
well interpreted. Mr. Armbruster surely deserves to be 
complimented on his eminently artistic success. Data : 
8 x 10 A. & S. Compact camera ; Goerz Dagor lens ; 
10%-inch focus; stop used. U. 8. 12; October, 4 p.m.; 
bright light; Goerz ray-filter; % o second; Cramer 
Inst. Iso plate; pvro soda; print on sea-green carbon. 

Mr. R eese's series of pictures, pages 172-174, are in 
the nature of experiments, although the artistic possi- 
bilities by enlargement are set forth by the author- 
photographer. For data see article. 

The portrait of the great sculptor Rodin, page 176, is 
of peculiar interest, as it depicts him as a middle-aged 
man. before he had evolved that powerful statue, “ Le 
Penseur,” which the municipality of Paris has caused to 

be placed in front of the Pantheon at Paris. The por- 
trait was made in Rodin’s studio, but we have not been 
able to obtain any data, not even the name of the photo- 
grapher. It is a characteristic pose, one assumed by the 
sculptor when engaged in an argument, and he was — 
and still is — a spirited and convincing debater on all 
questions of art, notably the proper status of sculpture 
in portraiture and symbolism. 

Ernest M. Astle has gained so high a reputation as an 
interpreter of nature’s most serene moods in summer 
and winter — examples of his exquisite artistry having 
appeared in these pages many times — that one is eager 
to peek into his album of photographic impressions of 
his travels in foreign countries. One ought not, perhaps, 
to find fault with so interesting a picture as the Chester 
street-scene, page 177. It is so satisfying in its compo- 
sition and general pictorial effect, that one may forgive 
the excessive leaning of the buildings at the right — due 
to a little carelessness in holding the camera at the 
moment, which must have been a trying one in the 
circumstances. The rest of Mr. Astle’s pictures betray 
the experienced and discriminating eye of the artist. 
They remind the editor of his own visit to this sightly 
old town, in 1889, when he carried with him, as his only 
camera, the first Kodak taken to Europe by an American, 
which he used — quite successfully, too — preferably in 
the open. Data will be found in Mr. Astle’s article. 

The admirable winter-scene, page 182, suffers from 
apparent optical defects in the lens, as the tree at the 
left is unduly clear in definition to harmonize with the 
other objects in the picture. No data. 

The beautiful tonal quality and fine gradations of 
the original print, “Lambs Resting,” page 183, are re- 
sponsible for its appearance here. This is not enough, 
however, for the picture lacks the element of unity, be- 
cause the lamb at the right seemingly takes no interest 
in its companions. The sharp falling off in distinctness 
of the objects in the foreground may also be criticized, 
as well as the vagueness of the background. Just what 
Mr. Kauffman had in mind, is not apparent. No data. 

With a little trimmed from the right side of the print, 
the picture on page 183, would have been better spaced. 
The white spot over the mother’s shoulder does not 
add to the pictorial interest of the picture, which, how- 
ever. is superbly composed. No data. 

“ The Peddler Woman,” page 184, is a masterpiece of 
simple, direct, pictorial arrangement. Exhibited at the 
Royal, London, 1909. No data. 

“ Toilers of the Field,” page 185. like other pictures 
by this artist, has been exhibited in collections in this 
country and in Europe. The arrangement of the figures 
was the subject of spirited discussion at the London 
Salon of 1909, where it was hung and eventually sold. 
The editor had the pleasure to attend this interesting 
exhibition. Everyone, including the editor, acknowl- 
edged the novelty of the subject, the rush of movement 
and the breadth of treatment. No data. 

“ At the Edge of the River,” page 186, presents a 
striking pictorial effect. The reason for the rigid atti- 
tude of the boy is not made apparent, but he is probably 
musing. The distance in this picture could be made 
more assertive without impairing the composition. No 

The photograph of the statue by Cyrus Dallin, page 

187, was made from the clay model which was exhibited 
at the Paris Salon of 1909. Though placed to be seen 
advantageously, the work was not well lighted to suit 
the photographer, whose name we have not been able to 
ascertain. Those Frenchmen at least manage to find 
a suitable position for the camera in photographing 
statuary, using a step-ladder, or improvising a temporary 
stand. Data: 3(4 by 5-inch glossy Cyko print from a 
masked 3% x 5%-ineh negative. This accounts for the 
lack of suitable margin at the top. 

Our Monthly Competition 

Much has been written on the subject of flashlight- 
photography, but relatively very little to help the 
amateur to obtain pleasing, harmonious results. The 
contest, however, yielded a larger number of meritorious 
subjects than we had anticipated. It is hoped that the 
worthy examples reproduced in this issue will be care- 
fully studied, so that they may lead to improvement in 
a branch of photography which, on account of its being- 
degraded by a host of incompetents — including a grow- 
ing number of impostors in the big- cities — needs to be 
reclaimed and placed on a level of respectability. It 
then can be made a source of popular satisfaction and 
pecuniary profit. 

Mr. Stout’s picture, page 190, is technically superb, 
the dress, with its scale of gradations, being particu- 
larly well managed. All tendency to chalkiness lias 
been avoided and yet the subject is broadly treated. 
Data: 2 drams Nichols Flash-Powder ; Orthonon plate ; 
Rodinal developer ; 8 x 10 E. B. Platinum print. 

Geraldine Farrar is an adept in impersonation and 
appears to striking advantage in whatever role she at- 
tempts. The scene in Humperdinck's “ Die Kiinigs- 
kinder,” in which the American diva, as the goose-girl, 
entices her feathered friends, is one of rare charm and 
beauty, and the management, as well as the artist’s 
many friends, desired it to be perpetuated by the camera. 
L. S. White, the foremost flashlight-artist of New York, 
successfully performed the task. As a stage-picture, 
with all the elements of composition and pictorial effect- 
iveness, Mr. White’s achievement has probably never 
been surpassed. Data: 11 x 14 Century camera; No. 6 
Dagor lens, 12-inch focus; stop F/16; Metropolitan 
Opera House; 11 x 14 Standard Imperial Portrait 
plate; Hydro; % oz. flash-powder own make ; 11x14 
glossy print. 

On page 192 is pictured an incident, and with no 
attempt at simulation. There probably was no time to 
induce the kind-hearted friend to take a seat a little 
nearer the camera, thus making- her, with her feathered 
patient, the most prominent feature in the picture. 
Mr. Astle lias discreetly avoided distracting highlights, 
a circumstance to be noted. 1 lata : 5 x 7 Premo Cam- 
era; B. & L. -Zeiss lens ; stop F/ll ; Seed Non-Halation 
Ortho ; metol-hydro ; Platinotype print 5 x 7. 

Each of the honorable-mention pictures grouped on 
page 193 has distinct merits. “ The Gossips ” is quite 
true to life, as if the exposure has been made surrepti- 
tiously. It excels, too, in softness of illumination, and 
the total absence of extraneous high lights. This feature 
marks all the pictures honored in this contest. Data: 
Luxo flash-powder ; lens at F/8 ; Cramer Inst. Iso ; 
Tollidol developer; 4 x C % Velox print. 

In arrangement and technique, “The Lesson” is a 
masterpiece. Data: Eastman’s flash-sheet No. 1 ; 5 x 7 
Cramer Isonon ; R. R. lens full opening; pyro-soda, 
tank devel. ; Angelo sepia Plat, print, rough. 

A photograph id' a cat in which the pupils are shown 
widely dilated is a rarity. Mr. Fitch proves that such 
a picture can be successfully made. The soft definition 

is also to be recommended. Data: Flash-pistol; Seed 
20 x ; Rodinal; Velox print. 

The interior excels in the delicacy of values. As the 
predominating color in the room was white, it would 
have been difficult to avoid the effect of flatness, so 
obvious here, unless by changing the direction of the 
light. N o data. 

The flashlight-study, page 194, is shown, not for any 
particular merit it may possess, but to illustrate what 
could be done in the early days of flashlight-work — 
twenty years ago. Data: Voigtlander & Son’s 00 A 
Euryscope lens; 7VL'-inch focus; stop F/ll; 5x7 
Cramer plate ; No. 3 Scovill Flash-Cartridge ; hydro- 
quinone developer; 5x7 Albumen print. 

The picture of the baby admiring its Christmas tree, 
page 195, is just a record of a delightful memory, yet 
the Lilliputian model is well placed, while the many 
light objects in the picture are not obtrusive. Data : 
Luxo Powder ; flash diffused through cheesecloth ; Stan- 
ley plate ; pyro ; 5x7 Premo Camera ; Turner-Reich 
lens; 814 -inch focus; stop F/ll ; 5x7 Argo print. 

The winsome picture by Louis Schreiber (a profes- 
sional portraitist), page 19(3, betrays the hand of the 
expert. The light, however, should have been diffused 
so as to lighten up the left side of the face. Data : Luxo 
Powder, 15 grains ; pyro ; Cyko print, redeveloped ; 
8 x 10 Dallmeyer Stigmatic lens, used wide open. 

Beginners’ Contest 

After considerable correspondence with the author 
of the beautiful picture on page 198, the editor consid- 
ers him eligible in this competition. Mr. Sturz has true 
artistic instincts. His achievement merits high praise 
and but little criticism. Data: Oct. 1(3, 1910, 11 a.m. ; 
Isostigmar lens, F/5.8; stop F/ll; 1 second; 4x5 
Seed D. C. Non-hal. ortho ; pyro-soda (Seed’s Pow- 
ders) ; Royal Bromide print through bolting-cloth. 

Page 199 pleasingly depicts a popular subject, and in 
a somewhat original manner. The grainy texture of 
the original print prevented a fully adequate reproduc- 
tion. Data : October, bright day with fleeting clouds ; 
3A Kodak; R. R. lens; stop F/16; 3 times color- 
screen ; Vs second ; N. C. film ; tank-development ; 
314 x 5% Royal Velox print. 

The picture, page 201, shows another student of un- 
common ability. The subject is one of rare beauty and 
yielded several charming negatives, the best being our 
prize-winner. Data: Dec. 19, 1910, 3 p.m. ; Goerz Dagor 
lens; stop F/l(3; heavy ray-filter; 30 seconds; 5x7 
Stanley plate ; 5x7 Argo Buff print ; both developed 
with Hydro-Edinol. 

J. W. Newton, page 202, manifests the true pictorial 
instinct. Data: Sept., 1910, 8 a.m.; quite foggy; rear 
combination of Planatograph lens, 14-inch focus; 2 sec- 
onds; pyro-acetone ; Cyko Plat, print; Edinol. 

W. K. Zucker is still in the elementary stage, but he 
appreciates beautiful scenery, and evinces considerable 
technical knowledge. His effort, page 202, is care- 
lessly composed, showing two pictures in one — a com- 
mon fault. Data : Nov. 3, 3 P.M. ; sun, hazy ; stop F/32 ; 

: 1 !<> seconds; 4 x 5 Seed 27 plate ; pyro. 

Depth and sharpness of definition are important 
qualities in a lens, but of little pictorial value unless 
fully controlled by the camerist. The picture on page 
203 shows his desire to emphasize the chief point of in- 
terest — the woods. He should have used a larger stop 
and chosen a different view-point, if possible. Data : 
Nov. 21, 1.20 p.m. ; sunlight; 3(4x5% Premo Film- 
Plate Camera; Seed 27 Plate; B. & L. R. R. lens; 
stop F/32; 1 second. 



Moving Pictures for the Insane 

Frank Scott Clark Visits Boston 

Moving pictures as a means of curing insane patients 
will be tried by Supt. Sidney D. Wilgus of the Elgin. 111., 
State Hospital. 

“Moving pictures will help us materially as a cure,” 
said Dr. Wilgus yesterday. It will take the minds of 
the patients from their misfortunes, and, like other 
harmless diversions, stimulate their weakened brains. — 
Photoisms for Jan. 1911. 

It is true that persons of sedentary habits do not 
take sufficient physical exercise. Transferring pictures, 
particularly if they he heavy ones, from one room to 
another, upstairs or downstairs, is good, healthful ex- 
ercise for well persons as well as for the insane. 

Absurd Ambiguities 

If people are urged to talk intelligibly, it is in order 
that one shall be able to understand them. Therefore, 
printed English should be as comprehensible as spoken 
English. Ambiguous phrases should be avoided, but 
carelessness or haste often makes this impossible. The 
mere use of the hyphen at once imparts sense to a term 
which otherwise would have to struggle for comprehen- 
sion. M alking-stieks, drinking-cups, dressing-tables, 
cutting-boards, dark-room, dry-plate, cooking-pots, milk- 
ing-stools — omit the hyphen in these compound words 
and the meaning is at once lost. Who was ever able to 
drink cups or cook pots ? Inanimate objects are not im- 
bued with life, but they may be made use of to accom- 
plish certain ends. They cannot of themselves walk, 
dress or milk. Cutting boards is an occupation. A dark 
room or a dry plate is not necessarily associated with 
photography ; but a dark-room or a dry-plate — or, bet- 
ter still, darkroom, dryplate — is. A long time ago 
Photo-Eka prepared a list of compound words for our 
printer, who is compelled to follow it. In fine, we are 
glad to note that our custom of using compound words, 
particularly in photographic nomenclature, is being 
adopted by our cotemporaries. 

Garo and the N. E. Convention 

As we do not believe in putting all our eggs into one 
basket, we will not divulge in this issue all the good 
things promised for the Bridgeport Convention next 
September. President Garo is making his preparations 
and will fulfil his promise to make this event the most 
brilliant in the history of New England Conventions. 
He is drawing heavily on his own bank-account, and has 
visited the New folk ami Pennsylvania State Conven- 
tions and will attend others. In this way he is able to 
note novelties, talent, and devices to help him to arrange 
an event that will not only be a red-letter day in the 
history of Bridgeport, but will redound to the credit of 
New England. W hen the time is ripe, he will unfold 
his plans. It therefore behooves every live and pro- 
gressive photographer of New England, whether he be a 
proprietor or an employe, to keep in mind the Bridge- 
port Convention, which will take place at the most 
convenient time in the year, viz : September. 

In the meantime, photographers visiting Boston for 
business or for pleasure should call at the studio of 
President Garo, 747 Boylston Street, Boston, obliquely 
opposite the Lenox Hotel. All are welcome. 

Combining business with pleasure, Scott Clark, the 
eminent Detroit portrait-photographer, accompanied by 
Mrs. Clark, attended the New York Convention and 
thence proceeded to Boston. His principal object in 
visiting the Hub was to make sittings of some of his for- 
mer Detroit patrons, who have now moved to the Hub and 
insist on being photographed by him and by no other. 
This speaks well for Mr. Clark, as Boston boasts of Garo. 
Parkinson, Frizell and others quite proficient in home- 
portraiture. Mr. Clark will return to the Hub again 
soon to make sittings at the homes of other patrons. 
He certainly knows how to do it and, what is also grati- 
fying, he enjoys the friendship and goodwill of his Bos- 
ton competitors. 

Mr. Hoppe’s New Studio 

Our London Correspondent, Mr. E. O. Hopp<i, F. 
R. P. S., informs us that he removed on March 1 to a 
new studio at 59 Baker Street. Portman Square, London, 
West. At this address he will be glad to welcome visit- 
ing Americans and show them all the hospitality in his 
power. Following the custom which is now becoming 
prevalent with the highest-class photographers, Mr. 
Hoppd has done away with all the conventional unreali- 
ties of the old-time studio, even to the skylight and the 
showcase. Instead of this time-honored arrangement, 
he has installed only tall sidelights. The decorations 
and furnishings were planned and selected by an emi- 
nent Vienna architect, working in collaboration with 
Mr. Hoppci. 

Secession-Prints at the Albright 

The Director of the Albright Art Gallery, of Buffalo, 
Cornelia B. Sage, informs us that the following prints 
were purchased from the recent exhibition of photo- 
graphs held by the Photo-Secession : 

The Bird-Cage 
Portrait-Group _ 

Lombardy Ploughing-Team 

Dresden China Fan __ 


Arthur and Guenevere 
The Manger 
The 1 Winter ■_ _ 

Moonlight — Orangerie 

Street — Fifth Avenue 
The Chiffonier 
Garden of Dreams 

I). O. Hill 
I). 0. Hill 
J. Craig' Annan 
Heinrich Kuhn 
Baron de Meyer 
A. L. Coburn 
Frank Eugene 
Gertrude Kasebier 
George II. Seeley 
Eduard Steichen 
Alfred Stieglitz 
Clarence II. White 
Joseph Keiley 

The price paid for these works was $300, and not 
several thousand dollars, as announced by some of our 

Eight prints by D. 0. Hill, the property of A. L. 
Coburn, were presented to the Gallery at the close of 
the exhibition. 

In the January Academy Notes, the quarterly publica- 
tion of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, appears a repre- 
sentative selection of reproductions from the late exhibit. 
The magazine is very attractively gotten up and is 
issued at 25 cents per number. 



E. O. HOPPE, F. R. P. S. 

Since the oil- and the bromoil-proeess have come to 
stay, the question whether results produced by these 
methods should be admitted into the same classes in which 
straight or pure prints are entered has continually been 
raised. It lias been urged that a special group should 
be made for all photographs in which there had been 
hand-work, as it would not be possible to compare fairly 
the work of a person employing purely photographic 
means witli that of one who relies largely on the after- 
treatment of the print to obtain the desired artistic re- 
sult. This topic came up again a few weeks ago at a 
meeting of the Royal Photographic Society when Mr. 
Lyddon demonstrated his new process for the finishing 
of photographs in monochrome and color. Briefly 
speaking, Mr. Lyddon’s method consists in the putting 
of very thin layers of transparent oil-colors upon the 
surface of any oil-resisting photographic paper, such as 
bromide, and rubbing it well in with pads of cotton 
wool. As the process is quite an interesting one and 
is very easy to work. I am giving my American friends 
the full working-details. Personally, I do not advocate 
the employment of the method for serious pictorial 
study, but I think it affords splendid means for the 
study of the importance of lengthening gradation, cor- 
recting tone-values and suppressing unimportant detail. 

A few of the fundamental principles which Mr. Lyddon 
gave in tabloid form are : Highest lights and deepest 
darks are always small. The tones next in strength to 
both should be broad. A cast shadow is always darker 
than the shadow-side of the object casting that shadow, 
unless there is a difference in color value of the two sur- 
faces. Darkest darks are usually near the highest light. 
Shadows with definite shapes are darker towards the 
edges. There is no such tiling as outline. Form should 
be represented by tone-values and planes. A back- 
ground is necessarily behind a figure ( portraitists, please 
note ! ). Have variation in form, tone and spacing. 

The advantages of this new method over the old ones 
are : Ability to match tone and surface, ease of modi- 
fication or removal, and rapidity. The outfit consists of 
a whitewood palette, palette-knife, double dippers, a 
selection of bristle brushes, one or two sable brushes, a 
soft rubber, plenty of cotton-wool and two media — No. 1 
being used for all matt-surface work and No. 2 for dark 
shadows so that they do not appear dried in.” The 
list of colors is somewhat restricted for the sake of per- 
manence. Flake white, aureolin, raw sienna, burnt 
sienna, rose madder, vermilion, light red, ultramarine, 
transparent emerald oxide of chromium, burnt umber 
and ivory black. The print to be treated should not be 
quite fully developed, but should have nearly the quality 
of a perfect enlargement. It should not be pumiced, 
nor should spots be erased. The surface must not have 
been abraded, as it is detrimental to color and perma- 
nency if the oil penetrates through these abrasions. If 
smooth paper is used a little of No. 1 medium should be 
rubbed in and left on to prevent hard edges. To begin 
the operation, a little of the medium is rubbed over the 
print. Then the desired color is laid on with the brush 
and immediately well rubbed in with a pad of cotton- 
wool. Where the coloring is going a little over the out- 
lines the defect is easily remedied by the application of 
No. 1 medium. In laying on the color for the back- 
ground it is necessary to bring it up to the face, and 
to work away from the face with the cotton-wool. 

The above-described method is not only applicable to 
portrait-work, but may be used for landscape-work as 
well. Sky-effects, for instance, can be tried and altered 
time after time, till one gets the effect that seems most 
suitable to the sentiment of the landscape. 

The Royal Photographic Society is holding its annual 
exposition in the spring this year, viz., in May. The 
council has arranged the forthcoming exposition as 
follows : 

Section I. 
Section II. 

Section III. 
Section IV. 
Section V. 

Pictorial photographs. 

General photographs, including landscapes, 
architectural subjects, portraits, etc. It 
is intended to show here the possibilities 
of the craft, and photographs will be se- 
lected for their technical excellence only. 

Natural-history photographs. 

Scientific photographs and processes of 

Section II. is an innovation. Medals will be placed at 
the disposal of the judges in sections II., III., IV. and 
V. Besides the five sections, arrangements will be 
made for the display of material, apparatus and trade- 
photographs. The exposition will be opened to the 
public on May 9 and will remain open until May 31. 
Every evening lectures will be delivered. The last day 
for sending in work by carrier is April 24. As there is 
not much time left to write to the secretary for entry- 
forms, all American photographers who wish to submit 
work to this important exposition are welcome to send 
their prints to me with a written declaration that the 
work submitted is entirely their own and I will gladly 
fill in the forms and see that the work is properly sub- 
mitted. All work should reach me not later than April 
22 addressed to 59 Baker Street, Portman Square, 
London, W. The packages must be marked, “ Royal 
Photographic Society’s Exposition.” Please note that 
pictures need not be framed. 

One of the oldest firms of photographic-paper-manu- 
facturers on the continent, Messrs. Trapp & Munch of 
Friedberg near Frankfort, is celebrating its fiftieth anni- 
versary this year. They are the original manufacturers 
of the famous TM Matt Albumen Paper, which for about 
ten years, has been worked almost exclusively in virtu- 
ally all the leading continental studios. Diihrkoop, 
Perscheid, Erfurth, Grainer and other leading men have 
produced some of their finest work on this medium. 
This paper, which provides the photographer with an 
ideal medium for the expression of his artistic ideas, has 
now been introduced into this country and as the results 
obtained by it resemble the finest work of the proof- 
engraver and as it is exceedingly simple to work I give 
instructions for working. 1 have used this particular 
paper for over six years and am thoroughly pleased with 
the results. Printing should be carried rather deeper 
than is usually done with printing-out papers. The 
following are the operations in a condensed form : 

Washing : Five to six changes until milky appear- 
ance has entirely disappeared. 

Toning: Potassium chloroplatinite . . 15 grains 

Phosphoric acid (1.120 test) . % ounce 

Water 40 ounces 

Fixing: Hypo 4 ounces 

Water 40 ounces 

This manipulation results in pure black tones of great 
richness. Warm sepia tones are obtained by trans- 
ferring the well-washed prints into a salt-bath composed 
of one teaspoonful of ordinary salt to 40 ounces of water 
for 8 minutes before toning them in the platinum-bath. 




The Imperial Statistical ( flfiee has just issued its an- 
nual report on Imports and Exports. Both have in- 
creased during 1910. 

It will be seen from this report that the German makers 
export almost six times as much as they import. In cam- 
eras the imports have diminished, the exports being- 
chiefly directed to Russia and Great Britain. With re- 
gard to plates, the imports also show a decrease. The 
French plate, once so much used here, is losing in popu- 
larity. On the other hand, our exports have increased. 
Our best customers in this line are Russia, Austria and 
Switzerland. Of lenses for cameras, microscopes, etc., 
the increase in exports was large. Regarding sensitive 
paper, there has been a decrease of exports and an 
increase of imports. Similar are the conditions with pic- 
torial postcards, this being due to the imitation by for- 
eign printers of the fine German cards which until very 
recently ruled the world's market. Yet in point of 
quality and artistic taste the German product is still un- 
surpassed. The United States is still our best customer. 

Although in the German empire the photographic in- 
dustry is quite flourishing, that of her neighbor, Austria, 
is not at all in a satisfactory condition. In the past year 
it was even worse than in 1909, which in its turn showed 
no improvement on the preceding year, 1908. The ex- 
port to England and other foreign countries has dimin- 
ished considerably, owing to the establishment there of 
a large number of new factories, and it was possible to 
meet this competition only by a reduction in prices. As 
instances of this competition it might be mentioned that 
in the Northern Tyrol the purchasers of photographic 
articles now fill their requirements in Germany, and 
those of the Southern Tyrol in Italy. As a consequence 
of this, many of the larger manufacturers have been 
obliged to reduce their output and the numerous smaller 
ones are having a hard struggle for their existence. 

Professional photography assumes a somewhat unus- 
ual position. On the one hand the government is en- 
deavoring to further it by backing the Vienna Institute 
of Graphic Arts, while on the other hand it refuses to 
give the trade the simplest legal protection by not 
issuing the Certificate of Competence. The bad state of 
this trade is also due to the ever-increasing extension of 
amateur photography. In Austria portraiture is still 
the main business and is thus more or less dependent on 
the moneyed classes for its maintenance. For this reason 
amateurs are regarded as most unwelcome competitors, 
as they supply a certain quantity of portraits out of 
pure love of the pastime. A similar state of affairs 
exists where photography is employed for commercial 
purposes, such as the photographing of houses and build- 
ing-lots for disposal, articles for sale, by auction, etc., 
where the professional photographer is often displaced 
by the amateur. Usually the employes or the state offi- 
cials handle the camera with some success, to the detri- 
ment of the professional. 

Considerable progress is to be noticed as regards artistic 
perfection, which also means a success from the financial 
standpoint. This, however, does not change the situa- 
tion of the average studio. The keenest competition 
and the lowest prices are noticeable in the enlargement- 
trade. no doubt owing to the overcrowding in that 
branch. Other reasons for the present small profits are 
to be found in certain rules and restrictions set up by the 
Austrian Board of Trade. 

Taking up the various specialties, it should be noted 
that the manufacture of cameras has particularly to suffer 
from fierce competition often caused by the continued 
establishing by foreign firms of branch works. Another 
reason is the foundation of a syndicate of metal-manu- 
facturers, which has increased the price for raw metal 
enormously. Consequently the export business in cam- 
eras, which was started only a few years ago, suffers 
very much. To this must be added the considerable in- 
crease of duty imposed on most metals imported from 
other countries, such as brass and aluminum. In fact, 
it is intended to manufacture some metal articles abroad 
and import them ready-made. 

As regards photographic papers, the business was bad 
in 1908 and has deteriorated every year since, owing to 
the very strong competition. To the existing- German 
and Belgian firms is now to be added an Italian factory 
which is trying- to secure a market in Austria. It is not 
yet possible to produce in Austria an absolutely reliable 
raw paper, which must be still imported mostly from 
Germany, and the Austrian firms express dissatisfaction 
with their Government for refusing to reduce the duty on 
raw paper. The conditions are equally bad as regards 
cardboards and mounts. It is also necessary to sell dry- 
plates at extremely low prices, so that no margin of 
profit is left. The raw material for them has to be im- 
ported, and the oidy pleasant outlook is that the Belgian 
glass is being replaced by that from Bohemia, the latter 
being somewhat cheaper. The only good reports con- 
cern general photographic articles. In this line there 
has been a continuous development for the last three 
years. A number of new business-houses and shops 
(such as drug-stores) have taken up the selling of these 
articles. In the optical branch of the business the Aus- 
trian industry, however, still holds a very modest place. 

Famous Studio for Sale 

Time gets in its inexorable work on all of us. Our 
old friend Geo. G. Rockwood of New York is about to 
enter his eightieth year. That, together with the loss 
of his only son, causes him to offer his famous studio in 
New York for sale. He informed us the other day that 
he would part with it for a very small sum compared 
to its real value. See his advertisement. 

The Snowden Ward Lectures 

We had the pleasure to attend the Boston lectures 
given by H. Snowden Ward, as announced in Photo- 
Eka, and were much pleased with all of them. “ Mar- 
vels of Photography," in particular, has been brought 
strictly up to the minute and includes a number of very 
fine color-photographs. These Mr. Ward projects to 
a very large size by means of a special lantern. The 
Autochromes were particularly good in color-rendering, 
though not so brilliant as the pictures made on the 
Thames and the Dufay Dioptichrome plates; these two 
latter, however, showing the regular pattern of the 
ruling in an annoying manner. Probably the best of the 
color-pictures was a three-color transparency on films by 
William H. Kunz, the subject being the interior of a 
greenhouse. Camerists everywhere are advised to watch 
their local newspapers for the announcements of the 
Snowden Ward lectures in their locality, next season, 
and to attend his unusually fine talks on Shakespeare 
and Dickens, with their beautifully-colored slides. 

Our Talisman Again 

In the February number of Portrait , the breezy and 
interesting professional monthly issued by the Ansco 
Company, appears in full the story of the talisman, from 
the editorial page of our January issue. 



Announcements and Reports of Club and Association Meetings, Exhibitions and Conventions 

are solicited for publication 

Capital Camera Club Elmira Camera Club 

The twentieth annual exhibition of the Capital Cam- 
era Club, Washington, D. C., will be held in Heinicycle 
Hall, Corcoran Gallery of Art, May 5 to 15, 1911. 
Entries from non-members will be received up to April 
12. Full particulars regarding conditions will be fur- 
nished on application to the chairman of the exhibition- 
committee, Francis C. Crow, 1010 F Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C. We trust that many of our Guild 
members will submit prints for this exhibition, as the 
committee in charge desires to make this year’s show 
one fitly to commemorate the twentieth anniversary. 

The New Postal Photographic Club 

Mr. Roy C. Burckes, of Winter Hill, Massachusetts, 
the director of the newly-organized and as yet unnamed 
pictorial album club, called at our office recently. He 
had with him some of the work of the charter members, 
and an examination of the pictures showed very clearly 
that there is ample warrant for the existence of the 
club. Mr. Burckes stated that work had been sub- 
mitted by Bronsen Hormell, M. A. Yauch, C. M. Ship- 
man, Harry G. Pliister and II. E. Stout and that they 
would undoubtedly he elected to membership. The 
name of our good friend, Ward E. Bryan, was inadvert- 
ently omitted from the list of charter members in 

Mr. Burckes states that as director he is determined 
to make every member live strictly up to the conditions 
set for the circulation of the albums. This source of 
failure in some former clubs will be eliminated by the 
prompt expulsion of any member transgressing any of 
the rules adopted by the club. Further particulars will 
be announced from time to time in these columns. 

Grand Rapids Camera Club 

The Grand Rapids Camera Club has lately taken in 
several new members and is in a very prosperous condi- 
tion. The lately-elected President, Charles Vander- 
velde, one of whose pictorial masterpieces appeared in 
March, states that an increase of darkroom-facilities 
will soon have to he made. The club will hold its an- 
nual exhibition in April, and all the members are busy 
preparing exhibition-work in order to make it more suc- 
cessful than their former excellent shows have been. 

Death of James Paris 

Just before going to press with this issue, we learned, 
with regret, of the death of one of our contributors, 
James Paris, of Prairie du Ohien, a professional photo- 
grapher of great ability. He died at La Crosse, Wis., at 
the age of sixty-seven. Only recently he had a pleasant 
correspondence with Photo-Era, the outcome of which 
was that we accepted an entertaining article by Mr. Paris, 
describing a camera-tour in Scotland, accompanied by a 
series of photographs of high technical merit. This 
article will appear in an early issue of Photo-Era. 

One Year’s Subscription Free 

We offer one year’s subscription to Photo-Era, free, 
to the person who will send us (5 of these back numbers, 
in good condition. July, Sept., Oct., Nov., 1908; Dec., 
1909; Jan., July and Nov., 1910. 

The regular annual meeting and election of officers of 
the Elmira Camera Club resulted in the election of the 
following officers for the year 1911 : H. E. Snyder, Presi- 
dent ; W. E. Bryan, Vice-president ; Seely Stage, Secre- 
tary-Treasurer ; H. T. Stagg, C. W. Campbell, F. E. 
Scharf, Directors. 

The revised constitution as submitted by the constitu- 
tion-committee was adopted by a unanimous vote of the 

Camera Club in Montreal 

The Montreal Amateur Athletic Association Camera 
Club will hold, April 17 to 22, its fifth annual exhibi- 
tion, which promises to be the most successful in the 
history of the club. New classes have been added and 
more prizes are offered. There will be five different 
classes with either one or two prizes consisting of silver 
or bronze plaques for each. Class A, for figure-studies, 
and Class B, for all other subjects, are open to all 
amateur photographers. Hand-camera class open to all 
members of the M.A.A.A. Club and Green class open 
only to M.A.A.A. Camera Club members. 

Pictures to be delivered not later than April 7. No 
entrance-fee will be charged. For further information 
and entry-blanks write to the secretary, H. C. Stone, 
M.A.A.A. Camera Club, 250 Peel St., Montreal, Que. 

Death of A. N. Hardy 

Amory N. Hardy, a veteran photographer of New 
England, died at his home in Somerville, Mass., Friday, 
February 24, at the age of seventy-six. 

Mr. Hardy, a few years ago, retired from the active 
business-life which he began forty years ago in the city 
of Boston. By strict attention to business, always main- 
taining in the quality of his work, as in his business 
methods, the highest standard, he did much for the ad- 
vancement of the photographic art in the community 
where he was active, acquiring an enviable reputation as 
an artist and as a man of the highest ideals in business. 

It is very instructive to study the career of Mr. Hardy, 
and it forms an admirable example to those who would 
emulate his efforts during a long and active career. All 
those who have known him speak warmly of his high 
moral character, which had great influence on his em- 
ployes, who were encouraged to put forth their best 
efforts. Mr. Hardy thus enjoyed the hearty and loyal 
co-operation of all those who were active in his establish- 
ment. Although Mr. Hardy employed labor to produce 
every dollar’s worth of work he produced and confined 
himself strictly to the business management, he was 
known far and wide as one of the best developers of 
latent ability and talent in his staff that the photographic 
profession has ever known. There have been several 
conspicuous instances of this in his long career, where, 
by encouragement and advice, he contributed very ma- 
terially to the artistic development of his operators, 
several of whom attained a national reputation. 

In his social life Mr. Hardy was very highly esteemed 
for his exemplary, although retiring character, his kind- 
ness of heart and his devotion to his family and his 
church. He leaves a widow, two daughters and a son. 
The latter is engaged in professional photography. 


TION, 1910. 


Los Angeles Camera Club 

The troubles of the Los Angeles Camera Club in in- 
creasing its membership enough to make it a really 
strong organization seem to be over. The mark of 
seventy-five members, which was set a long time ago, 
but which has hitherto seemed unattainable, has been 
passed. At the close of January the club had five to 

Like a sick man. who often requires the administra- 
tion of a stimulant to carry him past the crisis of bis 
malady, the organization needed something outside of 
its membership to give it an impetus. A series of three 
spectacular public events in quick succession proved to 
be the stimulant. These were, first, the Santa Monica 
automobile road races ; next, Aviation Week, and finally 
the annual Pasadena Tournament of Roses. The last 
event took place New Year’s Day and the others within 
a month. Among the three, the interest of amateur 
photographers was aroused to such an extent that the 
missionary-work of the members of the club enabled 
them to reap a harvest of new members. Since the 
boom started the membership has been growing steadily 
and each weekly meeting finds from two to five new appli- 
cations to be acted on. The former mark of seventy- 
five having been wiped out, the club has now raised it to 
125 and a campaign is on to reach this before July 1. 
In this experience of the Los Angeles Club there is a 
hint for other clubs. Any public event that brings out 
the cameras of the community is a membership-help if 
taken advantage of promptly. 

Two interesting demonstrations by traveling repre- 
sentatives of photographic manufacturers supplemented 
the usual instructive lectures and lantern-slide exhibits 
of the last month. 

First came J. B. Bertrand, representing the Cramer 
Company, who made four appearances before the mem- 
bers of the club. The possibilities of the new “ Spec- 
trum plate, by means of which it is possible to render 
correct color-values even to dark red, attracted the 
attention even of the daily newspapers. Mr. Bertrand, 

who is a veteran in the art of portraiture, also gave a 
practical exposition of the use of the club’s portrait- 
camera in the studio. 

He was followed a week later by E. M. St. Claire, of 
the Ansco Company, who devoted an entire evening to 
an exhibition of the working-qualities of Cyko papers. 

New York State Convention 

When the editor leaves his busy desk to attend a 
photographic event, he is sure to be repaid for his trou- 
ble, time and expense, so he attended the annual meeting 
of the Professional Photographers’ Society of New York, 
which was held in the convenient, spacious and pleasant 
banquet-hall of the Park Avenue Hotel, February 15, 16 
and 17. It was a mightily successful affair. There 
was a good attendance, including eminent professionals 
from distant cities outside of the state, in the west and 
in New England. Everything was done as planned, and 
everybody was happy. Those who assisted in carrying 
out the splendid program are to be complimented. They 
all worked with enthusiasm for the good of the cause. 
They were not mercenary politicians seeking pecuniary 
benefits, but gave their services freely and heartily. It 
is refreshing and inspiring, indeed, to behold such unsel- 
fish devotion to the cause of high-class professional 
photography, and to observe that everyone who rendered 
a service, however important, was satisfied with an ap- 
preciative look or word. 

The display of over five hundred prints, demonstrating 
the present high standard of German professional work 
and, particularly, the brilliant efficiency of the German 
schools of photography, was a treat, also a revelation to 
many. Mr. Eduard Blum, who assembled and sent to 
this country the superb foreign exhibit, fully deserved 
the praise so freely accorded him. 

The opening session, with President Harry A. Bliss in 
charge, started with enthusiasm. The reports of the 
various sections indicated splendid activity and pros- 
perity. Everything seemed to go like clock-work. The 
address by E. B. Core, which accompanied his presenta- 
tion of fl amed certificates of honor to the past-presidents 


of the Association — Pii'ie McDonald, Dudley Hoyt and 
A. F. Bradley — was eloquent and touching- in the ex- 
treme. The hearty and prolonged applause which pre- 
ceded and followed his remarks showed conclusively the 
degree of affection with which “ Papa Core ” is regarded 
by all who know him. Another certificate is quietly 
waiting for the present chief executive, Harry A. Bliss. 
He will get it in a few years from now, and lie fully 
merits it. The chair appointed Messrs. McDonald, 
Bradley and Mandelkern to try to persuade the New 
York Board of Underwriters to lower the prevailing high 
rate of insurance imposed on photographic studios in 
New York. Success is confidently predicted. B. J. Falk 
exhibited a number of portrait-Autochromes placed in 
diascopes, illustrating his marked success in this branch 
of photography. He explained that they were produced 
by flashlight — 200 grains of Lumi&re flash-powder in a 
14-inch pan, ignited about six feet from the sitter in 
about V 25 second. The expression in these portraits and 
the light-gradations were superb, while the values were 
astonishingly true to life — better even than are usually 
obtained with direct daylight. Charles Ilallen, head of 
Herbert & Huesgen Company’s photo-finishing depart- 
ment, demonstrated his portable Tungsten Light appara- 
tus to the manifest satisfaction of all present. During 
the evening, as many new-comers desired to inspect 
Mr. Falk’s Autocliromes, Mr. Hallen’s Tungsten Light 
was called into requisition and proved just as effective 
as strong, direct daylight. 

The evening of the first day was devoted to a stirring 
address by Robert Frot.hingham, advertising-manager of 
Everybody's Magazine , on the importance of advertising. 
He emphasized the necessity for photographers to adver- 
tise, basing their “ copy ” upon the high quality of their 
product, if they would prosper. His remarks made a 
powerful impression on his audience, which gave him the 
closest possible attention. He was followed by Oliver 
Lippincott, of gigantic frame and intellect, who gave 
his lecture, “ The West.” With the aid of a large num- 
ber of lantern-slides of his own make, he conveyed vivid 
impressions of western scenery — notably the Grand 
Canon of Arizona — Indian tribes, Cliff-Dwellers, an- 
cient ruins, etc. 

The second day (Thursday) began with an illustrated 
talk on practical advertising for the professional, by 
Juan C. Abel. By means of stereopticon-views he 
showed the ridiculous side of advertising as it is done 
by the practitioner in small towns, and the efficient 
business-like methods of the wide-awake and enterpris- 
ing city photographer. This lecture was positively one 
of the most practical and illuminating efforts on this 
subject ever delivered at a photographic convention. 
It was what might have been expected from so keen an 
observer as the editor of Abel's Weekly. Then followed 
a talk on the use of backgrounds, their choice and 
adaptability in connection with various portrait-subjects, 
by J. Ernest Mock, with the aid of stereopticon-views. 
His suggestions, presented in such an attractive and con- 
vincing manner, gave immense satisfaction. It was, 
indeed, an able demonstration of an important subject 
by a master craftsman. The session was concluded with 
criticisms, by Pirie McDonald, of pictures sent in by 
members for the purpose. Thrown upon the screen 
with the optical lantern, these pictures were easily seen 
by all. The speaker pointed out the good and the bad 
features impartially, thus enhancing the value of his 
remarks. The afternoon session was given up to studio 
demonstrations by Pirie McDonald, Dudley Hoyt and 
A. F. Bradley, at their respective studios. Frank Scott 
Clark, of Detroit, and F. Milton Somers, of Cincinnati, 
conducted similar demonstrations at other studios. 

The entertainment par excellence of the Convention 
took place in the evening at Palm Garden, 150 East 
58th Street. Excellent vaudeville regaled the members 
and their friends till 10 o’clock. Shortly after, the hall 
began to reverberate to the strains of insinuating music 
and soon Terpischore reigned supreme. The partici- 
pants and onlookers included the members and their 
friends of the State Association and of the Professional 
Photographers’ Club of New York, which, by the way, 
was the host. 

The last day (Friday), was quite eventful. In the 
morning the most recent improvements in practical 
photography, by members, were demonstrated. The 
$50 gold prize offered by the Metropolitan Section was 
voted to E. B. Core, of New York, for his mirror-maga- 
zine-camera for studio use, which enables the operator 
conveniently to examine the image of the sitter in the 
finder, exactly as it should look on the ground-glass 
and up to the moment of exposure. Oliver Lippincott 
received 31 votes — 4 less than Mr. Core — for his elec- 
trically-illuminated skylight of ribbed glass, the effect- 
iveness of which is increased by a preparation (coating) 
of his own invention. Mr. Garo and others pronounced 
it the most practical of all the artificial studio-lights 
they had ever seen. Frank Scott Clark gave a talk on 
home-portraiture, urging for the attainment of the best 
results the use of the old-fashioned portrait-lenses — 
and not those of the rectilinear type — because of their 
speed and soft, plastic effect. Miss Frances B. John- 
ston. of Washington, D. C., discussed home-portraiture 
with Autochrome-plates, showing numerous examples of 
her own. Whenever possible, she preferred to make 
such sittings on covered verandas, as the light is stronger 
and better. The session closed with the election of 
officers as follows: Harry A. Bliss, President; E. B. 
Core, 1st Vice-President; B. J. Falk, 2d Vice-Presi- 
dent ; A. C. Kalt, Secretary ; Floyd Baker, Treasurer. 

In the afternoon nearly 100 members met at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Fine Arts, where Henry Mos- 
ler, the distinguished American painter, led them up to 
the most important paintings and explained their strong 
points. After the return of the members from the 
Museum of Art, Mr. J. H. Garo, president of the Photo- 
graphers’ Association of New England, demonstrated his 
method of lighting, posing and managing drapery, under 
the Hallen Tungsten Light, in the Convention Hall, 
which was crowded to the doors. 

In the evening- about 175 members enjoyed the ban- 
quet held at Terrace Garden. To save the feelings of 
those who were unable to attend, we refrain from giving 
the menu. Yes, there was wine on the table, and of 
good quality, and it was imbibed with marked discre- 
tion. Among those called upon to speak by toast- 
master E. B. Core, were Gertrude Kiisebier, Mary Carnell, 
Frances B. Johnston and Mrs. Floyd Baker, as well as 
Messrs. Harris, Hoyt. McDonald, Bradley, Bliss, Beach, 
Rau, Falk, Hollinger, Buxbaum, Clark, Garo, Rock- 
wood and Editor Tennant. One of the pleasant inci- 
dents of the evening was the presentation of artistic 
pieces of silver to retiring Secretary Beach and retiring 
Treasurer Lloyd. A successful flashlight-picture was 
taken of the banqueters by Langdon and Bayette. 

Shortly before the adjournment of the Convention, 
President Bliss made the astonishing announcement that 
all the acts of the Convention, including the election of 
officers, were illegal and, in order to stand, they would 
have to be ratified at a meeting to be called in May. 
This necessity is due to the fact that, according to the 
Constitution, the annual meeting should be held in May, 
which circumstance had been quite overlooked when the 
election was set for this session. 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI MAY, 1911 No. 5 

Published Monthly by WILFRED A. FRENCH, 383 Boylston Street, Boston, U. S. A. Entered as Second-Class Matter, 
June 30, 1908, at the Post-Office, Boston, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


United States and Mexico, $1.50. Canadian postage, 35 cents I Foreign postage, 75 cents extra. Single copies, 20 cents each, 
extra. Single copies, 15 cents each | Always payable in advance 




Contributions relating to photography in any and all of its branches are solicited and will receive our most careful consideration. 
While not accepting responsibility for unrequested manuscripts, we will endeavor to return them if not available, provided return- 
postage is enclosed. 




Statue of Baron Von Steuben 

The Adams Memorial — Grief 

The White House — East Front 

The Senate Office-Building 

Pennsylvania Avenue 

The Capitol 

The Library of Congress 

The Washington Monument 

Easter Monday in the White Lot__ 

The City from Arlington 

The White House — South Side 

Continental D. A. II. Hall 

The Treasury Building 

Statue of Andrew Jackson 

A Peaceful Scene 

Noon-Hour Rest 

Frankfort on the Main 

Legs and Wings of Fly 


Dandelion Seeds 

Insect Eggs on Fern-Leaf 

Appreciating a Good Thing 

A Pleasing Profile 

First Prize — Winter-Scenes 

Second Prize — Winter-Scenes 

Third Prize — Winter-Scenes 

Honorable Mention — Winter-Scenes 

Honorable Mention — Winter-Scenes 

Honorable Mention — Winter-Scenes 

Honorable Mention — Winter-Scenes 

Honorable Mention — Winter-Scenes 

Front Cover 

.Roscoe G. Searle 

. Frontispiece 


.IF, S. Sheetz 


. Roscoe G. Searle 


E. L. Crandall. 


Roscoe G. Searle . 


. Roscoe G. Searle 


Wallace C. Babcock 


. E. L. Crandall _ 


E. L. Crandall 


E. L. Crandall 


E. L. Crandall 


E. L. Crandall 


E. L. Crandall 


Geoffrey A. Hollands _ 


Claude Baris Millar 


.Minni R Ussier . 


John L. Wellington __ 


John L. Wellington 


John L. Wellington 


John L. Wellington . 


Blanche Reineke 



J. R. Peterson 

. 243 

Dr. D. J. Ruzicka 


John Dove . 


William Spanton 


Alexander Murray 


Harry D. Williar _ _ 


Rupert Bridge 


Arthur Smith 

_ _ 252 


Pictures which were Never Taken E. L. C. Morse 217 

Washington, the Mecca of the Photographer Charles E. Fairman 220 

Some Thoughts about the Portrayal of the Human Figure IF. Ide 229 

Securing Skies and Foreground on One Plate Photo. Notes 222 

A Home-Made Apparatus for Enlarging from Nature John L. Wellington 225 




The Crucible 


The Round Robin Guild 


_ _ 242 


Our Illustrations 
Berlin Letter 


Beginners’ Column 
Answers to Correspondents 


On the Ground-Glass 
London Letter 






Book-Reviews _ 




Exposure-Guide for May 

. . 255 

With the Trade 


Photo-Era, The A merican Journal of Photography , Copyright , 1911, by Wilfred A. French. 



The American Journal of Photography 

Vol. XXVI MAY, 1911 No. 5 

Pictures which were Never Taken 


W HEN traveling in Mexico, you put 
your faith in God and await develop- 
ments. Arriving at Queretaro, I 
found that my trunk had gone astray somewhere 
up the line. It would he all right, the agent 
said, if I changed cars as I intended for Guada- 
lajara there and then, and the trunk would 
follow. Experienced somewhat in Mexican 
travel, I decided I would wait until the trunk 
arrived and until I could actually see it loaded 
into the same train that I was taking. 

Photographically the town was only moder- 
ately interesting. I got a very good shot at a 
peon family eating breakfast on the sidewalk 
during the father’s rest-period at about 9 A.M. 
(spoiled by the genial and inefficient Kodak- 
man later in developing). Another peon in 
rags, lint with the manners and carriage of a 
Beau Brummel. was a success. Two ancient 
church-doors completed the morning’s work. 

The dinner was good, but the afternoon sun 
was hot. In Mexico only dogs and Gringos 
(Americans) are abroad in the heat of the day. 
I had passed my novitiate as a Gringo several 
years ago. so I sat in the shade of the large 
open door, smoking and playing with my cam- 
era. listening to the interminable reminiscences 
of the garrulous landlord, Don dose. “ The 
trunk will arrive maiiana, Senor. and there is 
not for which to molest one's self," interpolated 
that aged man in the midst of a recital of how 
Diaz arrived in the town with his army, " it 
makes many years since.” The tobacco wasn’t 
half had, the old ox-hide chair was comfortable, 
and. after all. what’s the use of molesting one’s 
self in the Land of To-morrow ? 

Photographically there was nothing to do that 
afternoon. The hot sun blazed down on the 
small round cobblestones in the street and cast 
deep shadows under the heavy adobe walls. A 
girl came to the fountain with a jar for water, 


but she wasn't pretty and didn’t carry the jar 
gracefully. A fellow was standing in the shade 
of a balcony lisping sweet nonsense to a young 
lady behind a fan in an open window. But 
they were too far off and he was dressed in 
American fashion. The group was not worth a 
plate. Dow r n the street somewhere was an old 
woman crying La Nieve (Ice Cream) in that 
characteristically plaintive wail of the Mexican 
street-vendor. Possibly she might be worth 
taking, if she came my way. The only thing I 
had found really worth while on that street had 
been a native meson , which is a sort of wayside 
inn and cattle-yard where traveling families put 
up their cattle and themselves for a day or two 
of rest before proceeding to the next town. 
I'he cattle are turned out into a yard and the 
people hire a room in which they sleep at night. 
I had had a try at that, hut the lights and 
shadows were puzzling, and the only proper way 
to take the subject was a time-exposure in the 
yard among the cattle. The cattle manifested 
considerable interest in me and my camera and 
evidently were in a receptive mood for informa- 
tion regarding photography, but a really wise 
man does not venture among a herd of Mexican 
cattle afoot. 1 compromised on a shot or two 
outside of the fence and came back for dinner, 
hungry and disgusted. 

“ You see. Senor,” said Don dose to me as. 
watch in hand. I lazily read off my Watkins 
meter, " you see, we Mexicans never wanted to 
kill Maximiliano ; he was such a fool not to es- 
cape when we gave him every chance.” 

•• How so ? ” said I . 

The old man took out some tobacco and a 
piece of brown paper, rolled a cigarette, lighted 
it deliberately, drew a long whiff, settled back in 
his chair, looked dreamily down the street and 
began : 

“Juarez never wanted Maximiliano’s life; he 

wanted him to leave the country. I was a sol- 
dier at the time and I had my instructions not 
to see. Not to see anything,” said the old man, 
moving his right forefinger slowly forward and 
back as all Mexicans in that part of the country 
do when they express a negative. I watched 
that aged finger slowly waving forward and 
back. Of a sudden it stopped wagging. Up 
rose both his hands. 

“ Por Dios, liombre, vn toro bravo , corre! 

I took one look. It was not the longing, 
lingering look of which the poet speaks. It was 
a sort of high-tension blink of the eye, hut it 
was sufficient. The animal was certainly com- 
ing our way pretty fast. He looked ugly and 
there was no time to spare. Don Jose slid 
under the table and I shot like a bullet for 

the stairs leading to the flat roof of the inn. 

The hull walked into the front door and stood 
still. He was a smallish, hlaek, vicious-looking 
brute with a turbid blue eye, shining wet snout, 
pointed horns and a wisp of curly hair on the 
forehead. A most magnificent picture in luminous 
shadow, a gray door-frame and a white adohe 
background. The posture was perfect, the light- 
ing irreproachable ; focus, 20 feet ; diaphragm. 
F /6 ; time, % sec. ; plate, Cramer Crown. 
The opportunity of a lifetime ! Only — alas ! 
only — the camera was down there on the floor 
within a few feet of those shining horns. His 
majesty snorted around, didn’t see Don Jose 
and concluded it was not worth while to climb 
the stairs after me. He turned around and 
went out. That picture was never taken. 


Hilly was certainly the dearest little thing 
that ever lived. A friend of ours had come 
over to Guadalajara from the West Coast by 
mule-back across the mountains and Billy had 
come over with him — on our friend’s hat. He 
seemed, for some strange reason, to prefer the 
hat as a mode of travel ; but how he ever hung 
on to that hat all that distance has always heen 
a mystery. Whenever the party stopped, Billy 
hopped down off the hat, had a few crumbs 
and went back to the hat. At night he slept 
inside the hat. Finally Billy, the hat and the 
owner of the hat arrived at Guadalajara and 
stayed at our house. 

The children fell in love with Billy at once. 
Billy wavered a while between allegiance to the 
owner of the hat and to his new admirers ; but 
the children won the day, and lie never shed a 
tear, in public at least, when the owner of the 
hat took the train for the States. He adopted 
us (or we adopted him, whichever it was) and 
became a regular member of the family. He 
seemed to crave human company, and the more 
intimate the relations, the better he was pleased. 
His favorite perch was on one’s shoulder. As 
nearly as possible he was impartial in bestowing 
his affections and his time. I came in for my 
share whenever I was in the house. He seemed 
to prefer standing on my collar. The cloth of 
my coat, it seems, was smooth and slippery and 
he could not get a good footing, so he took to 
the collar. Besides, the collar was more or less 
like a twig or a branch, I suppose, to his primi- 
tive imagination. At any rate, Billy preferred 
the collar, and it was no use to argue with him. 
He would bite (but very gently) and he would 
scold so hard, if lie was taken off, that I finally 

accepted Billy on my collar with all the other 
new and strange experiences incident to a day’s 
work in Mexico. The only idiosyncrasy of his 
that I could never quite accept was his inquisi- 
tive nature. Having no hands and being oc- 
cupied as to the feet with hanging on, his beak 
was his only means of investigating strange 
phenomena like human ears and necks. It 
always seemed to me that after he had once 
minutely investigated eveiy square millimeter of 
my cuticle, neck and ears, he ought to he satis- 
fied. In fact the only hard feelings that ever 
came between us was when Billy began his fifth 
or sixth round of inspection on the circumfer- 
ence of my collar. But birds, even from the 
days of Aristophanes, were ever unamenable to 
reason. I accepted the inevitable. 

By all means Billy’s picture must be taken, 
and taken rightly, too. No conventional, record 
snapshot of, say, a child with a bird on its 
shoulder, a bird held on a finger, or anything of 
that sort. That would he too commonplace. 
Billy must be taken in some unconventional, 
characteristic attitude — doing something strik- 
ing and original. 

After a great deal of serious cogitation on the 
part of the whole family, we decided on some- 
thing which was really worth while. We 
studied Billy’s habits and finally hit upon just 
the right thing. 

Every night after supper Billy retired early. 
The place lie selected for a dormitory was a 
quiet nook in the washstand in our sleeping- 
room. As soon as dawn appeared, he walked 
out of his alcove, hopped up on the dresser and 
waited. The moment we opened our eyes in 
the morning, he would hop to the bed and 





begin to chatter, and then, adieu to all sleep 
that morning. But until we made a move he 
would stand there on the dresser alert and 
ready, peering at his human friends in complete 
silence. A picture of that scene would in- 
deed be a delicious souvenir. 

At daybreak next morning I calculated the 
light by my Watkins meter. I fixed up a long 
rubber tube leading from the camera into the 
next room, where I slept. I focused the dis- 
tance very carefully, set the camera exactly 
right and composed the picture correctly (minus 
Billy, of course) on the ground-glass, slipped in 
an ortho, plate, pulled the slide and covered the 
camera over with a blanket, except the shutter, 
which I knew was light-tight. We put the 
children into the bed near Billy’s dormitory. 
From my bed I could look through the open 
door and see the children’s bed and the dresser 
where Billy would stand. Billy was a gorgeous 
symphony of green, yellow and scarlet ; the 
cloth on the dresser was white, the wall a pale 
blue, the bed brass, the children’s hair blonde. 
Billy standing wide awake on the manicure case 
on the dresser watching the sleeping children — 
could anything be more charming ? 

That morning I woke before daylight, but 

made never a move. Through my half-closed 
eyes I could see the whole scene. 1 listened 
attentively. I could hear the regular breathing 
of the children, but no sound from Billy. It 
grew a little lighter. Ah ! there was Billy, 
hopping out from his hiding-place! He hopped 
along and then flew up to the dresser and stood 
motionless, waiting for the children to stir. 
The light was not quite strong enough yet. 
I would wait a while. I waited ; Billy waited. 
Now, now was the right time. But what was 
that ? A smothered squeak and a swift crash ! 
I jumped out of bed and saw a big white cat 
swiftly running through the patio. As the cat 
jumped from the stairs to the low, flat roof 1 
saw something in its mouth that was green, 
yellow and scarlet. 

Another one of those exquisite pictures that 
were never taken ! 

P. S. The reader may be interested to know 
that although I failed miserably in my time- 
exposure with Billy, 1 made a highly-successful 
snapshot at the cat about a week later. The 
technical data are as follows: Time, 5 a.m.; 
Exposure, about 1/100 sec.; Lens, Remington; 
Aperture, 32 ; Development, cold lead. 


Washington, The Mecca of the Photographer 



W ASHINGTON, all out for Wash- 
ington ! ” We have entered the 
Union Station, one of the latest 
of the additions to the architectural embellish- 
ments to the Capital City. We pass through the 
“ Concours ” and enter the waiting room of the 
station. Possibly we may he just in time to hear 
the call for a departing train, “ Train-for-Balti- 
more-Wilmington-Philadelphia-and New York.” 
We hear the words plainly enunciated, and the 
sonorous echoes tilling the vaulted ceiling of 
the waiting-room. It is a wonderful voice, that 
of a small man who for years has announced the 
departure of trains. It tills the vast space and 
enters the remotest corners — a wonderful ex- 
ample of the power of the human voice trained 
for this purpose. 

Passing through the waiting-room of the sta- 
tion, we stand in front of the plaza and get our 
first view of the Capital City. We have read 
of the Nation’s Capital for years : we have 
longed and hoped for an opportunity to visit it, 
and now we are here. We must confess to a 
feeling of disappointment, for it is not as we ex- 
pected we should find it. In front of us is a 
large semi-improved space. In the distance we 

w. s. SHEETZ 

see the white marble mass of the Senate Office- 
Building and beyond this the Capitol. We note 
that the Capitol seems to stand askew with the 
west front of the Senate Office-Building. At 
the right we see the sky-line of the city — the 
Washington Monument, the spire of the Metro- 
politan Methodist Church — the church in which 
President Grant worshiped. We shall probably 
also see the spires of Trinity Episcopal Church 
and the dome of the National Museum. Be- 
tween these conspicuous points and the station we 
shall see uninteresting buildings, some of them 
below the grade of the plaza, while at the left we 
shall find more of the small and unpretentious 
houses, remnants of those which formerly filled 
the space now occupied by the station and its 
plaza ; and we realize that the new order of 
things has encroached upon former conditions 
and that, to say the least, the combination is in- 

We have entered the Capital City upon a tour 
of sight-seeing with our cameras to record our 
impressions. We have arranged such details of 
our trip as relate to the disposal of baggage and 
the selection of a hotel, and now we wish to use 
oui' time to the best advantage, and it is there- 





fore advisable that we look around a hit and see 
what we want and where the best subjects are 
located, so we will investigate a little and make 
some mental notes before placing our impressions 
upon the films or plates of our cameras. 

It is well as a first step to go direct to the 
Capitol and from the east front of the central 
portion of the building take a survey of the view 
as seen from the steps, of the main entrance to 
the Capitol. It should he remembered that 
promiscuous camera-work at the Capitol or in 
the Capitol Grounds is not permitted without first 
having obtained a card from the Superintendent 
of the U. S. Capitol Building and Grounds. 
These permits are issued upon application at the 
Superintendent’s office without charge and are in 
the following form : 

“ Office of Superintendent, U. S. Capitol Build- 
ing and Grounds — 

“Washington, D. C., 1911. 

“ The Bearer hereof lias permission to make 
photo, pictures in the Capitol (Senate-wing ex- 
cepted) and on the Capitol Grounds. 

“ For the Superintendent.” 
These permits are dated, and the period for 
which the permit is given is also stated on the 
permit. They are usually given for the number 
of days requested by the applicant. If the ap- 
plicant desires to make photographs in the Sen- 
ate-wing of the Capitol, application therefore 

should be made to the Sergeant at Arms of the 
Senate. In no case, unless by a special permit, 
is the making of groups in the Capitol grounds 
allowed, nor is the photographer allowed to make 
snapshots of individuals, for to do this would 
result in the permit’s being confiscated by the 
Capitol police, who are instructed to this effect. 
This may seem something of a digression, but it 
is well to be forewarned, and to save the em- 
barrassment of being interfered with by the 
Capitol police, who are simply following their 

We will suppose that we are now standing on 
the high steps leading to the east entrance of the 
Rotunda of the Capitol. In front of us is seen 
the Library of Congress, the most elaborate 
library-building in the world : at our right is the 
House of Representatives Office-Building, while 
at our left is the marble Senate Office- Building. 
These two office-buildings, added to the Capi- 
tol group within the past decade, equal in cubic 
contents the cubic contents of the Capitol Build- 
ing, and yet notwithstanding the increased cost 
of labor and materials present a comparison in 
saving worthy of study by those who believe 
that all of the good things are gone with the 
days that are passed. 

While we are on the Capitol steps it may 
come to your notice that in the group-plan of 
buildings there seems to be no adequate balance 
for the Library of Congress. This omission of 




some building to compensate in architectural ar- 
rangement will be fully cared for with the erec- 
tion just opposite the Library of Congress of a 
Supreme-Court-Building ; and when this con- 
templated plan has been carried out, the entire 
plaza east of the Capitol will be surrounded by 
imposing examples of architecture and the con- 
ditions which now seem somewhat unfinished 
and out of harmony will then be blended into a 
harmonious unity. 

When you had your first glimpse of the plaza 
south of the Union Station, comment was made 
on the unfinished conditions and the incongruous 
surroundings. What perhaps in other cities 
would have been a completed scheme still looks 
in this instance like an example of plans sus- 
pended on account of lack of funds. It may in- 
terest you to know that it is the intention of 
Congress to purchase all of the ground between 
the Union Station and the Capitol and convert 
it into a park, thus preserving for some distance 
around all of these buildings sufficient open space 
to prevent dwarfing the beauty of this group of 
buildings by the close proximity of buildings of 
the skyscraper class. 

But this is enough of the future. It may, 
however, be briefly stated that in the minds of 
some who have thought much on this subject, 
the day is not so far distant when with the 
Supreme-Court-Building added to the group and 
the space referred to purchased by the Govern- 

ment and converted into a park, the street cars 
will then be obliged to resort to a subway, and 
through all of this large space (approximating 
one hundred acres of park) there w ill be nothing 
to offend the aesthetic sense. 

It has been stated that the Library of Con- 
gress is housed in the most elaborate library- 
building in the world. This is saying much in 
a few words and making a very broad assertion. 
It is better, however, to form your own opinion 
and, after you have carefully gone over the 
entire building by day, to make a second visit 
at night and look at the gorgeous coloring and 
the beautiful decorations by electric light, and 
then ask yourself if this statement is too strong. 

The making of photographs in the Library of 
Congress is permitted upon securing a card from 
the superintendent of the building. Tripods 
with metal points will not be permitted, and the 
visitor had better secure such rubber tips as 
are used for rendering chairs noiseless, or some 
serviceable pieces of cork to cover the metal 
points, as an evidence of good faith and as 
showing a purpose to avoid scratching the 
beautiful marble floor. 

It will be a waste of time to suggest what to 
photograph in the Library. I may note in 
passing that beautiful pictures have been made 
of the lower atrium, and of the columns of the 
upper atrium. Others have photographed single 
mural decorations, and I have seen of the mosaic 

entitled “ Minerva,” by Eliliu Vedder, some very 
wonderful negatives. 

While in the Library of C ongress, you must 
surely find time to go to the art-department and 
ask to be shown the two relief models of the 
city of Washington. One is intended to show 
the city as it was before the Park-Commission of 
1902 made its exhaustive study of conditions 
and its voluminous report ; the other model is to 
show the Washington that is hoped for — the 
Washington to he. when the plans of the Art- 
Commission have been realized. Much as you 
may desire to expose plates or films, if you 
really wish to know something of the city, study 
these two models earnestly for some twenty 
minutes and you will know more of the condi- 
tions of the city and feel better acquainted with 
the locations of places of interest than would lie 
possible by reading hour after hour from the 
most carefully-prepared guide-book, or the best- 
written historical description. 

After you have seen the Library and have 
resolved to come for a second visit at night, I 
wish you to go hack to the Capitol and get a 
view of the city from the west terrace, or. what 
is still better, see the view of the city to the 
westward from the portico reached hv leaving 
the west side of the Rotunda and going to the 
door directly opposite. From this portico the 
city is spread out before you so that you can 
form an idea of the objects of interest within 
a small radius. Below, at the west side of 
tlie Capitol grounds, begins that portion of park 
known as “ The Mall.” stretching from the 
grounds of the Botanic Gardens to the Potomac 
River. If you have remembered the plans you 
have just seen in the Library of Congress, you 
will recognize this large area in the Washington 
of the future as being divided from north to 
south by a wide avenue lined on either side by 
buildings of classic architecture to he occupied 
by the different departments of the Govern- 
ment, In this plan, the removal of all of the 
buildings on the south side of Pennsylvania 
Avenue from the Capitol to the Treasury 
Department is contemplated, and the White 
House as well as the Capitol will form an im- 
portant feature in reconstructed Washington. 

You may have seen, while you were on the 
east steps of the Capitol, some groups of statu- 
ary, and in the niches under the portico two 
statues representing “ War ” and “ Peace ” — 
both of them seeming to convey by their dilapi- 
dated condition that they have seen much of 
war hut little of peace. You may not have 
been impressed by the group called “ Discovery,” 
by the Italian sculptor. Luigi Persico, or by the 

group entitled “ The Rescue,” by Horatio 
Greenough. Do not, however, deceive yourself 
with the thought that because the examples are 
weather-worn and damaged by the vandalism of 
the curio-hunter that there is an absence of 
good art in Washington. On the contrary, 
there are abundant examples in the city of the 
best of the art of the present as well as the art 
of the earlier days, and for the reason that, all 
camera-users who work seriously are from 
the nature of the case lovers of art, it will not 
he out of place to mention some of the interest- 
ing art-centers in and about Washington. 

W e are here at the Capitol, and we may as 
well, before leaving, consider what this vast 
building contains and determine whether it will 
interest us. In the Rotunda, through which we 
have just passed hastily, are the historical paint- 
ings of Trumbull. Vanderlyn, Chapman, Weir 
and Powell — a rare historical collection when 
we consider the subjects, the periods and the 
painters. In this same Rotunda are three 
examples of the work of David d’Angers — 
the bronze statue of Jefferson, the bronze por- 
trait-bust of Washington and the marble bust 
of Lafayette. When we examine these works 
we shall do well to remember that in the period 
in which he lived David d’Angers was one of 
the most celebrated sculptors of France. In 
the same Rotunda are two statues — those of 
Hamilton and Baker — by Horatio Stone; the 
statue of Grant, by Franklin Simmons ; the 
statue of Lincoln, by Vinnie Ream Hoxie. and 
the portrait-head in marble of Lincoln, by Gut- 
zon Borglum. There is also a copy of Houdon’s 
“ Washington,” by W. . 1 . Hubard. 

In Statuary Hall you will find about forty 
statues contributed by the different states to this 
Hall of Fame. If you judge hastily, you will 
probably condemn the collection ; if you act 
moderately, you will probably not he over-en- 
thusiastic. If you are thoughtful and conserva- 
tive, you will probably conclude that the massing 
together in a room of this shape and of this 
area of so many statues representing side by 
side men who were prominent over a hundred 
years ago with those of more modern times is a 
trying arrangement, and that if these statues could 
he separated and viewed singly the effect would 
he far more pleasing. If this should he your 
decision, you are acting wisely and there is hope 
for your reputation as a critic of the tine arts. 
In support of this conclusion it is well to ask 
whether if the men themselves, here perpetu- 
ated in marble and bronze, could he summoned 
into one assembly wearing the garments to 
which they were accustomed while they were 


the leaders of the nation would they not as an 
assembly look out of place and incongruous ? 
If this is true, is it not also true that their 
statues, if conforming to the customary expected 
realism, must also follow the same rule we have 
applied to an assembly of the people here com- 
memorated ? In and about the Capitol are 
forty-nine statues, fifty-one portrait busts, nine 
other pieces of statuary not included in the 
above classification ; also fifty-two historical 
paintings and fifty-four portraits. The fore- 
going statistical statement does not include the 
frescoes, the bas-reliefs or the bronze doors. 
To continue this line of thought, it may he well 
to know that in the Capital City there are more 
public statues than in any other American city. 
This equestrian statue — that of General dark- 
son in Lafayette Square — is the first eques- 
trian statue erected in the United States, and 
was erected in 1853. In this same square is a 
statue to Baron Von Steuben, erected but a few 
months ago and the latest of the many statues 
in the city. The Von Steuben statue is by 
Albert Jaegers, the Jackson statue by Clark 

You may, however, say that numbers are in- 
significant when compared to quality, and the 
truth of this statement is gladly conceded. Let 
us. notwithstanding, go a little further in the 
direction of quality. Among the public statues 
are one by Thomas Ball, one by Daniel Ches- 
ter French, one by Saint Gaudens, one by Charles 
Henry Niehaus, two by J. hj. A. Ward, two by 
Henry Kirke Brown, two by Franklin Simmons, 
and two by Launt Thompson. In addition to 
these, there are many statues by sculptors possi- 
bly not so well known as those cited. 

But this is not all of the art of Washington. 
TheCorcoran Gallery of Art contains a fine collec- 
tion of paintings, including not only many exam- 
ples of the earlier German and French schools, 
but also many of our more modern American 
paintings. In the National Gallery (now tempo- 
rarily housed in the New National Museum) is 
a collection of about one hundred and fifteen 
paintings, the gift of William T. Evans. All 
of these are the work of American painters. 
This nucleus of a National Gallery of Art con- 
tains many other examples of painting and 
sculpture. There is enough art in Washington 
to give the serious student a rich and well- 
remembered treat. 

But you may ask what there is which will 
interest the photographer who has but little 
interest in painting or sculpture ? In reply it 
may he said that much depends upon what you 
want to photograph. For the camerist fond of 

landscape-studies there is abundant material in 
the grounds of the Soldiers’ Home, in the Zoolog- 
ical Park, or in Rock Creek Park. All of these 
parks are large tracts with well-built roads suit- 
aide for motoring or driving, and there are many 
beautiful spots where nature has not been •• im- 
proved ” by the introduction of necessary but 
unsightly telegraph poles. If one is fond of 
quaint old dwellings, plenty of these — many of 
them of national historic interest — can he found 
in West Washington, formerly known as George- 
town. the older part of the city. If one is fond 
of hue specimens of residential architecture, 
many examples, owned by the millionaire class 
of the city, are to be found. If one inclines to 
more imposing examples of public architecture, 
the public, buildings of the city, such as the 
Treasury Department, the Patent-Office and 
the General Land-Office, as well as the Court- 
House. furnish examples of the most dignified 
public structures in this country ; and if one is 
fond of the human side of photography one will 
find upon the streets many examples of the negro 
type, for fully one-third of the population of 
Washington is of the negro race. To those 
from the Northland they will furnish a novel 
feature for the camera; to those from the South- 
land they will seem lacking the picturesqueness 
of the negro in the more southern states. 

The river-front of the city, extending for 
miles, is noted for its picturesque and quaint 
scenery, and of course you will want to take the 
trip by steamer to Mount Vernon and see the 
home and the tomb of Washington. Cameras 
may be used upon the grounds of the Mount 
Vernon estate, but the taking of groups for 
commercial purposes is prohibited. 

From the west terrace of the Capitol, one may 
see a fine view of the city, with beautiful cloud- 
effects, particularly at sunset. Nearly every 
visitor attempts to photograph the Washington 
monument, and many have failed. It is a diffi- 
cult subject, and any who select difficult subjects 
from choice will find something in the monu- 
ment to test their utmost skill. 

In addition to the excursion to Mount Vernon, 
there are many other side-trips which may be 
taken by those who are anxious to see all that 
is to be seen and incidentally to photograph 
those things which appeal to them. Only six 
miles distant by trolley is the quaint old town 
of Bladensburgh, Maryland, near which is the 
famous duelling-ground where affairs of honor 
were settled in those days when duelling was 
the court of final appeal. Near this town, the 
battle of Bladensburgh was fought in the war of 
1^12. The town itself is only a small hamlet. 


but many of the houses are over a century old, 
and you will be shown more than one house said 
to have been visited by Washington. The east- 
ern branch of the Potomac in former years was 
navigable to this town, and a hundred years ago 
it was a place of some importance. On the 
Virginia side one may visit Alexandria, and see 
the church in which Washington was accus- 
tomed to worship. Alexandria is quaint rather 
than progressive, but the visit is well worth the 
time, and you can go by ferry or by the now 
common trolley-line. At Arlington, Virginia, 
you may see the home of Robert E. Lee. over- 
looking the city of Washington. The Lee estate 
has been converted into a national cemetery and 
to those who remember the Civil War only 
through the medium of history it will reveal 
many new emotions to visit this cemetery and 
realize the cost of that great conflict. Another 
interesting side-trip is to Great Falls, Virginia, 
reached by a trolley-line and situated fourteen 
miles from the city. At this place there is 
abundant material for those who are fond of the 
rugged forms of nature. The falls are impres- 
sive iu their grandeur, and there are plenty of 
little bits of nature well worth while. The trip, 
however, if one finds the best of the mate- 
rial. requires considerable walking ; and the re- 
sultant fatigue will have to be borne in patience. 

One of the oldest homes and most picturesque 

examples of the early days is to be found a little 
distance from Chevy Chase Lake, Maryland, 
known as Clean Drinking Manor. This home 
dates back to about 1750 and is noted as one of 
the places where Washington used to call prior 
to the days of the Revolution. Painters, photo- 
graphers and etchers have visited this spot and 
taken away their records of the early days. It 
never was pretentious and has been kept in but 
passable repair. It has, however, been spared 
the desecration of so-called “ restoration,” and 
to the historically-inclined is a rare opportunity. 

The visitor may come and find things of 
greater interest than those enumerated, and that 
is one of the charms of Washington — it is not 
like any other city in the country. It may lack 
the substantial blocks of business-houses, the 
inartistic sky-scraper, the hum of factories and 
the smoke of large manufactories. Its shipping 
and its commerce may seem insignificant, and 
yet it is the Capital City of the nation of the 
world greatest in those qualities which count for 
true preeminence, not only in the things accom- 
plished, but in the things hoped for. This is 
Washington, the Capital of the nation, and in 
its beauty, its attractiveness, its history, it is not 
a city of the north or the south, the east or the 
west, but of the whole country ; and in it you, 
although residing in some distant state, have an 
equal share with all other citizens. 






Some Thoughts about the Portrayal 
of the Human Figure 


F EW, if any, will gainsay that it is more 
difficult to make a good photograph of a 
human figure than of a landscape. Satis- 
factory results in the latter branch of the photo- 
graphic art are numerous, but undoubtedly scarce 
in the former. It seems to the writer, however, 
that the difference may be due to our having a 
higher standard of criticism for pictures of the 
human figure than for those of the phases of 
nature. After all we do not know nature in 
landscape as well as we are apt to think we do, 
and are generally quite satisfied with pictures 
which do not outrage the conventionalized nature 
pictured in the imagination which may be, and 
often is, far from being true. Indeed, many 
criticisms of seeming falsities in landscape-pic- 
tures are based upon ignorance rather than upon 
knowledge. With regard to the human form, 
however, there is no doubt that our intimate 
knowledge of its aspects and expressions enables 
us to detect even slight deviations from the 
normal or probable. 

Be that as it may, however, there is no ques- 
tion about the difficulty one experiences even in 
getting a good portrait, by which is meant not a 
mere form-likeness, which the camera, that in- 
comparable draftsman, attends to pretty well, 
lmt something suggesting life and character. 
We are so often disappointed in photographs of 
friends because they do not agree with our im- 
pressions even though the features be truly de- 
lineated. The reason for this is that our mental 
picture of a person is a composite one made up 
of records of many fleeting expressions the most 
prominent of which give the character which we 
unconsciously look for in the portrait. A por- 
trait that is highly successful, therefore, is one 
which is not only a true delineation of the form 
but also one suggesting the personality or char- 
acter of the subject. The aim of the portrayer 
should be to secure characteristic pose and ex- 
pression. This is by no means an easy task, but 
careful study of the subject both in conversation 
and in repose will suggest the best point of view 
and lighting and possibly at the same time dis- 
cover the characteristic expression. And it is 
just here that the amateur has such an advantage 
over the professional. The latter with all his 
paraphernalia does not tend to put the average 
person at ease, nor can he be expected to know 
his subject as intimately as does the amateur 
portrayer, but he almost invariably has the great 

advantage of knowing how to go about getting a. 
striking pose and making the most of the subject 
before him. His experience enables him at any 
rate to get a passable result and to manipulate 
it so as to make an attractive portrait even if 
the same lacks character. With his greater op- 
portunities for studying his subject and the sub- 
ject’s own feeling of ease before his friend, the 
amateur ought to be able to obtain a better por- 
trait than the professional, it being understood, 
of course, that the amateur is not totally ignorant 
of the ordinary rules governing lighting, posing 
and exposure. But even the experienced amateur, 
alas, generally gives little thought to anything 
beyond getting a likeness and does not bother 
himself about endeavoring to secure at the same 
time a suggestion of his subject’s character. 

Portraits as a rule, however, are only of 
value to relations and acquaintances and very 
seldom create more than a very local interest. 
There are portraits, however, which belong to 
the very highest realm of art, for they possess 
what may be called universal elements and 
therefore appeal to human nature and to all 
lovers of what is beautiful and noble. This 
power to attract the larger number does not de- 
pend upon technique altogether — although very 
poor technique would mar the finest conception : 
it is rather a question of character and power 
plus technique. Think of the thousands of chil- 
dren that are photographed every year, their 
portraits in the majority of instances no doubt, 
satisfactory enough to their parents and friends 
but of no particular interest to the public. It is 
only rarely that one is made which seems to 
breathe out the very spirit of childhood and 
therefore finds acceptance by one and all as a 
happy presentation of the state of childhood or 
some phase of it rather than of some particular 
child. Whose child it is does not concern them 
it is a type-child proclaiming a universal truth. 

Another instance might make this distinction 
between the ordinary portrait and the work of 
art even clearer. Let ns take the case of a 
mother and child. In the majority of cases we 
find that their juxtaposition in the photograph 
intimates the relationship between them, but be- 
yond this there is nothing to suggest the state 
of motherhood. Occasionally, however, one dis- 
covers a picture of a woman and a child — not 
necessarily mother and child — which seems to 
depict the love, the care, the protection, the 



solicitude, indeed all the attributes of the rela- 
tionship. and this latter, because it is typical of 
the state of motherhood, finds universal accept- 
ance, being understood by and appealing to all. 
Its power lies in its forceful presentation of a 
universal truth. And so it is with every real 
work of art. for it stimulates the imagination 
and recreates within us as it were the very emo- 
tions that actuated the artist when executing it. 
A picture must have more than technique— it 
must have the power to tire the imagination and 
stimulate the emotions. 

Moreover such a work tells us something of 
the personality of the artist, because his ideals 
are more or less revealed in the work he has 
given us. This is particularly the case with 
paintings because the elasticity of the materials 
used enables the artist to work fairly close to his 
ideals. A photographer may have similar ideals, 
but the inflexibility of his means for giving the 
same material form results in his achievements’ 
falling very much farther below his ideals than 
do those of the painter, it being understood, of 
course, that both are masters of the technique 
of their respective arts. Notwithstanding the 
fact that the painter need not slavishly copy his 
model he generally takes every possible care, 
however, to choose one approximating as nearly 
as possible his ideal, whereas the art-photo- 
grapher too often is content with what he can 
obtain in the way of a model without going to 
too much trouble, whereas he should really ex- 
ercise even greater discrimination than the 
painter so as to get a still closer approximation 


to the ideal. Probably the besetting sin of the 
art-photographer, in common with almost every- 
one else in this age of hurry, is haste — a sin 
which is encouraged by the very facility with 
which lie can make his essays. If it were im- 
possible to make more than one attempt a week 
a great deal of time would he sjient- in looking 
at a subject from every point of view and decid- 
ing upon some definite presentation of the same 
before action. After all it is far better to make 
a few really good pictures than to turn out medi- 
ocre photographs by the score. Nor can one 
expect to obtain high-class results by the haphaz- 
ard method of exposing plate after plate in the 
hope that one or two will capture prizes. Even 
if something extraordinary he so obtained, the 
artist can only take credit for being able to rec- 
ognize it as a work of art — which implies, of 
course, a knowledge of what constitutes art — - 
hut cannot conscientiously claim the honor of 
being its deliberate creator. 

What is needed, therefore, to raise the stand- 
ard of excellence in the portrayal of the human 
form, and indeed in all branches of the photo- 
graphic art. is not so much more practice in the 
technique as the exercise of more thought and a 
persistent endeavor to give expression to our 
ideals, so that there shall be a raison d'etre for 
each picture quite apart from its excellence as a 

Pictures should not need literary descrip- 
tion. — Alfred Stevens. 


Securing Skies and Foreground on One Plate 

T he commonest of all defects in the 
landscape-work of the amateur is the 
featureless sky, and the attempt to rem- 
edy the defect by printing-in clouds from a 
separate negative often results in failure from 
the pictorial point of view, if not from the 
technical one as well. In many cases the 
greater part of the charm of the natural land- 
scape, which has allured the photographer into 
the exposure of a plate, depends on the sky that 
actually exists at the time, though he often fails 
to recognize the fact. It is therefore highly 
desirable to secure the sky on the same plate 
whenever possible, and the methods of doing 
this are worth consideration. 

The difficulty in the way is the fact that the 
sky — and by sky we of course mean both 
blue sky and clouds — usually requires less ex- 
posure than the foreground. There are excep- 
tions to this rule, of course. In marine-views 
the sea is sometimes as bright as the sky, so 
that one very brief exposure will secure both, 
and the same often holds good with open and 
rather distant landscape-views. Ordinarily, 
however, a sufficient exposure for the foreground 
means over-exposure in the sky and the conse- 
quent disappearance of all cloud-forms, while 
an exposure timed for the sky alone often fails 
to give any detail in the foreground subjects. 
This trouble has always been an acute one in 
photography, but it has to a great extent been 
slurred over by the printing-in of skies, often 
quite unsuited to the landscape and frequently 
quite impossible in the circumstances. The ad- 
vent of the screen color-plates, such as the 
Autochrome — with which such printing-in is al- 
most impossible — has forcibly directed attention 
to the necessity of securing the sky in the initial 
exposure, and so we may hope to see in the fu- 
ture in ordinary photographs something more 
natural in the way of sky-and-landscape com- 
binations, and, we trust, considerably less of the 
effects of the stock cloud-negatives which are 
often made to do duty in supplying skies for 
landscapes of many varied kinds. 

The first step towards making sure of skies is 
to use ortliochromatic plates sensitive to green as 
well as blue, and therefore more sensitive to the 
general range of objects in natural foregrounds 
than ordinary plates sensitive to blue alone. 
Such ortliochromatic plates need not be any 
more sensitive to blue than the ordinary ones — 
indeed, they are likely to be rather less sensitive 
in many cases, and therefore with them the 
foreground can be more fully exposed in the 

time required for the sky. Sometimes, when 
the sky is not very bright this difference may 
be enough, but very often it is insufficient, and 
then the next step is the use of a yellow filter- 
screen. The effect of this screen is to cut down 
blue light without obstructing any of the green, 
and, while it affects both foreground and sky as 
regards the cutting out of blue, it affects the 
latter to the greater extent because in the sky 
blue predominates. In probably most cases this 
use of a filter with orthochromatic, or, better 
still, panchromatic plates — the latter being 
sensitive to red as well as to green and blue — 
will be quite effective, but it generally requires 
longer exposure than can be given with a hand- 
camera. and so recently a new device in the 
form of a graduated filter-screen has been put 
on the market. The idea of this screen is that 
of exposing the foreground through a very pale 
or uncolored screen which does not materially 
lengthen the exposure while the sky is exposed 
through a deeper screen. 

The manner in which such a screen acts will 
be seen from the following diagram. 

Here we have a rough representation of a 
doublet lens with stop SI between the two com- 
binations. This stop admits from the sky a pencil 
of light of the diameter e d which passes through 
only the upper part of the front lens. This 
lens alone would pass a pencil of the width c e, 
but. as shown, all rays between d and e are cut 
out by the stop. In a similar way light-pencils 
from foreground objects are cut down by the 
stop from the width of f h to that of g h and 
pass through the lower part only of the front 
lens. Suppose we place a filter-screen at A B, 
then if the tint of this screen is graduated from 
a deep tint at A down to a very pale one at B 
it is obvious that the pencil c d will pass through 
a part of this screen that is of a greater average 
intensity than the lower portion through which 
g h passes. If we stop down to S2, then, as 
shown by the dotted lines, the two pencils pass 
through quite separate portions of the screen 
which obviously are of very different intensity. 



This graduated screen being tinted yellow acts 
as an orthochromatic filter, and herein is its de- 
fect, for it obviously must give the greatest 
color- correction in the sky, and the least in the 
foreground objects where true color-rendering 
is of most importance. It will certainly help 
to preserve the sky, but at the expense of true 
color-values. This defect could be got over by 
using a uniform color-screen with a graduated 
neutral-tint filter over it, while the latter alone 
could be used for work of the snapshot variety 
in which anything tending to increase exposure 
must of necessity be avoided. At present, how- 
ever. neutral-tint graduated filters are not ob- 
tainable and the graduated yellow one is very 
useful even though theoretically incorrect. It 
should not be forgotten that it will have no 
differential effect on sky and foreground if used 
with a single lens at the stop. Reference to the 
diagram will show that if the filter is moved 
back to the same plane as the stop S, any in- 
equality in the tint of the filter will affect both 
light-pencils equally, as both intersect the same 
part of the filter. 

When the exposures are very short we can 
get the same effect as that produced by a gradu- 
ated neutral-tint filter by using what is called a 
foreground-shutter at the lens-hood. Imagine 
A B to be the blade of a shutter which closes 
the lens. If we make the exposure by raising 
this blade in a vertical direction and then stop 
exposure by again lowering the blade, preserv- 
ing a fairly uniform rate of movement through- 

out and not leaving the lens wide open for any 
appreciable length of time, it is obvious that the 
foreground will receive greater exposure than 
the sky. Exposure will commence at B, and 
also finally cease there, so that nearly the whole 
of the pencil g h will be passing through the 
lens before it is open to the pencil c d. There 
are several patterns of shutter of the foreground- 
type on the market, and from experience we can 
recommend this method of securing skies and 
foreground with very short exposure. 

Other methods have been tried in the past, 
but the devices used are now obsolete and un- 
obtainable while none was so effective as the 
two we have described. We may caution 
readers against the very probable revival of an 
old device that had many advocates, though 
quite useless. This was the adoption of a stop- 
aperture of a triangular shape. Seeing that all 
light-pencils must pass through the same stop, 
it is evident that all must be affected equally by 
it, therefore the adoption of any fanciful form 
of opening is quite useless for the purpose of 
giving less exposure to the sky. An oblique 
stop was also used at times. I bis was an 
effective arrangement, though inconvenient from 
several points of view, and it is now quite 
obsolete. — Photo. Notes. 

The moment an artist thinks of money, he 
loses the sentiment of the beautiful. — Penis 


A Home-Made Apparatus for Enlarging from Nature 


J UST off the photographic highroad there 
is a little field not often sought by amateurs 
which is rich in interesting material much 
of which is new. I refer to the making of en- 
larged photographs of natural objects — “ photo- 
macrographs ” they have been called. It is 
presumable that the neglect of this field is due to 
the belief that its invasion is more difficult than 
is actually the case, for. while the outfit manu- 
factured particularly for this purpose is expen- 
sive, the ordinary camera may he used for the 
lower magnifications, and for the trouble taken 
one is amply repaid by the curious results 

The apparatus described below is for magni- 
fications of four or five diameters only ; yet the 
results are surprising: many familiar objects at 
this amplification become unrecognizable, and 
develop detail the existence of which was un- 
suspected. For instance, among the illustrations 
here given, the photograph of the bread has 
been identified by nobody to whom it has been 
shown. To the casual worker, enlargements of 
these proportions are more interestingand fruitful 
than the higher magnifications which carry the 
layman into a country which is so unfamiliar 

that he is in danger of losing his way. You will 
be convinced of this fact if you examine a list of 
the subjects illustrating a work on photo-microg- 
raphy. You may find the existence of most of 
them to be unknown to you. 

It is more entertaining for the average person 
to photograph, for example, the wings or the 
antennae of an insect than the trans-section of 
its tongue, and. incidentally, it is rather easier 
to do. 

In order to avoid confusing cross-references, 
I have tried to make the accompanying diagrams 
as far as possible self-explanatory. The outfit 
consists of a long light-tight box made of such 
proportions that it may have fitted to it at one 
end one of the glass-plate adapters supplied for 
film cameras, and at the other an ordinary 
camera. It- is really nothing more than a 
camera of great focal capacity. The optical 
principle involved is the same as that- of the 
enlarging apparatus for bromide prints, a natural 
object taking the place of the negative. The 
base-board of this box is extended forward at 
the camera-end to provide a support for the 
movable stage which bears the object.. These are 
the essentials. 

v ri 




The dimensions of the box will depend, first, 
upon the magnification desired ; second, upon 
the size of the camera and of the plate-adapter 
to he used ; and third, upon the focal-length 
of the lens. 

The rule governing the length of the box is 
as follows : 

The equivalent focus of the lens, multiplied by 
the number plus one of the diameters of magni- 
fication, gives the distance from lens to plate. 

For example, I use a lens of 6(4 inches Eq. 
Foe., and enlarge five diameters ; therefore, six 
times 6I/2, or 39, is the number of inches from 
lens to plate. (Racking in and out the length 
of my camera-bellows gives me a latitude of one 
diameter, so that I may work at four diameters 
with the bellows in.) Or. if your lens is of 4 
inches Eq. Foe., and you wish a magnification 
of six diameters, 7x4, or 28 inches gives you 
the distance. 

Focusing is accomplished by moving the stage 
bearing the object. As this stage is out of reach 
of the operator while he is viewing the ground- 
glass, it is necessary to move it toward and from 
the lens by means of a sliding board or strip of 
wood which extends nearly the whole length of 
the box, underneath. At the end of this strip 
nearest the operator is a knob by means of 
which it may lie pushed and pulled back and 
forth, and through the other end are driven a 
couple of long nails which pass through the slot 
in the extended base-board and then into the 
stage which they support. These nails are 
firmly imbedded in both the sliding board and 
in the stage, but they move along the slot. The 
long sliding board is held in place by two cleats 
or guides which are nailed beneath the base- 
board. They should bind just enough to hold 
the sliding board in position when a satisfactory 
focus is secured. This will be plain from the 

The stage itself may lie made of three pieces 
of wood, the one square, the others triangular 
in shape as shown in the figures. It should be 
provided with two brass clips — also shown — for 
holding the slides in place ; or they may lie held 
by a rubber band. 

The box may be placed in any convenient 
position which will permit the object to be brought 
within a foot or two of a bright window. My 
plan is to stand the box upright (supported by 
two legs not shown in the diagrams) with the 
camera-end down, near a window which extends 
to within a foot of the floor. I can focus stand- 
ing, as the ground-glass of the adapter is brought 
to just the proper height. One could work in 
this way very nicely on a porch. 

The depth of focus is, of course, very small. 
Only those objects, or those parts of an object 
which fall approximately in one plane will be in 
focus. This would seem to limit the choice of 
subject, but, really, almost anything that you 
would be likely to want to photograph can be 
made to conform to this condition. As a rule, I 
place the subject between a couple of glass slides. 
In this manner different parts of the object may 
be brought into the same focal plane. Plants 
and insects and most other small objects can be 
prepared in this way in a moment. The method 
has another point in its favor : These objects 
generally appear to better advantage when shown 
without a cast shadow, or as if they were sus- 
pended in the air without support, with a back- 
ground of plain tint. The background in this 
case may be of any tone from black to white, and 
is secured by placing a card or cloth of the 
desired shade anywhere beyond the stage. It is 
sure to be out of focus. If the apparatus is used 
in an upright position, the background may be 
simply laid upon the floor. Of course the box 
should he painted black inside, or should he lined 
with black paper. It is advisable to place, at 
intervals of one-third its length, black paper 
sections which will let pass just the angle of 
light which will reach the plate, cutting off all 
side rays. It is advantageous, too, to use a lens- 
hood of black paper. 

Focus as usual with the lens wide open. The 
illumination on the ground-glass is not brilliant, 
but it is ample. If you are working at, say, 
four diameters, and stop your lens down to F /16, 
you will be using actually stop F /80. Now, 

theoretically, diffraction begins at F/72. You 
will not he able to detect it here, however. 
Should you stop down to indicated F /64, though, 
it will be quite noticeable ; particularly if you 
subsequently enlarge from the negative. It is 
desirable, nevertheless, sometimes to sacrifice 
minute definition in order to gain in depth of 

Though the textures of some manufactured 
things are interesting, for subjects you will go 
principally out of doors. There you have an in- 
finite variety of plant- and insect-life from 
which to draw your material. You will find 
many curious forms which make fine prints. 
Think how valuable, for instance, would be a 
series showing the life-history of a small butter- 
fly or moth from the egg through the metamor- 
phoses to the adult stage. 

The field is full of possibilities, and even a 
short journey within its boundary is sure to be 
pleasant and profitable. There are many easy 
secrets hidden in the country of little things. 



The Cruel Profile Portrait 

T N contemplating the profile of King George Y. 
X of England, which is to appear on the new 
issue of British currency and postage-stamps, 
one cannot but sympathize with the ruler or 
public man whose features are thus reproduced 
and at maximum disadvantage. Like most mem- 
bers of the human race, kings and potentates 
possess a physiognomy the front and side views 
of which are often antagonistic to one another. 
Although one aspect — generally the former — 
is favorable, the other pitilessly reveals existing 
structural weaknesses <piite unsuspected in the 
front view of the bead. It is well known that 
the profile-portrait is placed on coins because it 
is more enduring than the front view, and yet 
one would naturally suppose that, in making the 
design for the die. the artist would have dealt 
somewhat charitably with the facial shortcom- 
ings of the august model. However, an exami- 
nation of the coins bearing the effigies of the 
Stuarts, the Guelphs and the Capets, for instance, 
seem to demonstrate the reverse. Witness the 
receding forehead and chin and the huge pro- 
jecting nose of the Georges, which impart to 
these royal countenances an expression akin to 
imbecility. Leopold II. of Belgium, he of un- 
pleasant memory, is depicted with startling real- 
ism, his attenuated nose and short lower lip 
strongly marking his weak character. The coins 
of the period of Frederick the Great represent 
that military genius with a pointed nose far in 
advance of the rest of his face, and with it form- 
ing a sharp angle. 

How often have we sat directly opposite a 
comely face in the street-car. for instance, ad- 
miring its regular, well-formed features, when, 
with a certain turn of the person’s head, the 
illusion of beauty suddenly vanished, the new 
view presented revealing contours of nose, chin 
and mouth disappointing in the extreme. The 
consoling feature, perhaps, is the ear. which, 
projecting abnormally in so many cases, now 
assumes an air of repose. 

These observations are not made in disparage- 
ment of those who lack the “ fatal gift of beauty.” 
for this much-coveted physical attribute is only 
skin-deep and does not always indicate nobility 
of character. But while it may please great 
men and women to he portrayed by the brush 
and the camera with utter disregard for their 

external shortcomings — many a genius glories 
in his physical deformities — it does not follow 
that others should he similarly indifferent to 
their personal appearance, for much may he done 
to improve an unfortunate physical defect by 
artificial means. Thus the portraitist who exe- 
cutes a commission is expected to consider the 
wishes of his patron — dealing gently with 
offending portions of face and body instead of 
depicting them just as they are. 

Few faces will produce a profile of classic 
beauty, and even some of these fail to yield flat- 
tering full-face portraits. This is one reason 
that one sees more front-view portraits than 
profiles in painting and photography. Inciden- 
tally. it may be remarked that many a man would 
look better with his head presented in profile, if 
he wore a mustache instead of being smooth- 
shaven. Not only does it preserve the harmo- 
nious proportions designed by nature, hut its 
removal, in obedience to fashion’s decree, some- 
times results in unpleasant disclosures, such as 
an abnormally long upper lip or an ill-shaped 
mouth, besides imparting undue prominence to 
the nose. ' A possibly humorous phase of this 
subject is the report that patrons of marriage- 
bureaus in large German cities now insist upon 
both full-face and profile photographs of their 
prospective consorts. 

Wide of the Mark 

F OR the benefit of our detractors — who be- 
grudge us even our existence — as well as 
for that of our readers who are not yet ac- 
quainted with our business-methods, we feel 
constrained to state that Photo-Era has no 
pecuniary interest in any photo-industrial enter- 
prise. native or foreign. Statements intended 
to impugn our motives as purveyors of photo- 
graphic news doubtless arise from the fact that, 
on several occasions, Photo-Era was able to 
present interesting matter, either in advance of 
its cotemporaries or in the nature of an exclu- 
sive. Reference here may he made to our 
timely illustrated review of the Seventh Ameri- 
can Salon, and. more particularly, to the very 
satisfactory pictorial feature of our article on 
the 1910 Kodak Competition. In both instances 
tlie halftone-plates were not borrowed, hut were 
produced by our own photo-engravers, in Boston, 
and at our own expense. 



An Association of Amateur Photographers 

This association, conducted under the auspices of PHOTO-ERA, and of which PHOTO-ERA is the offi- 
cial organ, is intended primarily for the benefit of beginners in photography, although advanced camerists 
are just as welcome and many are numbered among its members. The aim of the association is to assist 
photographers by giving them information, advice and criticism in the Guild pages of PHOTO-ERA and by 
personal correspondence. Membership is free and may be obtained by sending name and address to 
PHOTO-ERA, The Round Robin Guild, 383 Boylston Street, Boston. Send a stamp for complete prospectus. 

Fitting-Out for Spring 

May, the poet tells us, is a “ pious fraud of the Al- 
manac,” but nevertheless May is the most alluring 
month of the year with its warm, sunny days, its sudden 
caprices of turning the cold shoulder to the world, then 
its quick change back to warmth and sunshine. It is 
the month in all the year which calls most loudly for us 
to come out of doors, for the “ winter is past and the 
time of the singing of birds is here.” 

May beckons the amateur, who gladly follows, and it 
awakens in the mind of the non-amateur a desire to 
possess a camera and follow in the footsteps of his neigh- 
bor who is a picture-maker and a picture-taker. The 
first problem which confronts him is the choice of a 
camera. It is really worse than choosing a new spring 
costume, for there are cameras and cameras — of many 
kinds and many prices. It is really wonderful how very 
cheaply one may buy a really good camera, the cheap 
camera being now fitted with excellent lenses capable of 
producing a very good picture. It depends of course 
largely on the operator what kind of a picture, how ar- 
tistic, how interesting, and how well worth making, is 
made ; for it has been demonstrated that the quality of 
a picture does not always lie with the instrument. One 
of our most successful portrait-photographers has made 
some of her finest portraits with a spectacle-lens. 

For the beginner a cheap camera will be the better 
choice. The lenses on some of the cheap cameras work 
at as large a diaphragm or aperture as F/S, so in choos- 
ing a cheap camera select one with a lens which works 
at a large aperture and also one which when stopped 
down will work equally well and give good definition 
— in other words, a good Rapid Rectilinear. Such a lens 
is admirable for making exposures when one does not 
have (or does not use) a tripod. 

As to the form or style of camera, one chooses the 
style which pleases him best. It may be simply a box, 
or it may he a folding camera which will shut up small 
enough to be tucked into one’s pocket. The editor pre- 
fers a box camera in a cheap instrument, the advantage 
being that it is always ready and does not have to be 
opened. Then, too, the lens is protected in the box 
camera, whereas in the folding camera, if one carries 
the camera open, one must have a cap to protect the lens. 

The focusing-scales of the cheap cameras are not al- 
ways correct, so it is wise to test them before buying. 
The distance at which the scale is set should be accu- 
rately measured, choosing some object of prominence on 
which to focus. If the object is clear and distinct, one 
can trust the foeusing-scale, but if not, then another 
camera should be selected. In making snapshot-pic- 
tures it is very essential that the focusing-scale should be 
as nearly correct as possible, and one must also learn to 
estimate distances quickly. 

If the shutter works easily and smoothly it does not 
matter particularly about the speed. Sometimes the 
shutters of the cheap cameras are set for only three 
speeds, but the lens is of such quality that this arrange- 
ment is quite satisfactory. Although a high rate of 
speed is necessary for certain subjects, such as races, 
there is no need of a high speed on the hand-camera, 
with which one is simply making what one might term 
“ everyday ” pictures. For most subjects the slower 
speed will be found the most satisfactory, for with the 
cheap cameras one does not commonly use the very sen- 
sitive plates ; though with films, as well as with the 
slower plates, ample exposure must be given. 

The “ view-finder ” ought to give the exact view which 
is included within the angle of the lens and which will 
appear on the plate, but unfortunately it seldom does so. 
One should therefore test the view-finder well before 
buying his camera. There are two kinds of view- 
finders : one called the “ direct vision ” and the other 
the small finder inserted in the camera and on which one 
looks down and sees the picture in miniature. The 
former kind is the best for rapid work. It is separate 
from the camera and one may buy one and have it at- 
tached to one’s camera. They are really worth while 
and give the picture the exact proportions which it will 
be on the plate, which is a decided advantage to the be- 
ginner. The view-finder of this kind is hinged and can 
be shut down on the box of the camera when not in use. 

Many of the small hand-cameras have what is called 
a “ fixed focus,” so that one does not have to think of 
the definition of the image ; for all objects beyond a 
certain point are in good focus, the distance being usu- 
ally about six feet. For such a lens one may have what 
are called portrait attachments, enlarging attachments, 
etc. This type of supplementary lens makes it possible 
to photograph an object within three feet of the camera, 
and is useful for a “ fixed focus ” lens. 

One may use either plates or films, or he may select 
a camera which enables him to use both plates and films. 
This latter form is really the most desirable, for there 
are times when a plate is more desirable than a film and 
vice versa. For the beginner, if one cannot have the 
“ plate-film ” camera, it is better to have plates. They 
are cheaper than films, are more easily handled, and 
their use permits one to focus and compose his picture 
on the ground-glass rather than to trust the view- 

The mechanism of the small camera is very simple ; 
but, simple as it is, one must become familiar with all 
the movements which go to make the exposure so that 
the hand works mechanically, and practically independ- 
ent of the mind, which is directed to the objects to be 
photographed rather than to the movements necessary 
to photograph them. The working of the camera should 
be so familiar that it may be done subconsciously, and 






to accomplish this one must practice the movements 
for taking a picture over and over in their regular order 
until he practically has to give no thought to their per- 

There is one thing which the beginner must guard 
against, and that is the photographing of everything in 
sight. He must learn to pick and choose. For instance, 
if he is desirous to make some particular landscape view, 
he must not be diverted from his purpose by any entic- 
ing* scene which may come in his way before he reaches 
the spot he has selected for picture-making. It is so 
easy to take a picture that before one realizes the fact a 
dozen plates have been used, and when they are devel- 
oped and finished the amateur finds that perhaps only 
one or two are at all worthy of preservation. This 
wasting of material is what makes the bank-roll of the 
manufacturers grow large and bulky. 

Exposure-meters are helpful for the beginner, as they 
enable him to judge the time of exposure ; but as soon 
as one becomes something of an adept one should dis- 
card this crutch and learn to depend on one’s own ob- 
servation of the strength of the light, for there are many 
times when it is not convenient nor expedient to use the 
e xposure-meter. 

One learns mostly by experience, and though experi- 
ence is a dear school for fools, the wise beginner will 
learn to make haste slowly, thus saving material and 
accomplishing things worth while in the picture-world. 

Plates and Exposures 

The timing of exposures is one of the things which 
is perhaps hardest for the beginner to judge. For his 
aid, however, there is a small instrument called an 
exposure-meter, an instrument for measuring the correct 
time of exposure under different conditions of light, and 
adjustable to the plate and stop used. This instrument 
is very ingenious though very simple in manipulation. 
It is fitted with two strips of paper, one of which is 
termed the u standard tint ” and is to be used under 
ordinary conditions of light. The other strip is much 
lighter in tone and is for use in interiors and in places 
where the light is dull. 

Tables giving the sensitiveness of different brands of 
plates accompany each meter. To find the time of ex- 
posure for any brand of plate, the pointer of the meter 
is turned until the record of the time it takes to color 
the sensitive paper to the tone of the test-strip is oppo- 
site the number of the plate. The time which is set 
opposite the stop used is the time required for the cor- 
rect exposure of the plate, for in turning the scale to 
the plate-number one also turns the diaphragm to the 
number indicating the correct time of exposure. 

An exposure-meter is a very convenient instrument, 
but it is not a necessary adjunct to one s photographic 
outfit. The Round Robin Guild Exposure-Guide, pub- 
lished monthly in Photo-Era, is a reliable help. A 



little study and a few test-exposures will soon show 
what allowances the individual worker needs to make 
from the values given. One has only to cultivate his 
power of observation, giving a careful study to cause 
and effect, to be able to judge correctly the time of 
exposure under varying conditions of light and with the 
use of different brands of plates. 

Four things govern the time of exposure : the greater 
or less sensitiveness of the plates used ; the actinic 
power of the light ; the size of the diaphragm, and the 
character of the objects to be photographed. The in- 
experienced worker will show himself wise if he chooses 
one brand of moderate-speed plate and uses it for his 
out-door work until he can time his exposure correctly. 
The best guide for judging the time necessary properly 
to impress the image on a plate is to note the brilliancy 
of the image thrown on the foeusing-glass. In very 
bright weather the objects will show clearly and dis- 
tinctly, but in dull weather or in a poorly-lighted in- 
terior the objects will be scarcely discernible. Between 
the brightly-illuminated and the dull, shadowy image 
there are many variations of light, and the eye can be 
quickly trained to judge its actinic power. When one 
has once learned the speed of a certain plate lie can so 
time his work as to make very excellent negatives. 
Some plates are very sensitive, others are very slow in 
action. The quickest as well as the slowest plate is 
made by the discoverers of Autochrome photography, 
the brothers Lumiere. 

The very rapid plates are used for making records of 
races, and for dull and cloudy days. They are very rich 
in silver, have very mellow qualities, and make excel- 
lent-printing negatives. They must be handled with 
care ; for, being so sensitive to light, they are easily 
fogged. Tank-development with rapid plates seems to 


give the most satisfactory results, and to insure even 
development the plates should be soaked in clear water 
before placing in the tank. 

For landscape-work and for marines one should use a 
plate of moderate speed, and for portraits a slower plate 
still should be chosen. With the slower plate one gets 
more detail and roundness in the shadows. 

Interiors and some landscapes are best made with non- 
halation plates when windows are included in an interior 
view and when in landscapes the sky is of an intense 
blue. These plates are coated with a double emulsion 
which prevents halation, but the exposure must be twice 
as long as with the single-coated plate. Non-halation 
plates should also be chosen for outdoor photography at 
night, and also for interior pictures taken at night in 
rooms with lights included in the picture. Non-halation 
plates also make the best flashlight-negatives. 

The orthochromatic plate, which is sensitized to 
render true color-values, is the plate to choose for 
flower-studies, copying paintings, and for any work 
where a variety of colors is included in one picture. 
There is a slow orthochromatic plate which is designed 
for commercial work, such as the photographing of 
tapestries, rngs, draperies and carpets — and here is a sug- 
gestion : an amateur who can do this kind of work suc- 
cessfully may make quite a tidy sum which will help in 
reducing the expense of photography. 

( )ne variety of plates is called the contrast plate and 
is designed for copying maps, engravings, drawings and 

There are many degrees of rapidity between the very 
fast plate and the very slow, and it is only by practice 
and by close observation that one finally arrives at the 
point where he can judge almost to a certainty the cor- 
rect time of exposure for any plate used. 




Chemical Elements 

A chemical element is that form of matter which 
cannot be decomposed by any means within our present 
knowledge. “ Decompose,” used in this sense, means to 
separate into simpler forms of matter. 

There are nearly eighty chemical elements known, 
and four of these combined with a metal form com- 
pounds resembling table-salt. These four elements are 
Fluorine. Chlorine. Bromine, and Iodine. Their sym- 
bols are F. Cl, Br, and I. In chemistry they are 
termed halogens, meaning “ salt-producers,” and the 
compounds which they form are called haloids. When 
they are combined with the metal silver they make sil- 
ver haloids or salts of silver. Three of these silver salts 
are the substances most quickly affected by light and 
consequently are the most important agents used in 
photography. They are known by the name of the 
element with which the silver is combined — silver 
chloride, silver bromide, and silver iodide. 

The action of light on silver chloride is to separate the 
chlorine from the silver, and in order to decompose the 

chloride there must be some substance to combine with 
the chlorine. The substance which combines most 
easily is silver nitrate, which is produced chemically by 
dissolving pure silver in nitric acid. Silver nitrate is 
used largely in photography to make sensitive prepara- 
tions. If. is very poisonous. 

The chlorine which is set free by the action of light 
combines at once with the pure silver in the silver 
nitrate. The chemical nature of the dark-colored sub- 
stance produced on the sensitive paper by the action of 
light on the silver salts with which it is coated produces 
a silver subchloride and chlorine. The silver chloride is 
white until it is exposed to the light. It then passes 
through different stages of coloring from a faint pinkish 
tone to reddish violet and if exposed to the light long 
enough turns finally to a deep brown or black. 

Two of the most popular developers, pyro and hydro- 
chinon, are composed of the same chemical elements, 
though in different proportions. 

This little hit of chemistry is given in reply to many 
recent inquiries in regard to what is meant by a chemi- 
cal element and its use in photography. 





For the Scrapbook 

Bottles containing photographic solutions often be- 
come stained from the deposit of the chemicals. They 
may he quickly and easily cleaned by filling- them with 
equal parts of hydrochloric acid and water. Bet the 
liquid stand in the bottle over night, shake well, and the 
stain will disappear. Wash the bottle with soap and 
water and it will he as clear as at first. When a bottle 
is labeled, the label should he protected with a coating 
of varnish, and the label will neither come off nor be 
discolored by the solution’s being spilled on it. 

To weigh a grain of gold, or rather to get it into such 
shape as easily to ascertain how much gold is being used, 
get a fifteen grain bottle of gold and dissolve it in seven 
and one-half ounces of water. The solution then eon- 
tains a grain of gold to each half-ounce of the liquid. 
When making up a solution that calls for a certain num- 
ber of grains of gold, use half-an-ounce of the gold solu- 
tion for each grain called for, and reduce the amount of 
water by as many half-ounces as was used of the gold 
solution. If the formula called for eight ounces of water 

and two grains of gold, use seven ounces of water and 
one ounce of the gold solution. 

To convert a photograph into a good imitation of a 
line-drawing is a very simple matter. The best subjects 
for such work are sketchy land- or water-scapes or por- 
traits of soft detail. Have two prints, the one to be 
turned into a line-drawing made on bromide paper, and 
the other, which is to be a guide for the work, made on 
blue-print paper. For the line-work use a fine drawing- 
pen and Higgins' Waterproof Drawing-Ink. Go over all 
the parts of the picture which it is desired to retain, 
drawing the lines evenly and carefully. In portraits, 
one must he careful not to spoil the expression of either 
eyes or mouth, the two features which are most easily 
drawn incorrectly. As the work progresses study the 
model carefully to see just what to take out and what 
to leave in. When the ink is perfectly dry, place the 
print in the following bath : Hypo, 2 oz. ; potassium 
ferricyanide, 25 grains ; water, 10 oz. The print is left 
in this solution till all parts of the picture not covered 
with the ink have bleached out white. When the pic- 
ture is bleached, wash well, place for a few minutes in a 
hypo bath one to eight in strength, wash again and dry. 



Handling the New Film-Camera 

At this season many people take up photography for 
the first time and make their essay with a simple film- 
camera. The makers do all in their power to help the 
user by providing' with each instrument a booklet of 
instructions. In this they explain carefully the dif- 
ferent parts of the camera and how to adjust and use 
each one. These directions, of course, vary with each 
model of camera ; but the important point is that the 
owner should not neglect to read them very carefully 
and familiarize himself with all the details. The sales- 
man generally shows the buyer how to handle the 
camera and make the exposure ; but it is well to repeat 
all the motions with the camera empty, following the 
booklet in detail, until one feels quite familiar with the 

One or two evenings spent in a sort of drill with the 
camera before trying to make pictures will well repay 
the camerist for his patience, for he will in this way 
avoid making mistakes and wasting expensive films. 
It hen he feels quite sure that he can go through all 
the steps necessary without a hitch, it is time to load 
the camera and make some exposures. After loading a 
roll of film into the instrument (or having the clerk do 
it for you) see that the shutter is set for a snapshot and 
that the lens is set for 25 feet — if the camera is a 
focusing one, that is. if the lens is arranged to he moved 
for different distances. The fixed-focus cameras do not 
require to he set for different distances, hut if they are 
of the folding type the front must be pulled out until it 
is held solidly in position. The front being locked, 

select a landscape-view without any large, dark objects 
near the camera and consult the Exposure-guide, p. 255. 
You will see that exposures of Vo 5 second may be given 
in bright sunlight at 7 A.M. and 5 p.M., also between 
9 and M if the light is cloudy-bright, that is, if the sky 
is covered with clouds and the shadows cast by objects 
are dark but not inky-black, as they are with intense sun- 
light. Now, the speed of unmarked snapshot -sh niters 
is near enough to 1 so, and the speeds marked 1 so and 
fbo are also near enough for your first trials. Use the 
largest hole or stop provided for your lens. If it is a 
fixed-focus camera with a single lens, this largest stop is 
usually about IT. S. 12 and requires about three times 
the exposure necessary for IT. S. No. 4. If you do not 
select a subject in full sunlight, you will not get enough 
exposure with this biggest stop and the usual speed of 
the shutter; but with care good results can be had be- 
tween 9 and 3 on subjects classed as 1 in the Guide. 
Be suie to consult the table before each exposure, and 
if you find that your instrument will allow only about 
Us as much time as is called for, do not try to make a 
snap. The more expensive cameras are fitted with 
Rapid Rectilinear lenses working at U. S. No. 4 and 
with shutters marked for speeds from 1 second to Vino 
second. With these, guided by the table, you can se- 
cure proper exposure every time. Remember that the 
values given are intended to produce very fully exposed 
pictures and that half as much time will often give a 
passable snapshot. 

The exposure decided on, hold the camera in both 
bands at a convenient height and clear of the body. Get 




the view arranged in the finder so that it looks right 
and bp; sure that the horizon-line is level. It 
is easy to get a level picture if you note whether the 
horizon is parallel with the edge of the finder. In case 
of doubt, point the camera down until the horizon co- 
incides with the edge of the finder and then slowly re- 
turn the camera to the right level without tilting it to 
either side. Now, when everything is ready, take a 
deep breath and hold it, at the same moment pressing' 
the bulb or the release-lever without jerking. The 
knack is best got by practice, preferably with the empty 
camera ; but a few trials, remembering to press steadily, 
evenly, and without force, will soon teach you just how 
to do it. 

As soon as the exposure has been made, turn the key 
until a new section of film is in position. Get the habit 
of doing this always as soon as yon have exposed and 
you will never have a double-exposure. Proceed in the 
manner directed above, carefully considering each sub- 
ject and trying to give it the right time, or as near to it 
as you can attain. If you study the Guide and familiar- 
ize yourself with the different classes of subjects you 
will soon learn not to make snapshots when the light is 
too weak to impress the plate. It is probably better 
for the beginner to have his first few rolls developed for 
him and to print them himself on self-toning paper. 
Later, if his success is such as to warrant the outlay, he 
can get a tank and develop his own exposures. The next 
step would be to learn to use gaslight-paper for printing. 

The question of governing exposure by the use of the 
stops as well as by the regulation of the shutter-speeds 

is a puzzling one, yet it can be settled by a little study. 
The Guide uses, as a standard, stop U. S. No. 4, which 
is the largest one furnished on Kodaks fitted with Rapid 
Rectilinear lenses. The largest stop of course admits 
the most light in a given time. Each size smaller stop 
admits just half as much light as the one larger. Sup- 
pose, for example, that you wish to make a picture of 
an open seascape, which is Glass 44. At 2 p.m. in bright 
sunlight the exposure called for is 4 r> 1 1 x 44, or 41oo- 
With a shutter-speed of 41r> it is necessary to use a stop 
of such a size as will reduce the light the correct amount. 
44oo divided by 41' r. = 8. Instead of stop 4. then, one 
must use stop 32, which admits only 1 s as much light 
as stop 4. In the same way, if you want an exposure 
of 41 2 on No. 8 and have only a snap of 41s, it is in 
effect the same to give 4ar> on No. 4, because the size 
larger stop gives twice as much light as No. 8. 

Subjects which are beyond the range of snapshots can 
be found by consulting the Guide. When such are 
attempted, it is necessary to use a time-exposure. Set 
the camera on a tripod or hold it firmly on a solid sup- 
port of any kind. Set the shutter for “ time ” or 
“ bulb ” and use a small stop. Suppose you are tak- 
ing a Class 10 subject at 7 A.M., cloudy-bright light. 
At U. S. No. 4, 16/12 or 1 4h seconds would be needed. 
Using U. S. 64, 16 times this, or about 22 seconds, 
would give the right time. The beginner can get good 
results almost every time if he will but use a little care, 
making time-exposures whenever necessary, instead of 
heedlessly snapping all sorts of pictures without regard 
to the light or the nature of the view. 


The Round Robin Guild 
Monthly Competitions 

Closing the last day of every month. 

Address all prints for competition to Photo-Era, 
The Sound Sobin Guild Competition, 3S3 Boyl- 
ston St., Boston, U.S.A. 


First Prize : V alue $10.00. 

Second Prize : Value $5.00. 

Third Prize: Value $2.50. 

Honorable Mention : Those whose work is deemed 
worthy of reproduction with the prize-winning' picture, 
or in later issues, will be given Honorable Mention. 

Prizes may he chosen by the winner, and will he 
awarded in photographic materials of any nature adver- 
tised in Photo-Era. 


1. These competitions are free and open to all photo- 
graphers, whether or not subscribers to Photo-Era. 

2. As many prints as desired, in any medium except 
blue-print, may be entered, hut they must represent the 
unaided work of the competitor from start to finish, and 
must be artistically mounted. 

3. The right is reserved to withhold from the com- 
petitions all prints not up to the Photo-Era standard. 

4. A package of prints will not be considered eligible un- 
less return-postage at the rate of one cent for each two 
ounces or fraction is sent with the data. 

5. Each print entered must bear the maker's name, ad- 
dress, Guild-number , the title of the picture and the name 
and month of the competition, and should be accompanied 
by a letter sent separately, giving full particulars of 
date, light, plate or film, make, type and focus of lens, stop 
used, exposure, developer and printing-process. Enclose 
return-postage in letter. 

6. Prints receiving prizes or Honorable Mention be- 
come the property of Photo-Era. If suitable, they will 
he reproduced, full credit in each case being given to 
the maker. 

Notice to Prize-Winners 

These contests are open to everybody except those 
who have won three or more prizes. 

Subjects for Competition 

April — “Spring-Pictures." Closes May 31. 

May — “Decorative Flower-Studies.” Closes June 30. 
June — “Water-Craft.” Closes July 31. 

July — “Gardens.” Closes August 31. 

August — “ Wood-Interiors.” Closes September 30. 
September — “Shore-Scenes.” Closes October 31. 
October — “ Rainy Days.” Closes November 30. 
November — “ Christmas Cards.” Closes December 31. 
December — “ Home-Scenes.” Closes January 31. 

Awards — Winter-Scenes 

First Prize: J. R. Peterson. 

Second Prize: Dr. I). .J. Ruzicka. 

Third Prize : John Dove. 

Honorable Mention : Ernest M. Astle. Rupert Bridge, 
Harry A. Brodine. C. W. Clarke, W. B. Davidson, 
Mrs. Alice F. Foster. J. E. Harlan, A. II. Jones, W. W. 
Klenke, Alexander Murray, .J. W. Newton, Mrs. S. B. 
November, Harry G. Phister. D. S. Pouder, J. Herbert 
Saunders, Arthur Smith. Dr. F. F. Sornberger, William 
Spanton. R. D. Von Nieda. Harry D. Williar. 


Quarterly Contests for Beginners 

In these contests all Guild members are eligible pro- 
vided they have never received any prizes 
or Honorable Mentions in the past, from any 


All prints submitted, except prize-winners, will be 
returned if postage is sent in a separate letter with the 
data. See rules 4 and 5 in opposite column. 


First Prize : Value $5.00. 

Second Prize: Value $2.50. 

Third Prize: Value $1.50. 

Honorable Mention : 'Those whose work is worthy will 
be given Honorable Mention. 

A Definition of the Beginner 

Competitors in the Quarterly Contests for Beginners 
will please take note of the strict definition of the be- 
ginner which has appeared in the last few issues of 
Photo-Era. The tightening of the lines was made nec- 
essary by the fact that many contestants sent for these 
events work which was clearly the output of experts, 
thus taking advantage of the genuine beginners, viz., 
camerists of less than one year’s experience. 

Subjects for Competition 


Landscapes of trees in bud, early vegetation, late 
snow in the woods, flowering trees and shrubs, April 
showers and cloudy skies. Landscapes made on ortho- 
chromatic plates with a ray-filter not later than May 20. 


It may seem that “ Vacation-Pictures " is a pretty 
broad term, but the editors desire to give the real be- 
ginners a chance to enter any good pictures they may 
make during their summer holidays. For this reason it 
was decided to make the subject broad enough to include 
everything which might in any way illustrate the title. 
Thus, snapshots of landscapes, seascapes, figures, ani- 
mals, buildings and any other objects which offer good 
compositions or interesting pictures may he included. 

To get the greatest benefit out of these quarterly con- 
tests, each Guild-member who is thinking of entering 
any prints should undertake a little course of study cov- 
ering the field in which he contemplates working. There 
are plenty of booklets for beginners, some on the photo- 
graphic processes themselves and others on special fields, 
such as hand-camera work, marines, landscapes, and 
orthochromatic photography. These the clerks in the 
stock-houses will be only too glad to get for you. Tech- 
nical excellence is necessary if the pictures are to have a 
chance of success. The negatives must be properly ex- 
posed and developed and the prints as good as you can 
make from them. But the intelligent worker will do 
more than make a good photograph ; he will select his 
subjects with regard to the laws of composition and re- 
member that some definite idea must be present in his 
mind to justify the exposure. Perhaps the easiest gen- 
eral rule is to secure simplicity by working close to the 
subject so as to get a large image and thus exclude ex- 
traneous objects, particularly such as would come out 
nearly white in the print and distract the eye from the 
principal object. 




Answers to Correspondents 

Renders wishing information upon any point in 
connection with their photographic work are invited 
to make use of this department. Address all in- 
quiries to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 743 East 
27th Street , Paterson , N. J. If a personal reply 
is desired , a self-addressed , stamped envelope must 
be enclosed. 

Fred Wilson. - A Toning=Bath in which So= 
dium Tungstate Is Used is made as follows: Sodium 
tungstate, 60 grains; sodium carbonate, 2 grains; gold 
chloride, 2 grains ; water, 20 oz. This solution should 
be made up at least two hours before using and, if not 
clear, filtered. It tones rapidly and evenly, giving rich 
warm browns. 

C. L. Ellis. — If Your Negative Comes Up Too 

Rapidly, you can stop development immediately by 
placing it in a citric-acid bath, 5 grains of acid to an 
ounce of water. You are using too rapid a plate for 
your subjects, consequently you overexpose and get 
thin negatives with no good modeling. 

B. N. M. — A good Acid Fixing=Bath without 
Alum is made of: Hypo. 4 oz.; acetone sulphite, 120 
grains; water, 20 oz. For a Hardening Bath use one 
ounce of formalin to 10 of water. 

Kate D. S. — A Flat Negative is one which prints 
muddy highlights while the shadows have no depth nor 
strength. A flat negative is the result of overexposure 
or insufficient development, more often the former. 
Judging from the prints sent me from the negatives 
answering this description, it would seem that they are 
practically worthless, there being no way to turn them 
into good-printiijg plates. I would advise throwing them 
away and making fresh negatives of the same subjects, 
which are for the most part very good and worth doing 
over again. 

A. II. Poole. To Change the Color of a Blue= 

print to a rich violet, wash the print until the whites 

are clear, then dip it into a solution of ammonia water, 
using a quarter-ounce of ammonia to a pint of water. 
Dry the print without washing again and the color will 
be a rich violet. If household ammonia is used, take an 
ounce to a pint of water. 

R. R. F. — flultiple Films are plates which have 
been coated with several films of emulsion in order to 
avoid halation when used for photographing interiors 
where windows are included in the view. These plates 
are now called non-halation plates and may be bought 
of any dealer in photographic goods. The name “ mul- 
tiple films" was first given to these plates, but never 
came into general use. 

E. Seaman. — A Combined Hardening=and=Fix= 
ing=Bath is made as follows : Chrome alum, 180 grains : 
sodium sulphite, *4 oz. ; water, 4 oz. Dissolve, and add 
to six ounces of hypo solution of one-to-four strength. 
This bath is also excellent for hardening the film of 
Aristo papers. Leave the negative in the solution about 
ten minutes after the free silver has been dissolved. 

Jane Freedman. — Metacarbol Developer is con- 
sidered to be a very good one for underexposed nega- 
tives. Make up the solution as follows : Metacarbol. 
50 grains ; sodium sulphite crystals, 200 grains ; sodium 
hydrate, 100 grains; water, 8 oz. Dissolve in the order 
given, let the solution stand for a short time, then filter 
and use. This formula is better than the formula which 
you send and which you have not found to work at all 

D. S. E. — Back Numbers of Photo-Era may be 
purchased at the Boston office. Some of the numbers 
are out of print and some have advanced in price. Write 
what numbers you desire, and reply will be sent stating 
whether they are out of print or not and giving price of 
those on hand. I do not know where you would find a 
file of the magazine in your town unless your local cam- 
era club — if you bave one — has it in its library. 

Mary F. G. — The Swing=Back is used for adjust- 
ing the plate-holder at any desired angle in order to 
bring the object to be photographed parallel with the 
plate. Its special design is to do away with the distor- 
tion of lines when photographing rectangular objects, 

such as buildings. Many of the medium-priced hand- 
cameras are fitted with swing-backs. 

C. S. D. — For Touching=Out Freckles in a por- 
trait use a soft pencil sharpened to a needle point. The 
Kohinoor 5 B is excellent for this work. If the film 
does not take the pencil readily, rub the places to be re- 
touched with powdered pumice-stone, which will roughen 
the film just enough to make it take the pencil well. 
After retouching, blend the marks with a crayon-stump. 

Samuel H. G. — A weak solution of hydrochloric 
acid and alum will remove the Py ro=Stain from your 
negative. A Transfer- Varnish is made by dissolving 
Va oz. gum mastic in 4 oz. of alcohol, then adding 1 dram 
of poppy-seed-oil. 

S. A. 0. — It is rather a delicate operation to Re- 
move Paper from a Negative which has adhered to 
it during the process of printing. Soak the negative in 
a strong solution of salt and water at a temperature of 
70 degrees F. When the paper is thoroughly wet, rub 
it off gently with the finger-ends, taking care not to tear 
the film of the negative. 

Bert S. — To Soften the Leather of Your Cam- 
era and Prevent Further Cracking, get what is 
called a “ leather-preservative ” at a leather-store. 'This, 
rubbed on the camera, will not only soften the leather 
but preserve it from further injury. This preservative 
is also good for the backs of leather books which have 
become cracked and hard. 

John L. H. — Printing by Diffused Light means 
printing either in the shade or else placing some trans- 
lucent medium between the negative and the direct rays 
of the sun. Ground-glass is often used, and many photo- 
graphers make all their prints through what is called 
onion-skin tissue-paper — a paper which is free from 
irregularities such as are in the ordinary tissue-papers. 
To Remove Discoloration from Velox Prints, 
make up a solution of : sulphuric acid. Vs oz. ; chrome 
alum, 1 oz ; water. 10 oz. Place the print in this bath 
until the discoloration has disappeared, then wash well and 
dry in a place free from dust. 

P. C. Hunt. — If you buy the Ready -Prepared 
Solution for Postcards it will save you a great deal 
of trouble. You can buy postcard stock, or stock sim- 
ilar to that used for postcards, of any dealer in papers. 
If you make up your own postcards remember that on 
the face of the card you must either write or print the 
word Postcard or else you will have to pay letter-rates 
for sending. To Make a Liquid (Hue, dissolve the 
best quality glue in acetic acid. Break the glue into 
small bits, cover it with acetic acid and let it stand till 
it dissolves. It will always retain its liquid state. 

Nelson S. E. — Do not try to Tone Your Bromide 
Prints with hypo. Use instead the ready-prepared 
toner which comes for all gaslight and bromide prints. 
It is easy to manage ; the results are very excellent, for 
one may get a variety of tones with a surety that they 
will be practically permanent, whereas the sulphur-ton- 
ing of bromides or gaslight papers is sometimes a failure 
and one cannot be sure that the tone obtained will be 

Grace T. The Developer Used for Platinum- 

Prints may be used over and over until its strength is 
exhausted. After developing the prints, pour the devel- 
oper into a bottle and the black precipitate will settle 
to the bottom, leaving the liquid clear. Decant this off 
carefully and either use it as it is or else add a little 
more fresh solution to it. The used developer often 
gives much better tones than the fresh, particularly with 
the sepia prints. It gives richer tones and seems to bring 
out the detail better. 

Hints on Gaslight-Paper Printing 

When making gaslight-prints it facilitates the proc- 
ess if one sorts his negatives and puts each in its own 
class. Those that print quickly should be placed to- 
gether and those of a denser film should be placed by 
themselves. < hie will usually find three grades of density 
in his negatives, and even these will vary more or less. 
Still, if they are chosen carefully and the printing - time 
gauged well, one can print from his collection almost 
twice as rapidly as when one takes a negative at hap- 
hazard. In printing from negatives of about the same 
density, one soon learns to judge the time of printing 
with accuracy, and the result, will be a set of pictures 
correctly printed, instead of half one’s prints almost 

The editor finds it more practical to print and develop 
at once, and if one has negatives, paper, developing- and 
fixing-trays arranged in a convenient way so as to lose 
no time in performing the different movements necessary 
for the operation, printing proceeds rapidly and when 
one has finished printing the prints are all developed and 
fixed as well. In this way, if one is unfortunate enough 
to spoil a print, another can be made at once. If de- 
veloping is left till all the prints are made, then when 
one finds a poor print the second printing must ensue, 
which means quite a little more trouble. 

When making gaslight-prints it will be found a great 
help in future printing if one puts on the envelope con- 
taining the negative the exact time required to make the 

Amidol is one of the best developers for gaslight 
prints, for it is a very clean developer and does not stain 
the print even after long using. It does not keep well 
in solution, but is made up in the quantity required as 

Hints on Brush-Development 

Brush-development of platinum prints is one of the 
best ways for leaving out of a picture what one does not 
wish in it. Directions for this work have been given in 
this department, and many of our Guilders have sent us 
very interesting and artistic prints made by following the 
suggestions. Brush prints may be made to look like pen- 
cil-drawings by working on the glycerine-covered surface 
of the print with a very fine brush and bringing out the 
lines necessary to give the effect of a pencil sketch. A 
guide in such work is to make a print and develop it and 
when it is dry to go over it with a pencil and mark such 
lines as are necessary to bring' out the picture, being 
careful not to overdo the work. With weak developer, 
one gets a light pencil-sketch and with strong developer 
one gets a bold drawing. 

Charcoal drawings may be imitated by carrying the 
development just far enough to get the color of charcoal 
in the print, and of course leaving out or suggesting 
detail, but not bringing it out in full. 

A quick way to remove the glycerine from a print is 
to dip a wad of absorbent cotton in the acid-bath and 
swab the surface quickly and gently. At least three 
acid-baths will be necessary for prints developed by the 


“ I believe that never before has my desire for dis- 
tributing a few copies arisen because of such superb 
reproduction-work as is in evidence -in your February 
issue. You almost persuade me that I know something 
about photography ! With good wishes, believe me, 
sincerely. Julian A. Dimock.” 


Address all prints for criticism, enclosing return 
postage at the rate of one cent for each two ounces 
or fraction thereof, to Elizabeth Flint Wade, 
7 4“d East 27th St., Paterson, N. J. Prints must 
hear the maker's name and address, and should he 
accompanied hy a letter, sent separately , giving full 
particulars of date, light, plate or film, stop, expo- 
sure, developer and printing-process . 

The Old Farmhouse. D. S. E. — This picture 
shows a group of farm-buildings in the middle-distance, 
the house itself being nearest the spectator. The point 
of view has been chosen so that the road starting from 
the lower left-hand corner sweeps in a long curve up to 
the homestead and is lost to sight over a slight rise of 
ground just beyond. To give balance to the picture a 
clump of three or four trees is shown at the left, the 
buildings themselves being at the right of the center 
and nearer the right-hand edge than the center. What 
makes this picture of special interest is the excellent 

composition, the lines of road and trees and buildings all 
being harmonious and restful. The focus is not sharp, 
but softly diffused, which bit of technique adds to the 
charm of the scene. It is not, however, an “ impres- 
sionist ” sort of picture ; it is sharp enough to give good 
detail, but not sharp enough to show the individual 
leaves on the trees. This would make an excellent en- 
largement. The mounting of the print was rather a 
detriment, the mount chosen being a commercial card 
with “ curlycues ” at the corners, which detract much 
from the simplicity of the picture. 

Just Roses. W. L. R. — The title of this picture 
might just as well have been “Just Cabbages ” for the 
mass of roses heaped together, each rose being so placed 
as to face the camera, looks at first glance as much like 
cabbages as they do like roses. The roses were evi- 
dently of different colors, some white, some dark red 
with intermediate shades, and instead of using an ortho- 
chromatic plate and thus getting true color-values, an 
ordinary plate was used and the result is a patchy- 
looking mass of black and white without any pleasing 
form or detail. The trouble with the beginner in photo- 
graphing flowers is that he takes a bunch of flowers in- 
stead of choosing a single specimen. It takes a real 

artist to arrange a mass of flowers and photograph them 
so that they will have form, roundness, and detail. 
Indeed, no artist would ever think of using a quantity of 
blossoms in a picture; he would choose two or three of 
a single variety, and arrange them to fill the space 
properly and to be decorative as well as artistic in 
effect. It would be well for our beginning members to 
look over the back -numbers of Photo-Era for excellent 
object-lessons in the making of flower-studies; for, 
simple as they seem, they are among the most difficult 
subjects for the tyro. 

Evening. B. B. F. — This is an interesting pic- 
ture of what seems a rather hackneyed subject. In this 
case it is really evening, the picture having been taken 
after sunset while there was a faint glow' in the sky. 
The exposure was prolonged, and, there being no wind, 
the trees are rendered with good detail. This picture 
show's a line of trees extending about two-thirds of the 
way across the horizon-line, the camera having been 
placed rather low so that little shows beyond the trees. 
The trees begin at the left of the picture, and at the 
right in the foreground is a long pool of water in which 
the light from the sky is reflected, helping out the com- 
position. which would otherwise be commonplace. The 
placing of the camera lower than ordinarily for such 
views and the clever adjustment of trees and water 
make of this picture one which is very attractive. The 
fault is in the finishing of the print. The tone is brown, 
w'hereas it should have been gray to harmonize with the 
sentiment of the subject. 

Home-Portrait. F. II. T. — The subject is a boy 
of perhaps ten years, sitting in a large chair near a 
window. The light is very well managed, so that two- 
thirds of the face is in shadow. The part which is 
lighted is soft in detail and the whole is well modeled. 
The coat which the lad wears is of some loosely-woven 
material which lends itself admirably to photography, 
while the soft sailor collar and carelessly-arranged tie 
make of the costume an artistic combination. The fault 
of this picture is in having two windows included in the 
view. This gives two distinct spots of light, and the 
eye is drawn first to one, then to the other. This pic- 
ture should be trimmed so that part of the unnecessary 
window is cut off and the rest should he painted down 
to an indistinct tone. It is a pity that with the portrait 
so well done the inartistic introduction of the second 
window occurs, and unfortunately the figure is so placed 
that the objectionable highlight cannot be cutoff without 
destroying part of the figure. 

A Home-Made Filter 

A quart bottle with a medium-sized neck is cut off 
at the bottom. To do this without the aid of a glass- 
cutter. soak a stout string in kerosene, tie it around the 
bottle quite near the bottom, set the string on fire, and, 
when it has nearly burned round, plunge the bottle into 
ice-water and the bottom will come off just where the 
string was tied. If the first attempt is not successful 
try again. The bottle is placed neck down in two wire 
rings which are attached to the wall of the darkroom. 
The smaller ring is just large enough to prevent the 
bottle slipping through, whereas the larger ring is the 
size of the bottle. To use this for a filter, put a piece 
of absorbent cotton into the neck of the bottle, place a 
measuring-glass or other receptacle under it, and turn 
the liquid to be filtered into the bottle. The filtering 
goes on with no further attention on the part of the 
worker. If one is using water which is full of impuri- 
ties. one can make a large filter of a bottle holding a 
gallon. The cotton is put into the neck of the bottle 

and then a half pint of fine white sea-sand is turned into 
the bottle. Water filtered through this will come out 
clear and free from any impurities which might injure 
paper or films. 

An Appreciation 

“ Editor Photo-Era, Boston , U.S.A. 

“ Dear Sir, 

“ I have just come upon an editorial in the October 
Photo-Era that seems to me to be quite significant from 
our point of view as manufacturers of photographic-sup- 
plies. I fear I don’t give as much time as 1 should to 
the reading-pages of the trade-publications and indeed 
it was by merest chance that I read this editorial. The 
one I refer to has to do with the uniform honesty of 
purpose and endeavor by manufacturers to give good 
value and full measure. 

u I had never thought of the matter before from the 
larger view-point, perhaps, as my first thought, of course 
is that this company is endeavoring to give service of an 
honest sort. If we had not been striving to give good 
measure — quantity and quality — for the past fifteen 
years and more, where do you suppose we would be 
to-day ? And where would our competitors be if they 
had lowered the standard ? 

“ It is a pleasure to know that we are working in a 
field where everybody is apparently striving upward and 
I am glad to be reminded of this big fact by your 

“ Yours sincerely, 

" R. W. Palmer. 

“ Defender Photo-Supply Co., Rochester, N. Y.” 

Mr. Dozer's New Studio 

We learn that L. A. I )ozer, the popular treasurer of 
the National Association, is erecting a large building in 
his city, Bucyrus, Ohio, a part of which he intends to 
use for a studio, lie will reserve for this purpose floor- 
space (on the ground-floor) "24 x 85 feet. When fin- 
ished, it will be a very complete and up-to-date studio. 

New York Camera Club 

At the regular members’ meeting on March 2. the 
prints constituting the Members’ Annual Exhibition were 
informally criticized by Mr. de Kosenko. During the 
month a series of Wednesday evening talks of an in- 
formal nature were held, followed by “ Rabbit And.” 
Lantern-slides by the members were projected and criti- 
cized. Friday evenings were devoted to the Interchange 
slides. Mr. F. Scott Gerrish lectured on “ A Trip to 
Algeria and Punesia ” on March 31. 

Show of Carbon-, Gum- and Oil-Prints 

Before going to press, we learned that Stark & Bell, 
photographic specialists, were preparing to exhibit a col- 
lection of fifty prints in the carbon, gum and oil processes. 
Not only are the subjects to be pictorially interesting, 
but intended to exemplify the technical proficiency of 
the firm preparing such prints for amateurs and the 
general trade. The exhibition commenced April 15 and 
will last until .Tune 1. 

From an English Pictorialist 

” I am delighted to know of my success in the Round 
Robin Guild Competition and shall be pleased to take 
the value of the prize in your well-gotten-up magazine. 
Congratulating you upon the high standard you are 
keeping up. 1 am. 

“ Yours very sincerely. 

“ J. Herbert Saunders.” 

High-Class Operators 

The Bodine Pictorial Lens 

There always seems to be a greater number of first- 
class operators than of studios to accommodate them ; 
yet, in fact, both are scarce. Men ( who are artists and 
otherwise qualified ) in need of positions, should inspect 
our advertising-pages this issue. 

The 1911 Premo Catalog 

The attractive new list of Premos for 1911 has come 
to our desk. The Premoette Jr. is the latest addition 
to the line of miniature cameras. Write to the Rochester 
Optical Division, mentioning Photo-Era, for a copy. 

Studio Light for March 

The pictorial feature of the March Studio Light con- 
sists of reproductions of seven portraits of famous men 
from the studio of Pirie Macdonald. These include 
William Loeb, Jr., Victor Herbert, General Chaffee, 
Edmund Clarence Stedman, Theo. N. Vail, and W. R. 
Nelson. These splendid pictures adequately explain the 
force of the title so fittingly applied to Mr. Macdonald — 
Photographer of Men. The issue is, as usual, full of 
good things for the professional. 

“ I cannot tell you how much pleasure, inspiration 
and information Photo-Era brings me. Very truly 
yours, Jessie M. Harr.’’ 

H. Oliver Bodine has issued a tasteful little book- 
let on the new lens which he placed on the market about 
the first of February. At its full aperture of F/fi the 
lens gives a broad, sketchy effect, but at smaller stops 
it gives any desired sharpness of definition. It is partly 
corrected for spherical aberration and wholly corrected 
for chromatic aberration. The field is reasonably flat, 
so that the marginal definition, even with the full open- 
ing, is similar to the central definition, though at F /6 
the image cannot be made critically sharp at any point. 
In this respect it differs widely from the rapid recti- 
linear type, the falling off of the definition of which 
towards the corners is very marked with large stops. 
The instruments are mounted in hand-spun brass barrels 
fitted with iris diaphragms and provided with morocco 
caps. With each lens is included without extra charge 
a pair of Bodine’s monochrome lenses in a leather 
pocket-case and a set of Bodine’s sky-shade ray-filters. 
The former are to be worn like ordinary eye-glasses to 
reduce the image on the ground-glass to monochrome — 
a great help in estimating whether the view will look 
well in the print. The color-screens give better values 
and allow cap-exposures. 

Lenses can be furnished fitted with the Wollensak 
Studio Shutter, and the two smaller sizes with the Sky- 
Sliade Shutter. For circular and further information, 
address The Photo-Crafts Shops, Racine, Wisconsin. 

Plate-Speeds for Exposure-Guide on Opposite Page 

Class 1/3 
Lumi&re Sigma 
Lumiere Non-Halation Sigma 

Class 1/2 

Barnet Super-Speed Ortho 
Ilford Monarch 

Class 3/4 

Barnet Red Seal 
Ilford Zenith 
Imperial Flashlight 
Eastman Speed-Film 
Wellington Extra Speedy 
Wellington Anti-Screen 
Class 1 


Ansco Film. N. C. and Vidil 
Barnet Extra Rapid 
Barnet Ortho Extra Rapid 
Barnet Studio 
Cramer Crown 
Cramer Crown Non-Halation 
Ensign Film 

Hammer Special Extra Fast 
Imperial Special Sensitive 
Imperial Non-Filter 
Imperial Orthochrome Special 

Kodak N. C. Film 
Lumiere Film 

Premo Film Pack 
Seed Gilt Edge 27 
Standard Imperial Portrait 

Standard Polychrome 
Stanley Regular 
V ulcan 

Wellington Film 
Wellington Speedy 
Wellington Iso Speedy 

Class I 1/4 

Cramer Banner X 
Cramer Banner X Non-Halation 
Cramer Instantaneous Iso 
Cramer Inst. Iso Non-Halation 
Cramer Isonon 
Eastman Extra Rapid 
Hammer Extra Fast 
Hammer Extra Fast Ortho 
Hammer Non-Halation 
Hammer Non-Halation Ortho 
Seed 20x 
Seed C. Ortho 
Seed L. Ortho 
Seed Non-Halation 
Seed Non -Halation Ortho 
Stand ard Extra 
Standard Orthonon 

Class 1 1/2 
Cramer Anchor 
Lumiere Ortho A 
Lumi&re Ortho B 

Class 2 

Cramer Medium Iso 

Cramer Medium Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford Rapid Chromatic 

Ilford Special Rapid 

Imperial Special Rapid 

Lumiere Panchro C 

Class 2 1/2 

Barnet Medium 
Barnet Ortho Medium 
Hammer Fast 
Seed 23 

Class 3 

Wellington Landscape 

Class 4 

Stanley Commercial 
Ilford Chromatic 
Ilford Empress 
Cramer Trichromatic 

Class 5 

Cramer Commercial 
Hammer Slow 
Hammer Slow Ortho 
Wellington Ortho Process 

Class 8 

Cramer Slow Iso 

Cramer Slow Iso Non-Halation 

Ilford < hdinary 

Class 12 

Cramer Contrast 
Ilford Halftone 
Seed Process 

Class 100 

Lumiere Autochrome 


Exposure-Guide for May 


Exposure for average landscapes with light foreground ; river-scenes ; figure- 
studies in the open ; light-colored buildings and monuments ; wet street- 
scenes, with stop F/8 (U. S. No. 4) on Class 1 plates. 










9 A.M. to 3 P.M. 






8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 






7 a.m. and 5 p.m. 






6 a.m. and 6 p.m. 






5 a.m. and 7 p.m. 






The exposures given are intended merely as a basis for trial, and 
will vary with latitude and other conditions, but they should give 
full detail in the shadows, except when iso. or ortho, plates are used 
without a screen, when the exposure should be doubled, unless the 
light itself is yellow, as is the case early or late in the day. 

For other stops multiply by the 
number in third column. 


U. S. 1 

X 1/4 


U. S. 2 

X 1/2 


U. S. 2.4 

X 5/8 


U. S. 3 

X 3/4 


U. S. 8 

X 2 


U. S. 16 

X 4 


U. S. 32 

X 8 


U. S. 64 

X 16 

SUBJECTS. For other subjects, multiply the exposure for average landscape by the 
number given for the class of subject. 

1 8 Studies of sky and white clouds. 

1 4 Open views of sea and sky ; very distant 
landscapes ; studies of rather heavy 
clouds ; sunset and sunrise studies. 

1 2 Open landscapes without foreground ; open 
beach, harbor and shipping-scenes ; 
yachts under sail ; very light-colored 
objects ; studies of dark clouds ; snow- 
scenes with no dark objects ; most tele- 
photo subjects outdoors ; wooded hills 
not far distant from lens. 

2 Landscapes with medium foreground ; 
landscapes in fog or mist ; buildings 
showing both sunny and shady sides ; 
well-lighted street-scenes ; persons, ani- 
mals and moving objects at least thirty 
feet away from the camera. 

4 Landscapes with heavy foreground ; build- 
ings or trees occupying most of the 
picture ; brook-scenes with heavy foli- 
age ; shipping about the docks ; red 
brick buildings and other dark objects ; 
groups outdoors in the shade. 

8 Portraits outdoors in the shade ; very dark 
near objects, particularly when the 
image of the object nearly tills the plate 
and full shadow-detail is required. 


Badly-lighted river-banks, ravines, : 
and under the trees. 



W ood-interiors not open to sky am 
dark soil or pine-needles. 

1 with 


Average indoor portraits in well-li 


room, light surroundings, big window 
and white reflector. 

PLATES. A hen plates other than those in Class I are used, the exposure indicated above 
must be multiplied by the number given at the head of the class of plates. 


With Reviews of Foreign Progress and Investigation 

Conducted by MALCOLM DEAN MILLER. A.B., M.D. 

Readers are encouraged to contribute their favorite methods for publication in this department 
Address all such communications to The Crucible, PHOTO-ERA, 383 Boylston Street, Boston 

The Interdependence of Exposure and De- 

Of late years much has been written about the im- 
possibility of making modifications of the developing- 
solution so as to compensate for errors of exposure. The 
popularity of tank-development, which is based on the 
theory that exposure determines the amount of detail 
and gradation, whereas development regulates the con- 
trasts, shows that in practice fair average results are 
obtained. It is true, however, that the expert who un- 
derstands thoroughly all the factors which may affect 
the plate after exposure is still able to produce, by mod- 
ification of the developer and varying the time it is 
allowed to act, results which are individual and often 
very desirable. 

The function of exposure is to affect the gelatino- 
bromide of silver compound on the plate in amounts 
which will accurately represent the values of the object 
considered as light and shade. With some plates, the 
range which can be represented is far beyond the capa- 
bility of any printing-process to reproduce, and yet the 
photographer is limited to a scale which, compared to 
the relative luminosities present in nature, is very short. 
Hence, to get in the negative gradations which will ap- 
proximate the tones it is intended to reproduce, the 
exposure must be ample, owing to the following consid- 

When light acts upon the sensitive plate for a pro- 
longed time or with great, intensity, the physical altera- 
tion of the molecules of silver bromide is such that 
within certain limits the grains of the emulsion may be 
completely blackened by reduction to metallic silver. 
When, however, the light-action has progressed beyond 
this point, the phenomenon known as reversal takes 
place. In this case, instead of the black deposit’s becom- 
ing denser it becomes lighter, until, if exposure has been 
sufficient, the highlights of the negative image refuse to 
develop at all and remain unaltered by the developer, so 
that the image is a positive, as the shadows have received 
sufficient light-action to develop black. Reversal is 
occasionally noted in interiors in which a brightly-lighted 
window is contrasted with strong shadows, though in- 
complete reversal is more common. The opposite fault 
of underexposure illustrates the way to obtain maximum 
contrast, for an undertimed plate often has just enough 
exposure to produce complete blackening of all the 
grains in the highlights, while the darker tones have 
not been acted on and remain unaltered by the reducer. 
Such a plate is usually too dense to print out any of 
the gradations visible by transmitted light. The mean, 
correct exposure, gives highlights partly reduced in 
density, that is, reversed, and shadows full of detail. If 
such a plate is developed far enough but not too far, it 
will be a printable record, within the limitations of our 
papers, or the relative luminosities of the scene. 

Now, given a correctly-timed plate, which, with nor- 
mal development, produces the result referred to above, 

and subject it to the action of a modified developer and 
you will find that it is possible to get a result which 
seems characteristic of either underexposure or overex- 
posure. For instance, the fully-timed plate may be 
developed in a cold glyein or hydroquinone and be 
thought much undertimed, because the slow-working de- 
velopers and cold act as retarders and seem actually to 
annul a portion of the exposure. Bromide, in the same 
manner, partly destroys the effect of light on the emul- 
sion. Heat, on the other hand, has a marked effect on 
the chemical process of reduction, as it has on most other 
chemical reactions. The correctly-exposed plate acts as 
if overexposed when treated with a warm solution, say 
over 75° F. Variation of the reducing-agent, too, has, 
in practice, the effect of requiring more or less exposure. 
For instance, if two plates are timed exactly alike and 
developed, one in a two-grain pyro and the other in a 
straight metol, the latter will show more shadow-detail 
than the former ; or, if you choose, you can use one size 
smaller stop for one plate, and yet the one given half the 
exposure will produce as much detail as the one which 
had double the time but was developed with pyro. 
Each developer, then, has characteristic properties which 
fit it for special work. Glyein, for example, although it 
works well in dilute solution in the tank for full expo- 
sures, is not so good as metol for underexposure, because 
it tends to develop the highlights too dense before all 
the shadow-details are out. It is possible, then, Mr. 
Watkins and other authorities to the contrary notwith- 
standing, to choose or to compound a solution so as to 
affect the character of the negative. 

It is perfectly true that almost any normal developer 
will give good results with correctly-exposed plates and 
that no developer whatsoever will act on gelatino-silver 
bromide which has not received an exposure sufficient 
to make it reducible to metallic silver; but it is also 
true that even after the image has appeared it is practi- 
cal to modify the developer and thus influence the final 
result. Suppose the plate shows evidences of underex- 
posure : it is very easy to add more water, or even to 
transfer the plate to a solution particularly compounded 
for underexposure, say, a weak metol without bromide 
and with an extra large dose of alkali. Similarly, the over- 
timed plate may he removed from the tray as soon as its 
condition is evident and put into a strong, restrained 
solution of one of the hard-working agents. In this 
way it is feasible to get a better negative than could be 
produced by any normal or weak bath. The tendency 
to seek to control results by inspecting the plates during 
the progress of tank-development is well shown in Miss 
Stanley’s article in the April number. The writer has 
for many years used glyein in a tank and removed each 
plate only when inspection showed that it was properly 
developed. With this developer, at any rate, it is out 
of the question to get the best results from varied ex- 
posures except by varying the time in the developer; 
e.g., overexposures, 15 min., correct exposures, 30 min., 
underexposures, up to an hour. 


Differences in subject and lighting require changes in 
the developer. In landscape-work, a subject with heavy 
masses of shadow demands a soft-working hath, whereas 
a view taken when the light is dull tends to be Hat and 
lifeless unless the bath is strong and restrained. Con- 
trasty subjects have to be handled so as not to increase 
the relative values of light and shade, and the influence 
of even thirty seconds more or less in the tray is great 
enough to make or to mar the negative. After all, half 
the pleasure of photography for many of us lies in the 
development of the negative, and although we may use 
the tank for large batches, we feel that our results are 
more individual when we modify the bath to control the 

Edinol-Hydro, Kunz 

William II. Kunz published in the 1911 American 
Annual of Photography a formula which is superior to 
the writer’s favorite edinol formula printed in these 
columns in April 1909. Although it is made up in a 
single solution, it keeps indefinitely in a partly-filled 
bottle, and when diluted for use alters but little even 
after several days’ exposure to the air in a graduate. It 
is a strictly universal developer, giving superior tones on 
all brands of gaslight- and bromide-papers, slides, trans- 
parencies and negatives. On red-sensitive plates it works 
clearly without fog, as it is very rapid and energetic. 
Repeated use slows its action but slightly. The formula 
is : 

Water to make 32 ounces 

Edinol 120 grains 

Hydroquinone 120 grains 

Sodium sulphite, anhydrous 1 ounce, 5 drams 

Potassium carbonate 3 ounces, 30 grains 

Sol. potassium bromide, 10% 1 dram 

Sol. oxalic acid, 10% 1 dram 

For tray-development, also for bromide- and gaslight- 
papers. take one ounce of developer to four of water ; 
for tank, one ounce to fifteen, which will require about 
15 minutes at 05° F. The worker who desires to use 
the fewest possible chemicals will find this developer 
worth a trial. 

Advantages of Liquid Sodium Bisulphite 

The Lumieres have advocated the use of liquid so- 
dium bisulphite as a hardening-agent in the liypo-bath 
for both plates and papers. There are several advan- 
tages in its use, chief of which is simplicity. When the 
hypo has dissolved it is only necessary to add a certain 
number of ounces of the commercial solution to have a 
bath which remains clear until exhausted and shows no 
tendency to deposit sulphur — as often happens with the 
use of the acetic acid-alum hardener. Any desired de- 
gree of hardening may be had by increasing the propor- 
tion of bisulphite. A good formula for gaslight-papers 

for summer use is : 

Hypo 8 ounces 

Water 32 ounces 

Liquid sodium bisulphite 2 to 4 ounces 

Ortho. Plates for Spring Foliage 

The tender foliage of early spring demands a plate 
or film sensitive to greenish-yellow. Any of the popular 
brands of iso. or ortho, plates of the erythrosin type, par- 
ticularly if used with a light-yellow ray-filter, will allow T 
much better rendering of the foliage while preserving 
the clouds. More perfect rendering can of course be 
obtained with a red-sensitive plate and W allace’s “ Visual 
Luminosity ” filter. 

A Waterless Darkroom 

During the past, winter the writer had constructed a 
darkroom which necessitated a complete revision of his 
working-methods. The only available place, after pro- 
longed cogitation, was found to be the cellar. Estimates 
for plumbing proved exorbitant, so it was decided to do 
without running water. The darkroom is simply a space 
5x7 feet against the party-wall of a double brick house 
and separated from the bricked-in hot-air furnace by a 
passageway 5 feet wide. The walls are made of joists 
covered on both sides with blue builders’ paper. With 
the door kept closed when the room is not in use, there 
has been an entile freedom from dust. The temperature 
has remained at 62° F. through even the coldest weather, 
and we anticipate a similarly low reading during the 

The method of working is as follows. As fast as the 
plates are developed they are placed in a washing-tank 
provided with a light-tight cover. When all are done, 
the tank is covered and taken out to the laundry-tub, 
under the faucet of which all the developer is quickly 
eliminated. Then the tank is taken back to the dark- 
room and the plates put into the fixing-batli. By using 

a non-staining developer which will develop several 
plates in succession, it has been found possible to get 
along without a pail for slops. 

A Dead-Black Varnish 

Water 30 ounces 

Borax 1 ounce 

Shellac 2 ounces 

Boil to dissolve the shellac and add : 

Glycerine 1 ounce 

Aniline black 4 ounces 

Toning Bromides without Bleaching 

To prepare a single-solution sepia-toning-bath for 
bromide-prints, make up the following solutions and mix 
them together an hour before they are wanted for use: 


Ammonium sulphide solution. 



Water to 




Ammonium bicarbonate _ _ 

_ 15 


Water to __ 




Potassium persulphate 



Water to.. 



Add B and then C to A. The bath converts the image 
of metallic silver to silver sulphide in about 15 minutes. 
The smell, owing to the small amount of ammonium 
sulphide present, is not very bad, but it is better to 
conduct toning away from all sensitive materials. 


An excellent developer which works very clearly may 

be made as follows : 

Hot water 12 ounces 

Sodium sulphite, anhydrous 1 ounce 

Eikonogen 80 grains 

Sodium carbonate, anhydrous 2 ounces 

Glycin __40 grains 

Sol. potassium bromide, 10% 30 minims 

Water to make 10 ounces 

One ounce of the above in four of water gives a strength 
of 1.5 grains of the mixed developing-agents to the 
ounce. This strength works slowly but gives a fine- 
grained, harmonious negative. 



A TYPICAL spring-picture — a spray of pear-blossoms 
by Mrs. M. S. Gaines — decorates the front cover this 
month. The ordinary eamerist is so captivated by the 
fragrant, flowering mass which glorifies the fruit-tree in 
May, that he exercises little judgment in obtaining a 
result. Here the arrangement, lighting and treatment 
indicate an intelligently artistic motive. No data. 

The frontispiece begins a series of pictures by differ- 
ent workers, all members of the Capital Camera C-luh, 
demonstrating the wealth and variety of camera-material 
that may be found in the city of Washington. They 
are referred to by Charles E. Fairman, the writer of the 
article which they accompany ; hence special mention in 
this department is not necessary. Our reader-pictorial- 
ists can determine to what extent, if any, these subjects 
may be improved from an artistic viewpoint. No two 
temperamental camerists are likely to treat any of these 
subjects in one and the same manner; that is certain. 
Were it possible, we should like to put to the test the 
interpretative ability of about ten leading' American 
workers in connection with the Capitol, for instance. 
Each person would employ apparatus, methods and 
treatment different from the other, thus imparting to the 
result a distinct individuality. 

Page 231 depicts a Canadian view of simple beauty, 
and rendered with full technical perfection. As a pic- 
ture it would gain greatly with the right-hand portion 
containing the twin trees removed. Data : May. 4 P.M. ; 
bright, diffused light; B. & L. -Zeiss Tessar lens; 6-incli 
focus; stop F/lfj ; Ingento V. L. light-filter; 1 second; 
Seed L. Ortho, plate, 344 x 5%; pyro-soda ; print, 
344 x 5 41> Seltona Antique White. 

The spirit and atmosphere of a noon-hour rest in the 
open, on a raw November day, are capitally expressed in 
Mr. Millar’s picture on page 233. The natural group- 
ing of the figures around the ingratiating fire invites no 
serious criticism, although there is need of more margin 
at the right of the picture. 

In her view of Frankfort on the Main, Minni Roessler 
proves herself an expert technician. The Gothic tower 
of the (dd cathedral rises majestically above the sur- 
rounding' houses, competing for supremacy with no sky- 
scrapers, factory-chimneys or other disfiguring objects. 
Data : 5 x 7 T.-P. camera, Goerz Doppel Anastigmat ; 
7-inch focus; F/6.8; X 6 ray-filter; autumn, 12 m.; 
bright light; 41’ second; plate, Schleusner (German 
make) ; pyro-hydro ; print, Trapp & Munch Albumin ; 
gold-plat, fixing-bath. 

Mr. Wellington’s pictures, pp. 236 and 237. are tech- 
nical in character and demonstrate very well the scope 
of the field open to the worker who cares to follow the 
methods described in bis article. The original prints 
are all from negatives in which the objects are enlarged 
five diameters, but in some cases the image was again 
enlarged in printing. Our reproductions are slightly 
reduced from the prints on glossy developing-paper. 
The exposures, with nominal F/16, ranged from 2 min- 
utes in bright light to 10 in dull weather on Seed 26X 

The picture on page 239 illustrates the ability of one 
of the most successful women-pliotographers in this 
country. Few excel her happy facility in managing 
juvenile subjects before the camera, and her mastery of 
technical resources. The idea of the picture was entirely 

spontaneous and the print was sent to the editor as a 
pretty compliment. Data : 8x10 portrait-camera ; 

Bausch & Lomb-Zeiss Unar lens; 1444-inch focus ; stop, 
F/ 5.6.; October, 1910; 11 a.m. ; weak light; quick bulb 
exposure ; 5 x 7 Cramer Banner X ; pyro-acetone ; Cyko 
Buff print; for reproduction, Kresko print. 

The attractive portrait on page 241 came to the edi- 
tor’s attention soon after he had penned his remarks on 
profiles in portraiture and in real life. See page opposite 
editorial page. The picture serves the purpose of a 
beautiful profile-study and, in justice to the model — a 
lady in private life — it may be said that a full-face 
view is equally pleasing. 

Our Monthly Competition 

The popularity of our last contest, “ Winter-Scenes,” 
was evidenced by an immense number of entries, most 
of which represented a high standard of merit. One has 
now come to expect more than mere technique in ren- 
dering snow. However pleasing may be effects of 
dazzling snow — a perspective of a footpath or a shadow- 
covered road — they have served long and well as 
camera-subjects and therefore merit a respite ; yet when 
stamped with a strong individuality, invoking new sen- 
sations and stirring the imagination, such impressions 
should be made known. To this class belongs J. R. 
Peterson’s modest episode, page 243. The only availa- 
ble print, a rough platinum, was quietly effective in its 
mysterious suggestion and exquisite modulations of 
tender lights and shadows, which, unfortunately, resisted 
the efforts of the photo-engraver to reproduce. Data; 
February; stop F/16; 44 second; Ideal ray-filter; 

8 x 10 Orthonon ; Rodinal ; 8 x 10 rough platinum print. 

Real winter-weather in the city is admirably expressed 
in the picture on page 244. Dr. Ruzicka has given us 
a superb composition withal, eminently natural and 
characteristic. Data: February, 8.30 a.m.; dull light 
and snowing ; Kodak lens ; stopF/8; 44 o second; film; 
tank ; 7 x 10 Nepera enlargement. 

“ The Winter Sun,” page 245, is not a simple theme 
to be regarded as unpromising and unattractive by the 
average eamerist, but filled with poetic charm in the 
eye of the artist. The sun, of retiring mien, here gives 
a perfect balance to the modest composition. Data : 
December, 3 P.M. ; faint sun ; lens of 744-incli focus ; 
44 second; stop F/8 ; Ideal ray-screen; Orthonon 
plate ; metol-hydro ; bromide enlargement from part of 
5 x 7 negative. 

Frequently the erratically-curving line which sepa- 
rates tlie edge of melting ice or snow from the water- 
surface, as shown in William Spanton's picture, page 
246, becomes the dominant pictorial motive. The 
shadowy forms of trees forming the background consti- 
tute an original and effective note in this unusually 
interesting picture. Data: February, 1 P.M. ; heavy 

snow-storm; stop, F/8; 3 seconds ; (Standard Polychrome 
plate ; metol-hydro ; 8 x 10 bromide enlargement. 

An admirable technical performance with marked pic- 
torial possibilities is shown on page 247. The scene as 
encompassed by Mr. Murray will yield two complete 
pictures. The upper portion, as far as the edge of the 
bank, forms a delightful winter-idyl; the lower part, 
limited by a line drawn from where the lower fence-rail 
disappears at the extreme right, furnishes a beautiful 


study in sunlight and shadow. Data : Feb. 17. 10 A.M. ; 
blight light. B. & L. Rapid Universal; yellow screen; 
F/16 stop ; l'i- seconds; 4x5 Cramer Medium Eso plate, 
Amidol developer; S x 10 enlargement on Wellington 

Harry D. Williar’s winter-study, page 248, charms by 
the beauty of its perspective and tonal values. The 
diagonally receding path is, indeed, finely rendered. 
Data : Goerz lens ; 6-inch focus ; stop U. S. 4 ; yellow 
light ; 5 P.M. ; 1 in second ; 7 x 9 Cyko enlargement from 
portion of 4x5 plate. 

Rupert Bridge follows along conventional lines in his 
picture, page 250. But the chemical effect, here, is su- 
perb. The linear perspective and general arrangement 
are good, although the group of tree-trunks at the ex- 
treme left is too insistent. Data : February ; bright sun ; 
R. R. lens; stop, F/ll ; Stanley plate ; 1 second ; M. Q. 
developer; P.M. C. bromide enlargement from 344 x 4 Vi 

Charm and novelty in composition mark the picture 
on page 252. The shadows are beautifully softened and 
blended, owing to the favoring conditions of the fore- 
ground. Data: February, 2 p.m. ; lens at F/S ; fairly 
light; Yao second ; Imperial S. R. plate ; 5 Vs x 8 Vo rough 
bromide enlargement. 



In the German photographic industry a strong tend- 
ency to union is noticeable. Two years ago the profes- 
sional photographers formed a large combination, which 
was imitated by the dealers at the end of 1909. Then 
came an organization of the paper-manufacturers, who, 
after tedious negotiations, found a way to benefit all 
parties concerned — producers, dealers, and consumers 
alike. There is scarcely a large paper-firm in Germany 
not belonging to the Paper Convention. This good 
example has more recently been followed by some of 
the camera-manufacturers. Of course, combination in 
this branch is more difficult and a convention had to be 
carried out along different lines. It is comparatively 
easy to fix universal prices for papers and plates as 
well as for optical goods (for which they are really 
necessary) but not for cameras. However, in the face 
of the keen competition the leading makers came to the 
conclusion that an organization which should fix pro- 
duction and prices would be more to their advantage 
than a continuance of this unremunerative competition. 

As a result, five large firms, probably the largest in 
the German empire, have been amalgamated, viz., the 
Karl Zeiss Optical Works of Jena, Dr. Kriigener, and 
the three limited companies of E. Wiinsche. II. Erne- 
mann and Hiittig & Sons — all of Dresden. This power- 
ful combination, operating with a capital of SI. 000, 000. 
is of particular interest to the foreign maker; for such 
a strong concern should have no difficulty to compete 
successfully with the foreign firms, chiefly American. 
Moreover, the domestic production is centralized and 
cheapened. For the German consumers such a fusion 
does not spell any danger. Its chief purpose is to ren- 
der the production of the individual factories more 
lucrative and to develop the export- trade, in view of the 
phenomenal foreign competition. Other firms, including 
optical works, are taking similar steps. 

There are numerous photographic clubs in the German 
capital, to the number of which one more is now to be 
added, the Society of Berlin Specialist Photographers, 

comprising those for architecture, art, handicraft and 
industiies. This club has the intention to fix a mini- 
mum fee for such special work. Very often the 
latter has been done for unusually low prices and un- 
healthy conditions have thus arisen. Besides, they 
want to obtain licenses for taking pictures from exhibi- 
tion-managements and other concessions to the advan- 
tage of their members. Often a photographic firm has 
offered large prices to obtain the monopoly or even only 
the license, although afterwards they sold only a few 
pictures, so that no profit remained. Another purpose 
of the society is that members should represent each 
other in cases where one member cannot, for various 
reasons, fill an order. This has been the rule with 
physicians and lawyers, who, if abroad or otherwise 
hindered, send their patients or clients to a friend of 
the same profession instead of refusing such visits. In 
the new club any order is turned over to another mem- 
ber if the first one cannot fill it and arrangements will 
be made so that all will benefit to the same extent. 
Negotiations are being conducted with the Chamber of 
Commerce to offer their members as government experts 
in the courts and elsewhere. The promoters hope for 
great benefits from the activities of this new society. 

As regards scientific photography, great progress has 
been made in a certain direction. In taking pictures of 
stars the difficulty up to the present has been that 
many of these are so weak in light that a long exposure 
is necessary to impress them on the plate. In the mean- 
time, however, our earth as well as the objects them- 
selves are continuously moving, so that a blurred image 
is obtained. It has therefore been necessary to change 
the position of the camera, which is always attached to 
the end of the telescope so as to follow the moving 
star. In order to observe these movements the astrono- 
mer would have to look through the eyepiece, which is 
obstructed by the camera. A method was therefore 
adopted of placing an additional smaller telescope be- 
side the one bearing the camera, and thus observing the 
star ; but this was expensive. The director of the Ber- 
lin Observatory, however, has devised a novel way to 
attain the desired result. He simply made a hole 
through the back of the camera, scratched a circular 
portion from the film-side of the unexposed plate, and 
attached a tube to the hole. This enabled him to look 
through the latter, the camera, the glass of the nega- 
tive and the long telescope, and enabled him to view the 
moving star and change the position of the telescope 
accordingly. He could thus expose a plate for several 
hours when photographing very faint stars. Of course 
there will be no photographic impression on the 
scratched-out portion, but the camera is so placed that 
no important object is to come within this radius. In 
many cases this is even an advantage, as when we have 
to photograph a faint star which is in the immediate 
neighborhood of a brilliant one. It is a fact that the 
light of the latter almost obliterates that of the former. 
It is for this reason that we do not see the moon and 
the stars in daytime, owing to the intensity of the sun- 
light. With the new method we place the camera in 
such a position that the brilliantly-shining planet which 
we do not wish to photograph comes within the hole 
or scratched portion, while the neighboring and paler 
stars now show up much clearer and can easily be 
photographed. Mr. Archenhold, the well-known Berlin 
astronomer, obtained by this clever method clear pictures 
of the Jupiter-moons, the tail of Halley’s comet and 
dark portions of our moon, etc. The scratching above 
referred to is accomplished by means of a pattern put 
over the fresh plate in the darkroom, where it is also 
inserted into the plate-holder of the camera. 


Kommerzienrath Goerz 

The first high honor conferred upon Friedrich von 
Voigtlander, who constructed and placed on the market 
the first portrait-objective (the Petzval type) was that of 
a Kommerzienrath (Counselor of Commerce). C. P. 
Goerz, the founder of the optical firm of that name, en- 
joys a similar distinction. A more recent honor bestowed 
upon the house is referred to in the Berlin letter of 
this issue. On February 9, Prince Henry of Prussia in- 
spected the works of C. P. Goerz, at Friedenau. a suburb 
of Berlin. Kommerzienrath Goerz and the members of 
the reception-committee receive their distinguished guest, 
who made a tour of several hours through the different 
departments of the factory. The prince accorded the 
enterprise high praise. 


As pictorial photography is closely allied to the fine 
arts, the attention of students who are constantly invest- 
ing in books, brochures and magazines intended to 
convey art-information is earnestly invited to The Inter- 
national Studio. This sterling and enterprising monthly 
offers more sound, attractive and carefully selected 
material for the student, picture-lover and art-connois- 
seur than any other publication, including even high- 
priced photographic periodicals. Painters and sculptors 
are broad-gauged and generous, and do not usually de- 
mand from discriminating educational publishers exor- 
bitant reproduction-fees. Thus, admirable reproductions 
of cotemporary art, both native and foreign, together 
with descriptive text, essays and reviews of great practi- 
cal value to students in painting, sculpture, illustrating 
and photography, appear in profusion in every issue of 
The International Studio , which is published at 50 cents 
a number. 

The Straw which Blows 

Regarding the controversy which has been going on 
for some time past, and in which some of our leading 
painters and sculptors have participated, whether or not 
photography may be regarded as an art, it seems strange 
that some photographs are so artistic that they mystify 
even the artists themselves. The editor has been much 
amused when some artists of the brush honored him 
with a call, in order to inspect some of the framed 
photographs of which he is justly proud. On first be- 
holding the harvest-scene by Y. Summons, they would ex- 
claim : “ Pretty good copy of a painting ! What is the 
artist's name ? ” Whereupon the editor would induce his 
visitor to enumerate the various points of excellence of 
the picture — seemingly a photographic reproduction of 
an oil-painting. One can easily imagine the end of such 
an interesting interview. 

When painters mistake photographs from Nature for 
photographs from an oil, it is a point in favor of photo- 
graphy as an art. 

Exhibiting Customers’ Photographs 

A bill was introduced in the House and Senate at 
Albany, N. Y., permitting photographers to exhibit their 
work, unless the subject serves written notice against 
such use. It is said that the measure has a fair pros- 
pect to be passed, and photographers will have gained a 
privilege for which they have been fighting for some 
time through their associations. 

L. J. R. Holst 

The many friends of Mr. Holst will be pleased to 
know that, since March 13, 1911, he has been associated 
with Messrs. Williams, Brown & Earle of Philadelphia. 
For many years Mr. Holst was Vice-President and Gen- 
eral Manager of the C. P. Goerz American Optical Com- 
pany, and is widely known as a capable optician and 
scientific photographer, and will be in a position to 
execute faithfully any orders for special instruments and 
machinery for scientific, educational and industrial 

The Tactless Professional 

Although amateurs usually are unable to compete 
with professionals — particularly in portraiture — they 
sometimes win. In some cases the loss of business is 
permanent. An acquaintance of the editor’s told him 
that not long ago she had herself, arrayed in evening 
gown, photographed by a professional, outside of New 
England ; the portrait being intended solely for the use 
of the family and immediate friends. She was, there- 
fore, much annoyed when she heard that these portraits 
had been exhibited by the professional in his show-case 
at the door, without her knowledge or consent. When 
she ordered their removal she vowed never again to 
enter a professional studio and stated that, although 
less satisfied with the results, she intended hereafter to 
be photographed only by some of her amateur friends. 
As she expressed it : “I have at least the assurance that 
my pictures will not be exhibited, but treated with 
courtesy and respect,” The professional who has been 
accustomed to fill his show-case, without first consulting 
his sitters, should take notice of this incident. 

New York Convention a Magnet 

The importance of the New York State Convention 
was emphasized by the fact, that it drew many photo- 
graphers from outside the state. Among the many 
notabilities present were the following : Mary Carnell, 
Frances B. Johnston, George W. Harris, Ryland W. 
Phillips, Charles Wesley Hearn, William II. Rau, 
F. Milton Somers, J. H. Garo, F. A. Frizell, W. H. 
Partridge, W. S. Ellis, Geo. II. Hastings, W. B. David- 
son, N. Brock, Benj. R. Straus, Elias Goldensky, Charles 
L. Lewis, Frank Scott Clark, W. G. C. Kimball, J. E. 
Griffin, L. A. Dozer, A. L. Bowersox, Louis Kubey; 
also the editors of photographic journals. 

Owners of Portraits 

The senders of portraits needed for our intended 
group of prize-winners are hereby informed that, as soon 
as the portraits have been reproduced, they will be 
returned to the owners, safely packed and postpaid. 

A Word of Caution 

Most people are altogether too trusting, hence the 
success of the impostor, who moves about the country, 
often in the guise of a subscription-agent. One Barry- 
more and one Sprague have been taking subscriptions in 
the west for The Camera and Photo-Era, insisting upon 
cash in advance, but themselves neglecting to send the 
orders to the publishers. After waiting in vain for the 
magazines, the subscriber would discover the fraud. 
Know your man before you trust him. 



E. O. HOPPE, F. R. P. S. 

The following- noteworthy appeal to all amateur pho- 
tographers and professionals who are members of pho- 
tographic societies affiliated with the Royal Photographic 
Society is contained in the monthly circular issued by 
the Affiliation Committee : “ Having regard to the near 
approach of His Majesty's coronation, affiliated societies 
would do well to consider their responsibilities in con- 
nection therewith. It has to be remembered that this 
occasion will be celebrated throughout the length and 
breadth of the Empire with unparalleled rejoicing, and 
the securing of permanent records will prove to be a work 
of historical importance. It may he that a scheme can 
be evolved whereby the organization of the affiliation 
could be employed to secure unique pictorial records of 
this auspicious event, for with affiliated societies in al- 
most every part of the world it should be possible to 
bring together a collection of pictures depicting the cele- 
brations in every quarter of the Empire. The value of 
such a collection can not be overestimated, and any 
means which can be found to secure its acquisition 
should be warmly supported. No doubt the authorities 
charged with the organization of the celebrations 
throughout the country would be prepared to provide 
special facilities for amateur photographers, particularly 
if the local society undertakes to provide a complete 
series of photographs of the events in that neighbor- 
hood for the public use."’ 

The famous School of Photography and Photo-Me- 
chanical Processes at Munich is opening the magnifi- 
cently new buildings in May by a series of ceremonies 
which will occupy several days. Men well-known in 
photography and art in various countries have been in- 
vited and addresses will be delivered and honors given 
to distinguished workers. In connection with the school, 
there will be erected a museum which is to contain a 
permanent collection of the finest examples of pictorial 
photography, and special invitations have been sent to a 
number of leading workers in different countries. It is 
noteworthy that every possible encouragement is given 
by the school to the fostering and the development of 
the pictorial or “ artistic'’ side of photography. In this 
respect it will be enough to mention that the depart- 
ment “ kuenstlerische Photographie ” is under the per- 
sonal control of Mr. Frank Eugene Smith, who is no 
doubt one of the very greatest exponents of present-day 
pictorial photography. There are rumors that the Gov- 
ernment will take over this Munich School shortly. 

G. B. S. — which stands for G. Bernard Shaw — is 
keenly interested in many things. Among these photo- 
graphy and music play no mean role. It was a most 
noteworthy occasion when he presided over a demonstra- 
tion which Mr. F. H. Evans gave to a distinguished 
audience at the Camera Club the other day about 
•' pianism ” and the pianola. Shaw has more than once 
expressed his admiration for the fine work Evans has pro- 
duced in pure photography and he rightly says that Evans 
has set in photography a standard which most others 
would find it hard to live up to. By many it is said that 
“ photography is mechanical because a lens and box are 
used, but that it would not be so if the lens were in a man's 
head. That being the case, it is natural that Mr. Evans 
should have done the same thing in connection with the 
art of music. Here also it is said to he mechanical to 
use a lever in a box, but not mechanical when the lever 
is to be found in the human hand. Using certain dis- 

paraged contrivances, Mr. Evans has shown pictorially 
the mastery of man over nature, and he has gone on 
from that, to do the same thing in music. If the piano 
is placed between yourselves and Mr. Evans you will 
imagine that he is a great player of the instrument, 
playing in the ordinary way with his fingers. As a 
matter of fact he is playing it with his feet,” 

The famous Hamburg society, Gesellschaft zur Foer- 
derung der Amateur Photographie, is holding what 
promises to be one of the most interesting expositions 
organized during recent years. This international expo- 
sition will be for portraits and figure-studies only and it 
will take place in October of this year. Oscar and 
Theodor Hofmeister have the matter in hand, and no 
amateur or professional worker will he admitted except 
by a private and personal invitation. 

If all goes well we shall have a fine show here in 
London in May of work by members of the newly- 
formed London Secession, which includes Walter Ben- 
nington, George Davison, Dudley Johnston, Craig Annan, 
Malcolm Arbuthnot, Alfred Stieglitz, Frank Eugene 
Smith and some others — surely a strong cast and one 
which will find a hearty welcome ! Great things are 
expected by all lovers of pictorial photography. 

The practice of making snapshots in civil and crimi- 
nal courts has become a very extensive one of late, and 
complaints from the juries as well as from witnesses and 
prisoners are continually being made. According to 
one of the best-known judges in this country, such prac- 
tice has become “far too common " ; and it is probable 
that legislative action will be taken to establish definite 
regulations. There can be no doubt that it seems 
highly desirable that a distinction should be drawn be- 
tween photographs published hv the Press leading to 
the identification of suspected persons and those of 
arrested persons awaiting trial. “ Probably in no sphere 
of operation has the exercise of photography developed 
more rapidly than in courts of justice. The man with 
the camera is as familiar in the Law-Courts as any of 
the officials. He is there to take impressions of what- 
ever he deems suitable for a picture within the pre- 
cincts, and may often be seen waiting outside at the 
closing-hour to ‘ snap ' some principal in an action as he 
or she emerges. He is not necessarily an obtrusive 
person : his methods, inside the courts at any rate, may 
pass quite unobserved. Armed with a diminutive but 
exquisitely perfect camera, he may take up a suitable 
position with clear headway and ‘ snap ’ his subject 
unobserved. This development in the use of the camera 
has been concurrent with the expansion of illustrated 
journalism, and there is daily evidence of a growing skill 
on the part of the operators. Whereas but a very few 
months ago a single head or a small group of per- 
sons filled up the picture produced, now we have the 
whole interior of the court well presented, with judge, 
jury, counsel, witnesses and so on. 

Deep in popular favor as photographs taken of trials 
have become, it is not difficult to indicate directions in 
which they may prove harmful. Apart from the imme- 
diate effect produced on a nervous witness who is being 
either sketched or photographed, there is the obvious in- 
justice to a prisoner, who, during the progress of a trial 
from which he ultimately emerges an innocent person, 
finds himself permanently portrayed in an environment 
and a situation most injurious by association to his reputa- 
tion. An unscrupulous person might put such a photo- 
graph to improper use, even to the extent of extorting 
blackmail, for. standing by itself, and without ex- 
planatory evidence which would enable a just conclusion 
to be formed, the picture is capable of an adverse 


Books reviewed in this magazine, or any others 
our readers may desire, will be furnished by us at 
the lowest market-prices. 

Onf, Hundred Masterpieces of Painting. By 
R. C. Witt. 194 pp. 100 full page illustrations in 
halftone. Svo. Price, cloth, $4.00 net; postage 20 
cents. New York : John Lane Company, 1910. 

A worthy companion to “ Cine Hundred Masterpieces 
of Sculpture,” reviewed in March Photo-Era, and one of 
the best hooks of its kind ever issued. Its evident aim 
is to acquaint persons intending - to visit the great art- 
galleries of Europe with the character and history of 
their most treasured paintings. The volume begins with 
a survey of the history of painting, from the XIII 
Century to the present time. The development and 
influence of the various schools is set forth in a manner 
exceedingly clear, concise and entertaining. The major 
portion of the book is devoted to the illustrations, one 
hundred in number, from original photographs by the 
foremost art-publishers of Europe. In themselves, they 
are worth the price of the volume. The page opposite 
each picture contains a historical and analytical sketch 
of the same, enabling the student to comprehend its 
significance and beauty. 

The work will prove of great value also to the photo- 
grapher eager to study the highest examples of pictorial 
composition — arrangement and illumination of the 
human figure, management of drapery and other ac- 
cessories, and harmony of design. The author is an 
acknowledged authority in art-matters and has performed 
his task in a highly creditable manner. 

Lexicon Fur Photographie und Reproduktions- 
technik. Edited by Prof. G. II. Emmerich. Part II. 
472 pages, 1 0 Vi x 6Vi> inches. Profusely illustrated 
with diagrams and halftone-engravings. Price, paper- 
covers, 5 Marks ; parts I and II, 10 Marks ; cloth, 
12.50 Marks. Vienna : A. Hartleben. 

Part I of this very valuable work was reviewed in 
July, 1910. Volume II is even more interesting and 
includes data and information from “ Panoramic-appara- 
tus ” to “ Zweifarbendrueke ” (two-color printing). The 
plates preceding the text-matter are of exceeding inter- 
est, being devoted to diagrams of machinery for the 
production of photographic papers of all kinds, dry- 
plates and mechanical printing; microscopes of the best 
types; development of the instantaneous shutter ; types 
of photographic lenses, from the early single-lens system 
to the latest perfected anastigmat; plates showing the 
use of the color-screen ; photo-scientific instruments ; 
sources of electric-illumination and lamps ; instruments 
for producing and projecting kinematograph-pictures ; 
Roentgenology, and telephotography. 

The wealth of text-matter includes paragraphs ex- 
plaining the subjects illustrated by the plates already 
mentioned, and a host of other valuable subjects of inter- 
est to practitioners of the various phases of ordinary 
and scientific photography. Both volumes of this im- 
portant, work should be easily accessible to everyone 
earnestly interested in photography, in whatever branch. 
Panama and the Canal To-day, A historical ac- 
count, from the earliest times with special reference to 
the enterprises of the French company and the United 
States, with a detailed description of the waterway as 
it will be ultimately constructed : together with a 
brief history of the country and the first comprehen- 
sive account of its physical features and natural re- 

sources. By Forbes Lindsay. With 53 illustrations 
from recent photographs and 5 maps. 8vo. 433 pp. 
$3.00. Boston: L. C. Page and Company, 1910. 

The Pages have, in this important work, produced 
another of the very readable volumes of which we have 
already reviewed several. Mr. Lindsay has treated his 
subject with authority and yet in a popular vein. Every- 
one who is desirous to inform himself adequately about 
this most momentous engineering undertaking of modern 
times, the Panama Canal, will find in these pages a 
clear, succinct account of the main features of the plan. 
Technical information is given only in the simplest way, 
thus making it easy of comprehension by the average 

Part One deals with the history of the idea of a 
waterway through the American continent, reviews 
the Spanish trade across the Isthmus, the story of the 
Panama Railroad and the disastrous enterprise of the 
French under DeLesseps. Then the story enters on its 
final stage and tells with more detail the progress made 
by the United States. 

Part Two is perhaps more interesting from the roman- 
tic standpoint, for it gives in the language of one of the 
eye-witnesses the story of Morgan’s sack of Panama. 
The resources of the country, its ethnology, and its 
probable future are also described and discussed. 

The Principles and Methods of Geometrical 
Optics, particularly as applied to the theory of optical 
instruments. By James P. C. Southall, Professor of 
Physics in the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 626 pp. 
Profusely illustrated with diagrams. $5.50 net. New 
York : The Macmillan Company, 1910. 

“ It is safe to assert that this volume will at no very 
distant, date be in the hands of every serious English- 
speaking student of geometrical optics. We know of no 
other work in the English language in which the attempt 
has been made to give a thorough and systematic account 
of the fundamental principles and methods of geometrical 
optics, so far as these are necessary for dealing with 
the problems of the optical workshop.” . . . “ The need 
of such a work in English has often been stated, and with 
sufficient emphasis ; an Englishman may be pardoned for 
regretting that it now only reaches him from the other 
side of the Atlantic.” The book “is a thorough, logical, 
comprehensive account of the fundamental principles of 
geometrical optics and of the theory of optical instru- 
ments, written by one who not only has an exceptionally 
extensive knowledge of the work done by others, but has 
also an unusually complete grasp of his subject and of 
the essentials necessary to its clear presentment.” “ There 
can be no question that by the issue of the present vol- 
ume Prof. Southall has rendered a great service to Ameri- 
can and to English opticians.” — Nature, Feb. 16, 1911. 

“ This is a notable book which surpasses all others 
in the English language treating of the same subjects. 
The very great number of propositions in Geometrical 
Optics are presented clearly, in a carefully studied nota- 
tion, which is, except in a few cases where other con- 
siderations are of greater weight, consistent and lucid. 
The diagrams are sufficient in number and very clear, 
with the too rare quality of good taste in respect to all 
the details which determine the character of such illus- 
trations. Most excellent features of the hook are its 
bibliography and historical notes, which are very com- 
plete. . . . These features make the volume invaluable 
to one who seeks a knowledge of what lias been accom- 
plished in this field during the three centuries in which 
the problems of geometrical optics have been continu- 
ously increasing in importance.” — American Journal of 
Science, March, 1911. 



Announcements and Reports of Club and Association Meetings, Exhibitions and Conventions 

are solicited for publication 

Professional Photographers of Pennsylvania 

March T, 8 and 9 will go down in the history of the 
Professional Photographers’ Society of Pennsylvania as 
the dates of the most successful convention ever held by 
the organization. Those who attended enjoyed every 
minute of the many excellent features provided for their 
entertainment and instruction by President Rail and the 
Committee in charge, and all agreed that they merited 
high praise. It is seldom indeed that so varied a pro- 
gram is so well carried out. 

The convention opened on Tuesday, March 7 with the 
exhibition of prints. This included the contributions of 
the members and loan-collections of prints by William 
Crooke of Edinburgh. H. Walter Barnett of London and 
Frank V. Chambers' private group of work by about 
twenty prominent German photographers. At ten. Pres- 
ident Rau called the meeting to order and introduced 
Professor Leslie W. Miller, President of the School of 
Industrial Art. lie spoke of the early days of photo- 
graphy and pointed out that the earliest workers were 
ambitious to make the new process a means of art-ex- 
pression. an object which is being splendidly realized of 
late years. Mr. Miller condemned faking to obliterate 
detail or to falsify the tone-values of the picture, direct- 
ing the attention of the audience to the success of the 
exhibition-pictures, which had been won by straightfor- 
ward methods of lighting and handling to subordinate 
the unessential. Nature must be modified by art to 
produce on the beholder the effect intended to be pro- 
duced. This explains the inadequacy of color-photo- 
graphy. which presents colors exactly as they are, 
without regard to aesthetic ideas. Nevertheless, photo- 
graphy has a great future and will probably bring for- 
ward new and startling discoveries. Mr. Miller's remarks 
were heartily applauded. Mr. Rau followed with the 
presidential address. He reported encouraging growth 
of the sections and great progress in the most important 
feature of the Society’s work, the getting together and 
learning to know each other within the sections. Phila- 
delphia. he said, had always held a prominent place in 
photography, and in the early days of the art was ahead 
of all other cities in America. He advised careful study 
of the pictures in the exhibition, for it is only by doing 
better work and keeping all promises that a man can 
command top prices. The present standing of some of 
the leading members of the craft is due to their artistic 
ability. In conclusion, he urged every member to join 
The Photographers’ Copyright League. The reports of 
the sections were then made, most of them showing 
that the members are taking a keener interest in their 
work because of the association with their fellow-crafts- 
men. Old prejudices are being forgotten and all are 
pulling together for the good of the profession. Amend- 
ments to the constitution were then passed and the re- 
ports of the committees made. Votes of thanks were 
tendered to all who aided to make the convention a suc- 
cess. The election of officers resulted as follows : Presi- 
dent. Edwin H. Cooper ; First Vice-President. Charles 
Fritsch ; Second Vice-President. E. W. Brown ; Secre- 
tary, Louis Kubey; Treasurer, W. I. Goldman. It was 
voted to hold the next annual meeting in Philadelphia. 

Upon adjournment, Charles Fritsch criticized the mem- 
bers’ work in the exhibit. 

At 1.15 that afternoon the members met at Hotel 
Walton and proceeded to Lubin’s. where they were 
shown in detail the process of making motion-pictures. 
That evening there were two rival attractions — a dem- 
onstration of portraiture by electric light at Rau's new 
studio, 238 South Camac Street, and the trade-exhibits 
and demonstrations. Both were largely attended. 

Wednesday opened with a business-meeting, which 
was followed by Juan C. Abel’s talk on “Advertising,” 
already mentioned in these columns as having been 
given at the New York Convention. His hearers par- 
ticularly appreciated the lantern-slides which showed 
the bad and the good in actual advertising-copy. 
Thomas W. Barlow, Assistant District-Attorney of 
Philadelphia, gave an interesting address on “Uses of 
Photography by an Attorney at-Law.” He detailed the 
history of noted criminal cases in which conviction was 
made possible only by the use of photographs. “ In- 
surance Matters ” were discussed by Charles A. Hexa- 
mer. Secretary Philadelphia Fire-Underwriters’ Associa- 
tion. His suggestion that photographers should appoint 
a committee to meet the underwriters and arrange a 
more satisfactory basis for the insurance of studios was 
adopted. The afternoon session was held at Rail’s 
studio, where Will H. Towles of Washington and F. Mil- 
ton Somers of Cincinnati demonstrated posing, lighting, 
draping and developing. In the evening, II. Snowden 
Ward gave his famous lecture, “ The Marvels of Photo- 
graphy,” at Scottish Rite Auditorium. As each mem- 
ber who had paid his dues received a free admission, 
the audience was large. The technical points of the 
talk were keenly appreciated. 

The last day, Wednesday, was occupied, in the 
morning, with a business-meeting to clear up all un- 
finished matters, and with demonstrations by .1. H. 
Garo of Boston in the afternoon. Gain's mastery of 
posing, lighting, composing and draping under the sky- 
light drew great applause from the large audience 
which was in attendance. 

The entertainment and dinner at Hotel Majestic, clos- 
ing the convention, was very successful. Ryland W. 
Phillips presided and made a witty and felicitous toast- 
master. The many good things said by the speakers 
added greatly to the enjoyment of the superior gastro- 
nomic features. The motion-picture of the visitors by 
Lubin was shown on the screen, and the ladies of the 
Chester Mask and Wig Club gave a novel and original 
entertainment. All present agreed that the evening 
was a fitting close to Pennsylvania’s biggest and best 

A Newark Exhibition 

As an evidence of its progressive spirit, during the